Colorado College Carbon Neutrality Strategies

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1 Colorado College Carbon Neutrality Strategies t o Contents Executive Summary... 1 Sustainability at Colorado College... 2 The History of the Sustainability Plan and Carbon Neutrality... 2 Avoided Costs... 3 Conservation Strategy: Education & Energy Management... 3 acclimate... 3 Building Dashboards... 4 Energy Management... 4 Renewable Energy Strategy: 2 Megawatt Solar Photovoltaic Array... 5 Cogeneration Strategy: Combined Heat and Power from CC's Central Plant... 6 Efficiency Strategy: Energy Audits and Improvements in Major Buildings... 7 Target Buildings for Energy Improvements... 8 Efficiency Strategy: Central Plant... 9 Summary of Projects Executive Summary Colorado College is committed to achieving a carbon neutral campus by the year In the first four years, as directed by the Sustainability Plan drafted in 2009, Colorado College reduced carbon emissions by more than 20% and saved $1.74 million in utility costs. This proposal recommends conservation, renewable energy, combined heat and power, and energy efficiency strategies to make the vision of carbon neutrality a reality. This approach proposes investing $22 million for a local commercial solar installation and a combined heat and power system at the College s Central Plant. Savings from this investment can be used to help fund efficiency strategies in existing buildings and at the Central Plant that align with the College s capital renewal needs. If enacted, these strategies would support continued conservation efforts, make CC a leader in climate action, provide much-needed improvements in existing buildings, result in long-term savings to the College, and reduce emissions by an additional 60%. 1

2 Sustainability at Colorado College The Colorado College mission commits us to providing the finest liberal arts education in the country by embodying our core values. Among our core values are to live with integrity; serve as stewards of the traditions and resources of Colorado College; nurture a sense of place and an ethic of environmental sustainability; encourage engagement and social responsibility at local, national and global levels; and seek excellence, constantly assessing our policies and programs. Sustainability isn't optional for the Colorado College community; it's who we are and how we have defined ourselves. Colorado College students are passionate about promoting social responsibility and justice, ecological resilience and economic wellbeing. This strengthens our desire to promote those values that allow our students to assume leadership roles that are fostered by a Colorado College education. We aspire to make Colorado College a model for campus sustainability. The History of the Sustainability Plan and Carbon Neutrality Colorado College s sustainability planning efforts commenced in 2007, when students rallied to encourage former President Richard Celeste to sign the American College & University President s Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). The ACUPCC is a high-visibility effort to address global climate change by garnering institutional commitments to neutralize greenhouse gas emissions, and to accelerate the research and education efforts of higher education to equip society to re-stabilize the earth s climate. Students collected more than 1000 signatures in favor of becoming a signatory to the ACUPCC, and the Colorado College Student Government Association drafted a resolution in support of signing. President Celeste chose not to sign in 2007, preferring first to have more information in hand, including the College s greenhouse gas emissions inventory and details of the efforts necessary for the College to achieve carbon neutrality. In 2008, Colorado College employed The Brendle Group, a Colorado-based sustainability consulting firm, to prepare a comprehensive environmental inventory and make recommendations for sustainability management. The environmental inventory included a greenhouse gas emissions assessment, energy and water audits of more than 1.5 million square feet of campus facilities, and quantitative and qualitative data collection on a full spectrum of campus activities, from operations and maintenance to procurement and staffing. Once the inventory was completed, the Campus Sustainability Council carefully reviewed The Brendle Group s recommendations and drafted the Colorado College Sustainability Plan (CCSP). The CCSP was prepared with the involvement of the entire campus community, including faculty, staff, students, alumni, and community members. The CCSP and a plan for carbon neutrality were presented to the Colorado College Board of Trustees in The Board voted formally to accept the CCSP on February 21st, 2009, and voiced support for committing to carbon neutrality. President Celeste signed the ACUPCC in April of 2009, with a target date for eliminating greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, and a long-term goal to become carbon-regenerative and a net energy producer. 2

