Economy Profile: Bangladesh

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1 Economy Profile:

2 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC Telephone: ; Internet: All rights reserved A copublication of The World Bank and the International Finance Corporation. This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. Note that The World Bank does not necessarily own each component of the content included in the work. The World Bank therefore does not warrant that the use of the content contained in the work will not infringe on the rights of third parties. The risk of claims resulting from such infringement rests solely with you. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Nothing herein shall constitute or be considered to be a limitation upon or waiver of the privileges and immunities of The World Bank, all of which are specifically reserved. Rights and Permissions This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0) Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, you are free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt this work, including for commercial purposes, under the following conditions: Attribution Please cite the work as follows: World Bank Doing Business 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises. Washington, DC: World Bank Group. DOI: / License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 Translations If you create a translation of this work, please add the following disclaimer along with the attribution: This translation was not created by The World Bank and should not be considered an official World Bank translation. The World Bank shall not be liable for any content or error in this translation. All queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: ; Additional copies of all 10 editions of Doing Business may be purchased at Cover design: Corporate Visions, Inc.

3 3 CONTENTS Introduction... 4 The business environment... 5 Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Getting electricity Registering property Getting credit Protecting investors Paying taxes Trading across borders Enforcing contracts Resolving insolvency Employing workers Data notes Resources on the Doing Business website

4 4 INTRODUCTION Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers. In a series of annual reports Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 185 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. The data set covers 46 economies in Sub- Saharan Africa, 33 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 24 in East Asia and the Pacific, 24 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 19 in the Middle East and North Africa and 8 in South Asia, as well as 31 OECD highincome economies. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where and why. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2012 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January December 2011). The Doing Business methodology has limitations. Other areas important to business such as an economy s proximity to large markets, the quality of its infrastructure services (other than those related to trading across borders and getting electricity), the security of property from theft and looting, the transparency of government procurement, macroeconomic conditions or the underlying strength of institutions are not directly studied by Doing Business. The indicators refer to a specific type of business, generally a local limited liability company operating in the largest business city. Because standard assumptions are used in the data collection, comparisons and benchmarks are valid across economies. The data not only highlight the extent of obstacles to doing business; they also help identify the source of those obstacles, supporting policy makers in designing regulatory reform. More information is available in the full report. Doing Business 2013 presents the indicators, analyzes their relationship with economic outcomes and presents business regulatory reforms. The data, along with information on ordering Doing Business 2013, are available on the Doing Business website at

5 5 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT For policy makers trying to improve their economy s regulatory environment for business, a good place to start is to find out how it compares with the regulatory environment in other economies. Doing Business provides an aggregate ranking on the ease of doing business based on indicator sets that measure and benchmark regulations applying to domestic small to medium-size businesses through their life cycle. Economies are ranked from 1 to 185 by the ease of doing business index. For each economy the index is calculated as the ranking on the simple average of its percentile rankings on each of the 10 topics included in the index in Doing Business 2013: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators (see the data notes for more details). The employing workers indicators are not included in this year s aggregate ease of doing business ranking, but the data are presented in this year s economy profile. The aggregate ranking on the ease of doing business benchmarks each economy s performance on the indicators against that of all other economies in the Doing Business sample (figure 1.1). While this ranking tells much about the business environment in an economy, it does not tell the whole story. The ranking on the ease of doing business, and the underlying indicators, do not measure all aspects of the business environment that matter to firms and investors or that affect the competitiveness of the economy. Still, a high ranking does mean that the government has created a regulatory environment conducive to operating a business. ECONOMY OVERVIEW Region: South Asia Income category: Low income Population: 150,493,658 GNI per capita (US$): 770 DB2013 rank: 129 DB2012 rank: 124* Change in rank: -5 * DB2012 ranking shown is not last year s published ranking but a comparable ranking for DB2012 that captures the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. See the data notes for sources and definitions.

6 6 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Figure 1.1 Where economies stand in the global ranking on the ease of doing business

7 7 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT For policy makers, knowing where their economy stands in the aggregate ranking on the ease of doing business is useful. Also useful is to know how it ranks relative to comparator economies and relative to the regional average (figure 1.2). The economy s rankings on the topics included in the ease of doing business index provide another perspective (figure 1.3). Figure 1.2 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of doing business

8 8 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Figure 1.3 How ranks on Doing Business topics

9 9 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Just as the overall ranking on the ease of doing business tells only part of the story, so do changes in that ranking. Yearly movements in rankings can provide some indication of changes in an economy s regulatory environment for firms, but they are always relative. An economy s ranking might change because of developments in other economies. An economy that implemented business regulation reforms may fail to rise in the rankings (or may even drop) if it is passed by others whose business regulation reforms had a more significant impact as measured by Doing Business. Moreover, year-to-year changes in the overall rankings do not reflect how the business regulatory environment in an economy has changed over time or how it has changed in different areas. To aid in assessing such changes, last year Doing Business introduced the distance to frontier measure. This measure shows how far each economy is from the best performance achieved by any economy since 2005 on each indicator in 9 Doing Business indicator sets. Comparing the measure for an economy at 2 points in time allows users to assess how much the economy s regulatory environment as measured by Doing Business has changed over time how far it has moved toward (or away from) the most efficient practices and strongest regulations in areas covered by Doing Business (figure 1.4). The results may show that the pace of change varies widely across the areas measured. They also may show that an economy is relatively close to the frontier in some areas and relatively far from it in others. Figure 1.4 How far has come in the areas measured by Doing Business? Note: The distance to frontier measure shows how far on average an economy is from the best performance achieved by any economy on each Doing Business indicator since The measure is normalized to range between 0 and 100, with 100 representing the best performance (the frontier). The overall distance to frontier is the average of the distance to frontier in the 9 indicator sets shown in the figure. See the data notes for more details on the distance to frontier measure.