3 Avoided Costs In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the path toward carbon neutrality significantly reduces, and potentially stabilizes, annual energy costs. Prior to 2008, the allocated annual energy budget for Colorado College was increasing 16% each year, from $1.7 million in 2005 to $2.7 million in Comprehensive efforts to reduce campus energy use commenced in 2008, and the College s actual expenditures began to fall significantly below the allocated budget. While electricity rates have steadily risen, 5% annually on average, natural gas rates have been more volatile and have declined significantly in 2011 and Meanwhile, Colorado College energy use peaked in 2008, but has steadily decreased from 2009 to If electricity usage had remained at 2008 levels from 2009 to 2012, the College would have spent an additional $777,400. If natural gas usage had remained at 2008 levels from 2009 to 2012, the College would have spent an additional $656,200. The avoided cost associated with energy usage reductions from 2009 to 2012 is $1,433,600. Additional savings associated with water conservation amount to $306,450. Collectively, avoided costs were $1,740,000 over the past four years. While requiring substantial investment, the strategies proposed in this document will continue to reduce the College s energy costs and generate savings over the long term. In addition, the efficiency strategies address building systems that are reaching the end of their useful lives. The carbon neutrality section of the CSSP includes strategies for conservation, efficiency, renewable energy, and combined heat & power. Conservation Strategy: Education & Energy Management acclimate During spring semester 2009, when Colorado College was taking significant steps to reduce overall spending, a conservation campaign called acclimate 14 helped save Colorado College nearly $100,000 in utility costs. The campaign also cut greenhouse gas emissions by 380 MTCO2e. The 14-week acclimate14 effort was a campus-wide resource conservation campaign designed to achieve at least a 14 percent reduction in electricity, heat, water use, and trash through behavioral change. Each of the 14 3

4 weeks in the semester focused on different daily habits, such as computing, bathing, transportation, or studying, and included the use of various tools to encourage behavioral shifts, such as drying racks, shower timers, and plug in electric meters. The acclimate campaign endures as one aspect of Colorado College s efforts to move toward carbon neutrality. Materials and strategies developed during the course of the acclimate semester are revised and reintroduced annually, in an effort to sustain the resource conservation trends realized in Building Dashboards Data visualization is an important aspect of education for behavior change. In 2011, Colorado College launched a building energy dashboard program. The goal of the energy dashboard program is to promote energy conservation through real-time feedback on building energy demand and consumption and to host campus-wide resource use reduction competitions. In 2011, 8 major buildings were equipped with a dashboard display: Armstrong Hall Barnes Science Center Loomis Hall Mathias Hall Olin Hall Slocum Hall Tutt Science Center Worner Student Center As of March 2013, energy usage in 10 additional residential areas is displayed via the building dashboards: Bemis Hall McGregor Hall Arthur Montgomery Ticknor The Western Ridge Apartments (Antero, Blanca, Edith Gaylord, El Diente, JLK) Energy Management In 2012, the Sustainability Office, Facilities Services, and Information Management collaborated to draft guidelines for Energy Management at Colorado College. These guidelines specify campus-wide standards for heating and cooling, lighting, major appliances, computers, and computer power management. In late 2012, the College created an Energy Manager position in Facilities Services. 4

5 Renewable Energy Strategy: 2 Megawatt Solar Photovoltaic Array This project proposes to build a 2 Megawatt (MW) photovoltaic energy generation facility within the Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) service territory that can reach commercial operation by July, In FY2011, Colorado College spent over $1 million on electricity. Since 2009, electricity rates for power supplied by Colorado Springs Utilities have increased an average of 13.5% annually. Assuming 5% annual increases in the future, CC will be paying $0.09 per kilowatt hour (kwh) in 2014, and $0.124 per kwh by In 2012, Colorado College used approximately 14,300,000 kwh. Building local renewable energy capacity and using the power it generates can stabilize energy costs, promote economic development, and significantly reduce carbon emissions. A 2 MW facility would generate approximately 4,000,000 kwh annually, or 20% of the College s 2012 usage. Depending on the physical site identified for the project, there may be potential to construct additional capacity. All electricity and renewable energy credits (RECs) from the facility would belong exclusively to Colorado College. Currently, projects developed in the service territories of publicly-owned utilities in Colorado receive a 3x credit multiplier for solar generation. With this incentive, Colorado College can keep one set of RECs attached to the project, and use the additional two as currency in negotiations with Colorado Springs Utilities for costs associated with power generation and/or backup. This incentive program expires July 1 st, Total Project Cost: $6,500,000 Annual Cost Savings: Average $525,000 for the first 20 years, ranging from $349,000 in year 1 to $747,000 in year 20 Cumulative Savings: Year 5 = $1, Year 10 = $4,213,573 Year 15 = $7,048,106 Year 20 = $10,505,556 Year 30 = $19,415,647 Annual Carbon Reduction: 7,587 MTCO2e (if Colorado College retains all 3 RECs) Simple Payback: 13 Years Wind Energy In 2013 and 2014, Colorado College will enter into a contract with CSU to purchase 2,000 MWh of windgenerated electricity and the associated RECs. This purchase accounts for approximately 14% of the College s total annual electricity use and will reduce carbon emissions by 1490 MTCO2e, or 5% of the 2008 baseline. In 2013, this purchase will increase the College s electricity bill by less than 1% and may result in savings in 2014, depending on fossil fuel cost trends. A two year contract is not a long-term solution for the College's 2020 carbon neutrality goals, but we support the addition of renewable resources to the local electricity supply. We hope to negotiate a multidecade contract for wind power that would significantly reduce emissions and energy costs. 5