10 DB2013 DB2012 India DB2013 Nepal DB2013 Pakistan DB2013 Sri Lanka DB2013 Thailand DB2013 United Kingdom DB2013 Best performer globally DB2013 Doing Business THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The absolute values of the indicators tell another part of the story (table 1.1). The indicators, on their own or in comparison with the indicators of a good practice economy or those of comparator economies in the region, may reveal bottlenecks reflected in large numbers of procedures, long delays or high costs. Or they may reveal unexpected strengths in an area of business regulation such as a regulatory process that can be completed with a small number of procedures in a few days and at a low cost. Comparison of the economy s indicators today with those in the previous year may show where substantial bottlenecks persist and where they are diminishing. Table 1.1 Summary of Doing Business indicators for Indicator Starting a Business (rank) New Zealand (1) Procedures (number) New Zealand (1)* Time (days) New Zealand (1) Cost (% of income per capita) Slovenia (0.0) Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita) Economies (0.0)* Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) Hong Kong SAR, China (1) Procedures (number) Hong Kong SAR, China (6)* Time (days) Singapore (26) Cost (% of income per capita) , Qatar (1.1)

11 DB2013 DB2012 India DB2013 Nepal DB2013 Pakistan DB2013 Sri Lanka DB2013 Thailand DB2013 United Kingdom DB2013 Best performer globally DB2013 Doing Business Indicator Getting Electricity (rank) Iceland (1) Procedures (number) Germany (3)* Time (days) Germany (17) Cost (% of income per capita) 5, , , , , Japan (0.0) Registering Property (rank) Georgia (1) Procedures (number) Georgia (1)* Time (days) Portugal (1) Cost (% of property value) Belarus (0.0)* Getting Credit (rank) United Kingdom (1)* Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Malaysia (10)* Depth of credit information index (0-6) United Kingdom (6)* Public registry coverage (% of adults) Portugal (90.7) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) United Kingdom (100.0)* Protecting Investors (rank) New Zealand (1) Extent of disclosure Hong Kong SAR,

12 DB2013 DB2012 India DB2013 Nepal DB2013 Pakistan DB2013 Sri Lanka DB2013 Thailand DB2013 United Kingdom DB2013 Best performer globally DB2013 Doing Business Indicator index (0-10) China (10)* Extent of director liability index (0-10) Singapore (9)* Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) New Zealand (10)* Strength of investor protection index (0-10) New Zealand (9.7) Paying Taxes (rank) United Arab Emirates (1) Payments (number per year) Hong Kong SAR, China (3)* Time (hours per year) United Arab Emirates (12) Trading Across Borders (rank) Singapore (1) Documents to export (number) France (2) Time to export (days) Singapore (5)* Cost to export (US$ per container) 1, ,120 1, Malaysia (435) Documents to import (number) France (2) Time to import (days) Singapore (4) Cost to import (US$ per container) 1,430 1,370 1,200 2, ,045 Malaysia (420)

13 DB2013 DB2012 India DB2013 Nepal DB2013 Pakistan DB2013 Sri Lanka DB2013 Thailand DB2013 United Kingdom DB2013 Best performer globally DB2013 Doing Business Indicator Enforcing Contracts (rank) Luxembourg (1) Time (days) 1,442 1,442 1, , Singapore (150) Cost (% of claim) Bhutan (0.1) Procedures (number) Ireland (21)* Resolving Insolvency (rank) Japan (1) Time (years) Ireland (0.4) Cost (% of estate) Singapore (1)* Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) Japan (92.8) Note: DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. The ranking methodology for the paying taxes indicators changed in Doing Business 2013; see the data notes for details. For more information on no practice marks, see the data notes. Data for the outcome of the resolving insolvency indicator are not available for DB2012. * Two or more economies share the top ranking on this indicator. A number shown in place of an economy s name indicates the number of economies that share the top ranking on the indicator. For a list of these economies, see the Doing Business website (

14 14 STARTING A BUSINESS Formal registration of companies has many immediate benefits for the companies and for business owners and employees. Legal entities can outlive their founders. Resources are pooled as several shareholders join forces to start a company. Formally registered companies have access to services and institutions from courts to banks as well as to new markets. And their employees can benefit from protections provided by the law. An additional benefit comes with limited liability companies. These limit the financial liability of company owners to their investments, so personal assets of the owners are not put at risk. Where governments make registration easy, more entrepreneurs start businesses in the formal sector, creating more good jobs and generating more revenue for the government. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business measures the ease of starting a business in an economy by recording all procedures officially required or commonly done in practice by an entrepreneur to start up and formally operate an industrial or commercial business as well as the time and cost required to complete these procedures. It also records the paid-in minimum capital that companies must deposit before registration (or within 3 months). The ranking on the ease of starting a business is the simple average of the percentile rankings on the 4 component indicators: procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement. To make the data comparable across economies, Doing Business uses several assumptions about the business and the procedures. It assumes that all information is readily available to the entrepreneur and that there has been no prior contact with officials. It also assumes that the entrepreneur will pay no bribes. And it assumes that the business: Is a limited liability company, located in the largest business city. Has between 10 and 50 employees. Conducts general commercial or industrial activities. WHAT THE STARTING A BUSINESS INDICATORS MEASURE Procedures to legally start and operate a company (number) Preregistration (for example, name verification or reservation, notarization) Registration in the economy s largest business city Postregistration (for example, social security registration, company seal) Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days) Does not include time spent gathering information Each procedure starts on a separate day Procedure completed once final document is received No prior contact with officials Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita) Official costs only, no bribes No professional fees unless services required by law Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per capita) Deposited in a bank or with a notary before registration (or within 3 months) Has a start-up capital of 10 times income per capita. Has a turnover of at least 100 times income per capita. Does not qualify for any special benefits. Does not own real estate. Is 100% domestically owned.

15 15 STARTING A BUSINESS Where does the economy stand today? What does it take to start a business in? According to data collected by Doing Business, starting a business there requires 7 procedures, takes 19 days, costs 25.1% of income per capita and requires paid-in minimum capital of 0.0% of income per capita (figure 2.1). Figure 2.1 What it takes to start a business in Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per capita): 0.0 Note: Time shown in the figure above may not reflect simultaneity of procedures. For more information on the methodology of the starting a business indicators, see the Doing Business website ( For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary at the end of this chapter.

16 16 STARTING A BUSINESS Globally, stands at 95 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of starting a business (figure 2.2). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing how easy it is for an entrepreneur in to start a business. Figure 2.2 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of starting a business

17 17 STARTING A BUSINESS What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how easy (or difficult) it is to start a business in today, data over time show which aspects of the process have changed and which have not (table 2.1). That can help identify where the potential for improvement is greatest. Table 2.1 The ease of starting a business in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2004 DB2005 DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year.