6 Cogeneration Strategy: Combined Heat and Power from CC's Central Plant This project would reduce carbon emissions associated with electricity by 80%, through switching fuel from coal to natural gas, eliminating grid distribution losses, and recovery of waste heat for campus heating needs. Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration (Cogen), accounts for 33% of our target carbon emissions reduction. The Brendle Group s Sustainability Plan Recommendations include cogeneration as part of their carbon neutral plan recommendation. The project includes the addition of new electrical power generation equipment, the replacement of generator #3, and architectural upgrades to the central plant. It would replace current R&R projects to replace generator 3 and add HVAC offices saving $2M in R&R budget. The major unknown is the terms that can be reached with Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) for distribution of electricity generated on campus. Currently the project includes the installation of an on-campus electrical distribution system at a cost of $5M. Using CSU s existing distribution would lower the project cost to $11.2M and improve the simple payback to just over 8 years. It appears likely that a deal can be reached with CSU. Estimated Design & Construction Cost: $16,200,000 Estimated Annual Cost Savings: $800,000 Estimated Carbon Reduction: 10,000 MTCO2e Simple Payback: 13 years This project provides the following benefits: - Reduced Carbon Emissions - Increased System Efficiency - Distributed Generation Efficiencies - Emergency Power - Cost Savings - 6

7 Efficiency Strategy: Energy Audits and Improvements in Major Buildings This project targets carbon reduction through energy efficiency. Three-quarters of Colorado College s greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to building energy use, in the form of electricity and natural gas heat. This strategy aims to identify and implement energy efficiency measures in 15 major buildings. Target buildings are included in the chart below. The required funding supports functional testing and equipment, minor repairs, and consultant or vendor support, if needed. Collectively, these buildings represent: - 60% of total building area FY2014 Energy Audits Phase 1 Electrical & Lighting ($100,000) Phase 1 auditing includes assessment of the electrical and lighting systems in target buildings. FY2015 Energy Audits Phase 2 Building Envelope ($400,000) Phase 2 auditing includes assessment of the building envelope in target buildings. Energy Improvements Phase 1 Electrical & Lighting ($2,000,000) Phase 1 improvements will implement electrical and lighting system repairs and improvements recommended by Phase 1 audits. Repairs will likely involve replacing inefficient lighting, transformers, and power factor corrections. Improvements may include additional lighting controls and variable frequency drives (VFDs) on large motors. FY2016 Energy Improvements Phase 2 Building Envelope ($3,000,000) Phase 2 improvements will implement building envelope repairs and will likely involve replacing windows and addressing air leakage pathways and thermal bridging. Improvements may include the adding insulation or vestibules. FY2017 Energy Audits Phase 3 HVAC Equipment & Controls ($300,000) Phase 3 auditing includes assessment of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in target buildings. Energy Improvements Phase 2 cont. Building Envelope ($3,000,000) FY2018 Energy Improvements Phase 3 HVAC Equipment & Controls ($4,000,000) Phase 3 improvements will implement HVAC repairs, including broken dampers, air handlers, and entire building systems in some cases. Improvements may include additional controls or heat recovery systems. FY2019 Energy Improvements Phase 3 cont. HVAC Equipment & Controls ($3,000,000) Recommissioning ($50,000) This project involves insuring buildings continue to perform effectively and efficiently. This process is part of ongoing operations and maintenance to resolve operating problems, improve comfort, and optimize energy use. FY2020 Energy Improvements Phase 3 cont. HVAC Equipment & Controls ($3,000,000) Recommissioning cont. ($50,000) % of total energy used annually - 1/2 the total energy budget - 1/3 of total baseline GHG emissions Estimated Cost of Audits & Recommissioning: $900,000 Estimated Total Cost of Improvements: $18,000,000 Estimated Carbon Reduction: 7,400 MTCO2e 7