18 18 STARTING A BUSINESS Equally helpful may be the benchmarks provided by the economies that over time have had the best performance regionally or globally on the procedures, time, cost or paid-in minimum capital required to start a business (figure 2.3). These benchmarks help show what is possible in making it easier to start a business. And changes in regional averages can show where is keeping up and where it is falling behind. Figure 2.3 Has starting a business become easier over time? Procedures (number) Time (days)

19 19 STARTING A BUSINESS Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per capita) Note: Ninety-one economies globally have no paid-in minimum capital requirement.

20 20 STARTING A BUSINESS Economies around the world have taken steps making it easier to start a business streamlining procedures by setting up a one-stop shop, making procedures simpler or faster by introducing technology and reducing or eliminating minimum capital requirements. Many have undertaken business registration reforms in stages and they often are part of a larger regulatory reform program. Among the benefits have been greater firm satisfaction and savings and more registered businesses, financial resources and job opportunities. What business registration reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 2.2)? Table 2.2 How has made starting a business easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Reform made starting a business more cumbersome by implementing additional process to verify the stamp duty. Simplification of the registration formalities resulting in reducing the number of procedures, time and cost. simplified the process of business start-up by launching the full-fledged on-line business name clearance and registration processes. made business start-up easier by eliminating the requirement to buy adhesive stamps and further enhancing the online registration system. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2005), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

21 21 STARTING A BUSINESS What are the details? Underlying the indicators shown in this chapter for is a set of specific procedures the bureaucratic and legal steps that an entrepreneur must complete to incorporate and register a new firm. These are identified by Doing Business through collaboration with relevant local professionals and the study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry in that economy. Following is a detailed summary of those procedures, along with the associated time and cost. These procedures are those that apply to a company matching the standard assumptions (the standardized company ) used by Doing Business in collecting the data (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators measure). STANDARDIZED COMPANY City: Dhaka Legal Form: Private Limited Liability Company Paid in Minimum Capital Requirement: None Start-up Capital: 10 times GNI per capita Summary of procedures for starting a business in and the time and cost No. Procedure Verify online the uniqueness of the proposed company name with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms Time to complete Cost to complete 1 The application for the name clearance of the company is now done on-line. There is no need anymore to provide an application on plain paper with a promoters' resolution proposing the corporate names. The proposed name needs to be sent on-line and clearnace certificate is provided via by the Deputy Registrar (Name Clearance), RJSC. A print out of the name clearance certificate is to be submitted to the RJSC alongwith the other documents and forms required for the incorporation of the company. 1 day BDT The search for the company name was computerized in Pay adhesive stamp fees at a designated bank Until recently, special adhesive stamps of value was affixed to the memorandum of association regardless of the company s authorized capital. Provision of Pay order in lieu of stamp was passed on 20 January 2010 (SRO # 21-Law) under The Stamp Duty (Additional Modes of Payment Act 1974). Applicants do not need anymore to buy physical special adhesive stamps. Payment can be made to the designated bank accounts of the Treasury. Previously all the fees were supposed to be deposited only in selected branches of Sonali Bank. RJSC has now allowed one of the leading private sector banks with extensive national coverage - the BRAC Bank -to collect fees. 1 day BDT 2,000 For an authorized capital of between BDT 100,000 to BDT 1.000,000 the

22 22 No. Procedure Time to complete Cost to complete adhesive stamps of total value BDT 2,000 is required - BDT 500 is required for the memorandum of association and BDT 1,500 for the articles of association. File documents with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms for registration 3 For filing the memorandum and articles of association, the company pays fees based on the company s authorized capital. For a company with a capital of BDT 564,011, the cost is BDT 4,125 (BDT 2,925 registration fees + 1,200 registration filing fees). The fees are paid at the designated banks. The following documents are submitted to the registrar: (a) name clearance certificate; (b) memorandum of association; (c) articles of association (d) forms I, VI, IX, X, and XII; (e) proof of payment (i.e. receipt from the designated bank) for Treasury Stamps; (f) encashment certificate (for nonresident subscribers); and (g) tax identification number (for resident subscribers). 1 day BDT 2,925 registration fees + 1,200 registration filing fees 4 Make a company seal 1 day BDT Register with the tax authority 5 To commence business, every company must register itself with the appropriate taxation authority (Deputy Commission of Taxes of Company Circle, Zonal Taxation Department) under the National Board of Revenue (NBR) and procure a tax identification number for the new company. * Register for VAT 9 days no charge 6 For VAT purposes, companies may be registered separately with the Customs, Excise, and VAT Commission (under the NBR). The various VATs incurred while operating the business will be regulated by the area NBR Customs Department and VAT and Excise Department. 7 days, simultaneously with procedure 5 no charge Obtain a trade license 7 Companies may obtain a trade license from the City Corporation. The trade license application must be accompanied by the following documents: (1) a certified copy of the company s articles and memorandum of association, (2) a copy of the certificate of incorporation, (3) the company s statement of bank solvency, (4) the company s tax identification number certificate, (5) a copy of the rent agreement for the company s office, (6) three photographs (copies) and (7) particulars of the person in charge of the main corporate functions. * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure. 6 days BDT 5,000

23 23 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Regulation of construction is critical to protect the public. But it needs to be efficient, to avoid excessive constraints on a sector that plays an important part in every economy. Where complying with building regulations is excessively costly in time and money, many builders opt out. They may pay bribes to pass inspections or simply build illegally, leading to hazardous construction that puts public safety at risk. Where compliance is simple, straightforward and inexpensive, everyone is better off. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business records the procedures, time and cost for a business to obtain all the necessary approvals to build a simple commercial warehouse in the economy s largest business city, connect it to basic utilities and register the property so that it can be used as collateral or transferred to another entity. The ranking on the ease of dealing with construction permits is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: procedures, time and cost. To make the data comparable across economies, Doing Business uses several assumptions about the business and the warehouse, including the utility connections. The business: Is a limited liability company operating in the construction business and located in the largest business city. The warehouse: Is domestically owned and operated. Has 60 builders and other employees. Is a new construction (there was no previous construction on the land). Has complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed architect. WHAT THE DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS INDICATORS MEASURE Procedures to legally build a warehouse (number) Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances, licenses, permits and certificates Completing all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections Obtaining utility connections for water, sewerage and a fixed telephone line Registering the warehouse after its completion (if required for use as collateral or for transfer of the warehouse) Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days) Does not include time spent gathering information Each procedure starts on a separate day Procedure completed once final document is received No prior contact with officials Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita) Official costs only, no bribes Will be connected to water, sewerage (sewage system, septic tank or their equivalent) and a fixed telephone line. The connection to each utility network will be 10 meters (32 feet, 10 inches) long. Will be used for general storage, such as of books or stationery (not for goods requiring special conditions). Will take 30 weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and regulatory requirements).

24 24 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Where does the economy stand today? What does it take to comply with the formalities to build a warehouse in? According to data collected by Doing Business, dealing with construction permits there requires 11 procedures, takes 201 days and costs 126.5% of income per capita (figure 3.1). Figure 3.1 What it takes to comply with formalities to build a warehouse in Note: Time shown in the figure above may not reflect simultaneity of procedures. For more information on the methodology of the dealing with construction permits indicators, see the Doing Business website ( For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary at the end of this chapter.

25 25 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Globally, stands at 83 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of dealing with construction permits (figure 3.2). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing how easy it is for an entrepreneur in to legally build a warehouse. Figure 3.2 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of dealing with construction permits

26 26 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how easy (or difficult) it is to deal with construction permits in today, data over time show which aspects of the process have changed and which have not (table 3.1). That can help identify where the potential for improvement is greatest. Table 3.1 The ease of dealing with construction permits in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. For more information on no practice marks, see the data notes.

27 27 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Equally helpful may be the benchmarks provided by the economies that over time have had the best performance regionally or globally on the procedures, time or cost required to deal with construction permits (figure 3.3). These benchmarks help show what is possible in making it easier to deal with construction permits. And changes in regional averages can show where is keeping up and where it is falling behind. Figure 3.3 Has dealing with construction permits become easier over time? Procedures (number) Time (days)

28 28 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Cost (% of income per capita)

29 29 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS Smart regulation ensures that standards are met while making compliance easy and accessible to all. Coherent and transparent rules, efficient processes and adequate allocation of resources are especially important in sectors where safety is at stake. Construction is one of them. In an effort to ensure building safety while keeping compliance costs reasonable, governments around the world have worked on consolidating permitting requirements. What construction permitting reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 3.2)? Table 3.2 How has made dealing with construction permits easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year Reform DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2006), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

30 30 DEALING WITH CONSTRUCTION PERMITS What are the details? The indicators reported here for are based on a set of specific procedures the steps that a company must complete to legally build a warehouse identified by Doing Business through information collected from experts in construction licensing, including architects, construction lawyers, construction firms, utility service providers and public officials who deal with building regulations. These procedures are those that apply to a company and structure matching the standard assumptions used by Doing Business in collecting the data (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators cover). BUILDING A WAREHOUSE City : Estimated Warehouse Value : Dhaka BDT 16,800,000 The procedures, along with the associated time and cost, are summarized below. Summary of procedures for dealing with construction permits in and the time and cost No. 1 Procedure Obtain cadastral survey map from Land Records Department Time to complete Cost to complete 3 days USD 25 Obtain zoning clearance To obtain clearance, BuildCo must present proof of land ownership and the cadastral maps showing the exact site location. Anticorruption drive of the interim government of stemmed from massive violations of building regulations on one hand and collapse of buildings with casualties on the other hand impacted on the work of some areas of construction regulation. Obtaining zoning clearance before would take on average months if no bribes paid, while by law it should be only 15 days. The Building Committee s drive is to make this procedure come as close to the official time limit made this procedure possible to be completed in 45 days. Obtain project clearance from the local authority (Ward Commissioner, Dhaka City Corporation) To obtain the local authority s approval, BuildCo must submit an application with the proposed design plans. The approval may take anywhere from 3 to 7 days. Obtain project clearance from the Environment Department of Rajuk The Environment Department of Rajuk issues three types of clearance, based on the type of establishment green (nonpolluting), orange (low polluting), and red (high polluting). For the green category, the environmental clearance is issued for a fee of USD If unofficial payments are made, environmental clearance can be obtained in a week. For other categories, the cost and time to get clearance are higher. To obtain project clearance, the following documents are 45 days no charge 3 days no charge 30 days USD 80

31 31 No. Procedure required, depending on the environmental category: Time to complete Cost to complete Approval from the Ward Commissioner, Dhaka City Corporation Project profile, feasibility report, and drawings Land ownership documents Cadastral survey map and location map Trade license (copy) Registration of the Board of Investment (copy) EIA/ IEE/ EMP Report Fees payable to DOE Total project cost Fees Renewal Fees USD million USD USD 5.00 USD 0.08 million 0.16 million USD USD USD 0.16 million 0.8 million USD USD USD 0.8 million 1.6 million USD USD USD 1.6 million 32 million USD USD USD 32 million 80 million USD USD USD 80-million and above USD 1, USD Obtain project clearance and building permit from the City Development Authority (RAJUK) 5 The approving panel of the City Development Authority (RAJUK) meets weekly to discuss cases. In early 2007, officials in the Ministry of Works imposed a 30-day time limit on the process. As of August 2007 under the new Building regulation the RAJUK introduced a single window approach to procedures related to obtaining a building permit. However applicants have to still visit each agency responsible for different parts of construction approval separately due to inconsistencies in legislation. Fire Department raised its disagreement with RAJUK on building that do not require fire clearance. According to government regulation buildings higher 10 floors are subject to the clearance, however Fire Department uses the old regulations by which anything above 6 floors is subject to their supervision. 105 days BDT 30,000 Each agency that provides approval is given 7 day time-limit, which is

32 32 No. Procedure still not complied with. Before building permit is issued the authorized officers have to visit the site to ascertain its location according to the drawings and maps. However with only a handful of officers and massive number of applications this becomes impossible to comply with an original 30 day time limit that government set. The procedure still takes on average month. Time to complete Cost to complete Receive excavation inspection Due to lack of sufficient manpower of the authority, it takes more than a week to visit site. Receive foundation inspection Due to lack of sufficient manpower of the authority, it takes more than a week to visit site. Tax inspector from Dhaka City Corporation inspects the completed warehouse A tax inspector from the Dhaka City Corporation visits the site to assess the completed building (1 day, no appointment or fee). From then on, the tax authority will send the annual tax bill which will arrive 30 days later. * Request telephone connection The time usually depends on the availability of lines in the construction area. Mobile telephone connections may be obtained within a day. But it takes about 30 days to receive a fixed telephone connection from the Telegraph and Telephone Board. * Telephone inspector makes the connection 1 day no charge 1 day no charge 1 day no charge 1 day USD 50 7 days no charge 11 * Obtain water and sewerage connection 10 days BDT 30,000 * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