8 Target Buildings for Energy Improvements Building* Electricity (kwh) Heating (kbtu) Cooling (kbtu) Annual Energy Cost Carbon (MTCO2e) Energy Intensity (kbtu/ft2) FCI** Barnes $105,577 1, Tutt Science $71,885 1, Tutt Library $80,213 1, Olin $76,501 1, Packard $71, Slocum $58, Cornerstone $69, Armstrong $121,157 1, Boettcher $11, Bemis NA $26, Loomis $47, Mathias $57, Palmer NA $56, Cossitt NA $17, Shove NA $11, Total 8,064,452 43,382,571 13,189,432 $882,919 11,165 *Major buildings renovated since 2010, including Worner and El Pomar, are not included in this list. **FCI (Facility Condition Index) is an industry-standard index that measures the relative condition of a facility by considering the costs of deferred maintenance and repairs as well as the value of the facility. FCI = [Deferred Maintenance + Capital Renewal Costs] divided by [Current Replacement Value] 8

9 Efficiency Strategy: Central Plant The Williams Central Plant generates and delivers high temperature hot water and chilled water to major campus buildings for heating, domestic hot water and air conditioning. This strategy will optimize Central Plant performance once a combined heat and power system (detailed below) is operational. FY2017 Design Central Plant Energy Upgrades This phase will identify efficiency opportunities at the plant. FY2018 Construct Central Plant Energy Upgrades This phase will implement identified efficiency measures and will likely include absorption chilling, thermal storage, and VFDs on system pumps. Estimated Cost of Design: $200,000 Estimated Total Cost of Improvements: $2,500,000 Estimated Carbon Reduction: 1,000 MTCO2e 9

10 Summary of Projects Estimated Cost Estimated MTCO2e Reduction Strategy $7,300,000 (7,637) Build 2 MW Solar / PPA $6,500,000 (7,587) Renewable Energy Energy Audits Largest 15 Buildings Phase 1 (Electrical & Lighting) $100,000 (50) Efficiency Design CHP to Replace Generator # 3 $500,000 NA Cogeneration Design Electrical Distribution $200,000 NA Cogeneration $7,400,000 (1,100) Construct Electrical Distribution $5,000,000 NA Cogeneration Energy Audits Largest 15 Buildings Phase 2 (Building Envelope) $400,000 (100) Efficiency Energy Improvements Construction Phase 1 (Electrical & Lighting) $2,000,000 (1,000) Efficiency $13,000,000 (11,000) CHP Construction $10,000,000 (10,000) Cogeneration Energy Improvements Construction Phase 2 (Building Envelope) $3,000,000 (1,000) Efficiency $3,550,000 (1,350) CHP Commissioning $50,000 NA Cogeneration Design Central Plant Energy Upgrades $200,000 NA Efficiency Energy Audits Largest 15 Buildings Phase 3 (HVAC) $300,000 (50) Efficiency Energy Improvements Construction Phase 2 cont. (Building Envelope) $3,000,000 (1,300) Efficiency $6,500,000 (2,300) Construction Central Plant Energy Upgrades $2,500,000 (1,000) Efficiency Energy Improvements Construction Phase 3 (HVAC) $4,000,000 (1,300) Efficiency $4,300,000 (1,550) Energy Improvements Construction Phase 3 cont. (HVAC) $3,000,000 (1,300) Efficiency Retro-Commissioning $50,000 Efficiency $4,300,000 (1,550) Energy Improvements Construction Phase 3 (HVAC) $3,000,000 (1,300) Efficiency Retro-Commissioning $50,000 NA Efficiency Totals $15,750,000 (10,000) Cogeneration $21,600,000 (8,400) Efficiency Renewable $6,500,000 (7,587) Energy Grand Totals $46,350,000 (26,487) 10

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