33 33 GETTING ELECTRICITY Access to reliable and affordable electricity is vital for businesses. To counter weak electricity supply, many firms in developing economies have to rely on self-supply, often at a prohibitively high cost. Whether electricity is reliably available or not, the first step for a customer is always to gain access by obtaining a connection. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business records all procedures required for a local business to obtain a permanent electricity connection and supply for a standardized warehouse, as well as the time and cost to complete them. These procedures include applications and contracts with electricity utilities, clearances from other agencies and the external and final connection works. The ranking on the ease of getting electricity is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: procedures, time and cost. To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions are used. The warehouse: Is located in the economy s largest business city, in an area where other warehouses are located. Is not in a special economic zone where the connection would be eligible for subsidization or faster service. Has road access. The connection works involve the crossing of a road or roads but are carried out on public land. Is a new construction being connected to electricity for the first time. Has 2 stories, both above ground, with a total surface of about 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet), and is built on a plot of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet). The electricity connection: Is a 3-phase, 4-wire Y, 140-kilovolt-ampere (kva) (subscribed capacity) connection. WHAT THE GETTING ELECTRICITY INDICATORS MEASURE Procedures to obtain an electricity connection (number) Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining all necessary clearances and permits Completing all required notifications and receiving all necessary inspections Obtaining external installation works and possibly purchasing material for these works Concluding any necessary supply contract and obtaining final supply Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days) Is at least 1 calendar day Each procedure starts on a separate day Does not include time spent gathering information Reflects the time spent in practice, with little follow-up and no prior contact with officials Cost required to complete each procedure (% of income per capita) Official costs only, no bribes Excludes value added tax Is 150 meters long. Is to either the low-voltage or the mediumvoltage distribution network and either overhead or underground, whichever is more common in the economy and in the area where the warehouse is located. The length of any connection in the customer s private domain is negligible. Involves installing one electricity meter. The monthly electricity consumption will be 0.07 gigawatt-hour (GWh). The internal electrical wiring has been completed.

34 34 GETTING ELECTRICITY Where does the economy stand today? What does it take to obtain a new electricity connection in? According to data collected by Doing Business, getting electricity there requires 9 procedures, takes 404 days and costs % of income per capita (figure 4.1). Figure 4.1 What it takes to obtain an electricity connection in Note: Time shown in the figure above may not reflect simultaneity of procedures. For more information on the methodology of the getting electricity indicators, see the Doing Business website ( For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary at the end of this chapter.

35 35 GETTING ELECTRICITY Globally, stands at 185 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of getting electricity (figure 4.2). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide another perspective in assessing how easy it is for an entrepreneur in to connect a warehouse to electricity. Figure 4.2 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of getting electricity

36 36 GETTING ELECTRICITY Even more helpful than rankings on the ease of getting electricity may be the indicators underlying those rankings (table 4.1). And regional and global best performers on these indicators may provide useful benchmarks. Table 4.1 The ease of getting electricity in Indicator DB2013 DB2012 Best performer in South Asia DB2013 Best performer globally DB2013 Rank Nepal (96) Iceland (1) Procedures (number) 9 8 Sri Lanka (4) Germany (3)* Time (days) India (67) Germany (17) Cost (% of income per capita) 5, ,122.7 India (247.3) Japan (0.0) Note: DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. * Two or more economies share the top ranking on this indicator. For a list of these economies, see the Doing Business website (

37 37 GETTING ELECTRICITY Obtaining an electricity connection is essential to enable a business to conduct its most basic operations. In many economies the connection process is complicated by the multiple laws and regulations involved covering service quality, general safety, technical standards, procurement practices and internal wiring installations. In an effort to ensure safety in the connection process while keeping connection costs reasonable, governments around the world have worked to consolidate requirements for obtaining an electricity connection. What reforms in getting electricity has Doing Business recorded in (table 4.2)? Table 4.2 How has made getting electricity easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year DB2012 Reform made getting electricity more difficult by imposing a moratorium on new electricity connections from April 2010 to March 2011 because of an electricity supply shortage. This moratorium has led to long delays for customers and has increased the time to obtain an electricity connection. DB2013 made getting electricity more difficult by requiring all customers to meet 7% of their electricity needs through solar energy, making it necessary to install solar panels.

38 38 GETTING ELECTRICITY What are the details? The indicators reported here for are based on a set of specific procedures the steps that an entrepreneur must complete to get a warehouse connected to electricity by the local distribution utility identified by Doing Business. Data are collected from the distribution utility, then completed and verified by electricity regulatory agencies and independent professionals such as electrical engineers, electrical contractors and construction companies. The electricity distribution utility surveyed is the one serving the area (or areas) in which warehouses are located. If there is a choice of distribution utilities, the one serving the largest number of customers is selected. OBTAINING AN ELECTRICITY CONNECTION City: Summary of procedures for getting electricity in and the time and cost Dhaka Name of Utility: Dhaka Electric Supply Company Ltd. (DESCO) The procedures are those that apply to a warehouse and electricity connection matching the standard assumptions used by Doing Business in collecting the data (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators cover). The procedures, along with the associated time and cost, are summarized below. No. Procedure Obtain clearance from Office of Chief Electrical Inspector for setting up of sub-station Time to complete Cost to complete The customer needs to go to the Chief Electric Inspector s office with design plans of warehouse, plan of substation, total load requirement. The office ideally should provide this clearance on the spot, but depending on facilitation fees. If fees paid, then immediate clearance, otherwise it can take two weeks and several repeated follow-up visits to the office. Obtain permission for installation of underground cable Once permission is obtained from City Corporation office for excavation works, the customer also needs to inform local police station of road works. The excavation permit can be obtained in a more timely manner if facilitation fees are paid. * Hire electrical contracting firm which will purchase sub-station equipment and get it tested and carry out installation/earthing Electrical equipment, distribution transformer, etc, needs to be purchased before hand and needs to be tested before submitting the application to the utility. Usually, all these equipments are readily available in Dhaka. The electrical equipment needs to be submitted for testing to University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). Apply for license from Office of Chief Electrical Inspector This is the official clearance required in order to set up the warehouse and obtain the electric connection (not just for internal wiring). Procedure 1 is at a more "informal" level and happens in practice to keep 14 calendar days no charge 21 calendar days no charge 15 calendar days BDT 1,800, calendar days BDT 5,000.0

39 39 No. Procedure the relevant officials informed, but this officially takes place once customer have already gone through Procedures 2 and 3. Documents required Application form Technical specifications of equipment and test report Land registration deed (on which warehouse is located) RAJUK approval/mutation certificate Fire service permission (for underground cabling) Architectural approval Submit application to Dhaka Electric Supply Compnay Ltd. (DESCO) and await estimate and load requirement of solar panels Time to complete Cost to complete 5 1. List of documents to be provided with application Two duly certified passport size photos Copy of land deed paper and copy of mutation certificate where necessary. Copy of land tax payment to the municipal/union parishad. Copy of the agreement paper between the landowner and developer, if building is constructed by real estate developer. Design of the building, duly approved by RAJUK/Municipal Corporation. Clear location of the meter room, including the S/S in the plan, duly approved by RAJUK/Municipal Corporation. Certified copy of test result on electrical equipment. Copy of approved/duly certified single line diagram and earthing diagram of the S/S. Copy of the layout diagram of S/S from the Office of Chief Electrical Inspector. Copy of the license received from Office of Chief Electrical Inspector. Detailed description of present connection status. Copy of the last paid bills. 2. The applicant needs to bear all the cost of 11.4kV S/S and to be connected with the nearby 11kV supply of DPDC through underground cable. 3. On submission of application, DESCO will calculate the load requirement for solar panel 277 calendar days BDT 34, The long duration noted for this procedure is due to the delay in the customer receiving the demand notice from the utility. Electrical contracting firm conducts external connection works This is basically the setting up of substation on the warehouse premises. All equipment already purchased, electrical contractor firm and builder does the site construction and installation of equipment * Private solar panel installation firm installs solar panels As per Ministry directive to all the utilities, all new connections with demand above 2KW will now require installation of solar panels. For domestic purposes, solar energy should meet at least 2 percent of the demand, for commercial 7 percent and for industrial 10 percent. 20 calendar days BDT 270, calendar days BDT 570,000.0

40 40 No. Procedure Time to complete Cost to complete Electrical contracting firm purchases meter 8 9 The meter can be collected once the estimate has been paid, and the utility sends communication to the stores dept, and store dept issues an account number, and the meter is then available for pickup. If facilitation fee is paid, then the meter is available soon. Otherwise, it can take longer, and repeated follow-up visits. Utility tests and installs the meter, conducts final inspection and electricity starts flowing The utility conducts final internal as well as external inspection, tests the meter and electricity starts flowing. * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure. 14 calendar days BDT 250, calendar days no charge

41 41 REGISTERING PROPERTY Ensuring formal property rights is fundamental. Effective administration of land is part of that. If formal property transfer is too costly or complicated, formal titles might go informal again. And where property is informal or poorly administered, it has little chance of being accepted as collateral for loans limiting access to finance. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business records the full sequence of procedures necessary for a business to purchase property from another business and transfer the property title to the buyer s name. The transaction is considered complete when it is opposable to third parties and when the buyer can use the property, use it as collateral for a bank loan or resell it. The ranking on the ease of registering property is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: procedures, time and cost. To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the parties to the transaction, the property and the procedures are used. The parties (buyer and seller): Are limited liability companies, 100% domestically and privately owned. Are located in the periurban area of the economy s largest business city. Have 50 employees each, all of whom are nationals. Perform general commercial activities. The property (fully owned by the seller): Has a value of 50 times income per capita. The sale price equals the value. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in a periurban commercial zone, and no rezoning is required. WHAT THE REGISTERING PROPERTY INDICATORS MEASURE Procedures to legally transfer title on immovable property (number) Preregistration (for example, checking for liens, notarizing sales agreement, paying property transfer taxes) Registration in the economy s largest business city Postregistration (for example, filing title with the municipality) Time required to complete each procedure (calendar days) Does not include time spent gathering information Each procedure starts on a separate day Procedure completed once final document is received No prior contact with officials Cost required to complete each procedure (% of property value) Official costs only, no bribes No value added or capital gains taxes included Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Consists of square meters (6,000 square feet) of land and a 10-year-old, 2-story warehouse of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet). The warehouse is in good condition and complies with all safety standards, building codes and legal requirements. The property will be transferred in its entirety.

42 42 REGISTERING PROPERTY Where does the economy stand today? What does it take to complete a property transfer in? According to data collected by Doing Business, registering property there requires 8 procedures, takes 245 days and costs 6.8% of the property value (figure 5.1). Figure 5.1 What it takes to register property in Note: Time shown in the figure above may not reflect simultaneity of procedures. For more information on the methodology of the registering property indicators, see the Doing Business website ( For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary at the end of this chapter.

43 43 REGISTERING PROPERTY Globally, stands at 175 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of registering property (figure 5.2). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing how easy it is for an entrepreneur in to transfer property. Figure 5.2 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of registering property

44 44 REGISTERING PROPERTY What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how easy (or difficult) it is to register property in today, data over time show which aspects of the process have changed and which have not (table 5.1). That can help identify where the potential for improvement is greatest. Table 5.1 The ease of registering property in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2005 DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. For more information on no practice marks, see the data notes.

45 45 REGISTERING PROPERTY Equally helpful may be the benchmarks provided by the economies that over time have had the best performance regionally or globally on the procedures, time or cost required to complete a property transfer (figure 5.3). These benchmarks help show what is possible in making it easier to register property. And changes in regional averages can show where is keeping up and where it is falling behind. Figure 5.3 Has registering property become easier over time? Procedures (number) Time (days)

46 46 REGISTERING PROPERTY Cost (% of property value)

47 47 REGISTERING PROPERTY Economies worldwide have been making it easier for entrepreneurs to register and transfer property such as by computerizing land registries, introducing time limits for procedures and setting low fixed fees. Many have cut the time required substantially enabling buyers to use or mortgage their property earlier. What property registration reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 5.2)? Table 5.2 How has made registering property easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year Reform DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 No reform as measured by Doing Business. The Municipal Deed Registry Office increased efficiency of internal organization and management. As a result, the time required it to issue the original sale deed decreased from 360 to 180 days, bringing the total time to register property in the country from 425 to 245 days. No reform as measured by Doing Business. reduced the property transfer tax to 6.7% of the property value. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2005), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

48 48 REGISTERING PROPERTY What are the details? The indicators reported here are based on a set of specific procedures the steps that a buyer and seller must complete to transfer the property to the buyer s name identified by Doing Business through information collected from local property lawyers, notaries and property registries. These procedures are those that apply to a transaction matching the standard assumptions used by Doing Business in collecting the data (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators cover). STANDARD PROPERTY TRANSFER City: Dhaka Property Value: BDT 1,614,822 The procedures, along with the associated time and cost, are summarized below. Summary of procedures for registering property in and the time and cost No. Procedure * Verify the record of rights from the Land Office (also known as Land Revenue Office) Time to complete Cost to complete 1 Parties check that land tax payments are up to date. The Land Administration system in separates Records of Ownership and Records on Revenue as such: Land Records Office for land records, surveys, publication and maintenance of records under the directorate of land records and survey (Ministry of Land) Land Office or Land Revenue Office under Ministry of Land. There are 11 administrative offices in each upajela (sub district) There are 64 districts in but 61 registration districts. Three hill districts do not have registration centres. In Dhaka, the district land registration office has 13 subregistrar offices under the Ministry of Law days (simultaneous with Procedures 2 and 3) BDT 3,000-6,000 * Conduct RS Mutation on property 2 Since the last survey on Dhaka was done, transfers of property titles created before then must be converted (mutated) to the new survey. Since January 2012 in Dhaka instead of conducting RS Mutation, City surveys are conducted. This is done by the Assistant Commissioner of Lands (Tahsil) and Specific Tahsil Office. In order to obtain this, an days application is required to be made to the concerned Assistant (simultaneous with Commissioner of Land with particulars of the property. The Assistant Procedures 1 and 3) Commissioner forwards the same to the Tahsil Office, who are responsible for conducting the relevant survey and providing a report to Assistant Commissioner of Land. Upon receiving the report, the Assistant Commissioner of Land renders the mutation certificate. The inspection is noted in Procedure 3. From January, all properties automatically come under City Survey Khatian. BDT 6,000-15,000 3 * Obtain inspection for RS Mutation days Included in

49 49 No. Procedure Time to complete Cost to complete The permission is only mandatory when the property is under the control of either the Ministry of Works (National Housing Authority) or RAJUK (Dhaka Improvement Trust since 1952 until it was renamed Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkh RAJUK in 1982). (simultaneous with Procedures 1 and 2) Procedure 2 Although the permission is usually always granted, unofficial payments are still paid in order to expedite the process and guarantee approval, which amount to BDT 20, The buyer also checks that the property is up to date with payments to the City Corporation Revenue Department, gas utility service, electricity utility service, and the water utility service to make sure that there is no outstanding dues payable so that the those liabilities do not transfer to him. Each of these checks will cost around BDT These are standard steps customary in and not mandatory for registration. Obtain the non-encumbrance certificate from the relevant Subregistry office 4 The buyer checks the legal status of the land (mortgaged or leased or ownership) at the relevant Sub-registry. From January 2012 both Subregistry and Land Revenue Office provide non-encumbrance certificate. Sometimes land report is required. A land report gives an idea about the current situation and ownership of the land that may include chain of ownership, land tax, land record, registry status etc. Whereas a nonencumbrance certificate is used in property transactions as an evidence of free title/ownership days BDT 1,000-1,500 Prepare deed of transfer and pay stamp duty 5 A lawyer may prepare the transfer deed, but it can be prepared by the parties themselves. If a lawyer does it, the fees will be around BDT 6, The deed must be prepared in stamped paper that will cost 3% of the property value to get it. This represents the stamp duty. 1 day 3% of property value (Stamp duty) Pay capital gains tax, registration fee, VAT and other taxes at a designated bank 6 Registration fee: 2% (the fee is payable to the Bank in favor of the subregistry office and the receipt is to be presented at the moment of applying for registration) Local Government Tax: 1% Also, a Capital Gains Tax (CGT) of 2% (applicable to land above Takas, irrespective of when the transfer was made) and a VAT of 1.5% (applicable only for municipal corporation area payable by private housing and flat developers and commercial businesses) have to be paid at this stage. Capitol Gains Tax is not applicable in rural areas for agriculture. 1 day Local government tax (1%) + registration fee (2%) of property value

50 50 No. Procedure * Apply for registration at the relevant Sub-registry Time to complete Cost to complete 7 The buyer applies for registration at the Municipal Deed Registry Office, presenting the receipts of payment for the registration fees obtained in Procedure 6. A certified registration document is obtained within a week for the buyer s record. The original sale deed/certificate requires about 6 months to be obtained. 180 days (simultaneous with Procedure 8) Already paid in Procedure 6 * Register the change in ownership at the Land Revenue Office 8 The change of ownership must be registered in the Land Revenue Office. The property is recorded under the name of the new owner, who is responsible for paying the land taxes from the day it is transferred days (simultaneous with Procedure 7) BDT 5,000 * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

51 51 GETTING CREDIT Two types of frameworks can facilitate access to credit and improve its allocation: credit information systems and the legal rights of borrowers and lenders in collateral and bankruptcy laws. Credit information systems enable lenders to view a potential borrower s financial history (positive or negative) valuable information to consider when assessing risk. And they permit borrowers to establish a good credit history that will allow easier access to credit. Sound collateral laws enable businesses to use their assets, especially movable property, as security to generate capital while strong creditors rights have been associated with higher ratios of private sector credit to GDP. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business assesses the sharing of credit information and the legal rights of borrowers and lenders with respect to secured transactions through 2 sets of indicators. The depth of credit information index measures rules and practices affecting the coverage, scope and accessibility of credit information available through a public credit registry or a private credit bureau. The strength of legal rights index measures whether certain features that facilitate lending exist within the applicable collateral and bankruptcy laws. Doing Business uses case scenarios to determine the scope of the secured transactions system, involving a secured borrower and a secured lender and examining legal restrictions on the use of movable collateral. These scenarios assume that the borrower: Is a private, limited liability company. Has its headquarters and only base of operations in the largest business city. WHAT THE GETTING CREDIT INDICATORS MEASURE Strength of legal rights index (0 10) Protection of rights of borrowers and lenders through collateral laws Protection of secured creditors rights through bankruptcy laws Depth of credit information index (0 6) Scope and accessibility of credit information distributed by public credit registries and private credit bureaus Public credit registry coverage (% of adults) Number of individuals and firms listed in public credit registry as percentage of adult population Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults) Number of individuals and firms listed in largest private credit bureau as percentage of adult population Has 100 employees. Is 100% domestically owned, as is the lender. The ranking on the ease of getting credit is based on the percentile rankings on the sum of its component indicators: the depth of credit information index and the strength of legal rights index.

52 52 GETTING CREDIT Where does the economy stand today? How well do the credit information system and collateral and bankruptcy laws in facilitate access to credit? The economy has a score of 2 on the depth of credit information index and a score of 7 on the strength of legal rights index (see the summary of scoring at the end of this chapter for details). Higher scores indicate more credit information and stronger legal rights for borrowers and lenders. Globally, stands at 83 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of getting credit (figure 6.1). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing how well regulations and institutions in support lending and borrowing. Figure 6.1 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of getting credit

53 53 GETTING CREDIT What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how well the credit information system and collateral and bankruptcy laws in support lending and borrowing today, data over time can help show where institutions and regulations have been strengthened and where they have not (table 6.1). That can help identify where the potential for improvement is greatest. Table 6.1 The ease of getting credit in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2005 DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Public registry coverage (% of adults) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year.

54 54 GETTING CREDIT One way to put an economy s score on the getting credit indicators into context is to see where the economy stands in the distribution of scores across economies. Figure 6.2 highlights the score on the strength of legal rights index for in 2012 and shows the number of economies with this score in 2012 as well as the regional average score. Figure 6.3 shows the same thing for the depth of credit information index. Figure 6.2 How strong are legal rights for borrowers and lenders? Number of economies with each score on strength of legal rights index (0 10), 2012 Figure 6.3 How much credit information is shared and how widely? Number of economies with each score on depth of credit information index (0 6), 2012 Note: Higher scores indicate that collateral and bankruptcy laws are better designed to facilitate access to credit. Note: Higher scores indicate the availability of more credit information, from either a public credit registry or a private credit bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Regional averages for the depth of credit information index exclude economies with no public registry or private bureau.

55 55 GETTING CREDIT When economies strengthen the legal rights of lenders and borrowers under collateral and bankruptcy laws, and increase the scope, coverage and accessibility of credit information, they can increase entrepreneurs access to credit. What credit reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 6.2)? Table 6.2 How has made getting credit easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year Reform DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. DB2013 improved access to credit information by establishing an online platform for sharing such information. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2005), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

56 56 GETTING CREDIT What are the details? The getting credit indicators reported here for are based on detailed information collected in that economy. The data on credit information sharing are collected through a survey of a public credit registry or private credit bureau (if one exists). To construct the depth of credit information index, a score of 1 is assigned for each of 6 features of the public credit registry or private credit bureau (see summary of scoring below). The data on the legal rights of borrowers and lenders are gathered through a survey of financial lawyers and verified through analysis of laws and regulations as well as public sources of information on collateral and bankruptcy laws. For the strength of legal rights index, a score of 1 is assigned for each of 8 aspects related to legal rights in collateral law and 2 aspects in bankruptcy law. Summary of scoring for the getting credit indicators in Indicator South Asia average OECD high income average Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Public registry coverage (% of adults) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Note: In cases where an economy s regional classification is OECD high income, regional averages above are only displayed once. Regional averages for the depth of credit information index exclude economies with no public registry or private bureau. Regional averages for the public registry coverage exclude economies with no public registry. Regional averages for the private bureau coverage exclude economies with no private bureau. Strength of legal rights index (0 10) Index score: 7 Can any business use movable assets as collateral while keeping possession of the assets; and any financial institution accept such assets as collateral? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in a single category of movable assets, without requiring a specific description of collateral? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in substantially all of its assets, without requiring a specific description of collateral? May a security right extend to future or after-acquired assets, and may it extend automatically to the products, proceeds or replacements of the original assets? Is a general description of debts and obligations permitted in collateral agreements; can all types of debts and obligations be secured between parties; and can the collateral agreement include a maximum amount for which the assets are encumbered? Is a collateral registry in operation, that is unified geographically and by asset type, with an electronic database indexed by debtor's names? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

57 57 Strength of legal rights index (0 10) Index score: 7 Are secured creditors paid first (i.e. before general tax claims and employee claims) when a debtor defaults outside an insolvency procedure? Are secured creditors paid first (i.e. before general tax claims and employee claims) when a business is liquidated? Are secured creditors either not subject to an automatic stay or moratorium on enforcement procedures when a debtor enters a court-supervised reorganization procedure, or the law provides secured creditors with grounds for relief from an automatic stay or Does the law allow parties to agree in a collateral agreement that the lender may enforce its security right out of court, at the time a security interest is created? Yes No No Yes Depth of credit information index (0 6) Private credit bureau Public credit registry Index score: 2 Are data on both firms and individuals distributed? No Yes 1 Are both positive and negative data distributed? No Yes 1 Does the registry distribute credit information from retailers, trade creditors or utility companies as well as financial institutions? Are more than 2 years of historical credit information distributed? Is data on all loans below 1% of income per capita distributed? Is it guaranteed by law that borrowers can inspect their data in the largest credit registry? No No 0 No No 0 No No 0 No No 0 Note: An economy receives a score of 1 if there is a "yes" to either private bureau or public registry. Coverage Private credit bureau Public credit registry Number of firms 0 354,846 Number of individuals 0 447,040

58 58 PROTECTING INVESTORS Investor protections matter for the ability of companies to raise the capital they need to grow, innovate, diversify and compete. If the laws do not provide such protections, investors may be reluctant to invest unless they become the controlling shareholders. Strong regulations clearly define related-party transactions, promote clear and efficient disclosure requirements, require shareholder participation in major decisions of the company and set clear standards of accountability for company insiders. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business measures the strength of minority shareholder protections against directors use of corporate assets for personal gain or self-dealing. The indicators distinguish 3 dimensions of investor protections: transparency of related-party transactions (extent of disclosure index), liability for self-dealing (extent of director liability index) and shareholders ability to sue officers and directors for misconduct (ease of shareholder suits index). The ranking on the strength of investor protection index is the simple average of the percentile rankings on these 3 indices. To make the data comparable across economies, a case study uses several assumptions about the business and the transaction. The business (Buyer): Is a publicly traded corporation listed on the economy s most important stock exchange (or at least a large private company with multiple shareholders). Has a board of directors and a chief executive officer (CEO) who may legally act on behalf of Buyer where permitted, even if this is not specifically required by law. The transaction involves the following details: Mr. James, a director and the majority shareholder of the company, proposes that WHAT THE PROTECTING INVESTORS INDICATORS MEASURE Extent of disclosure index (0 10) Who can approve related-party transactions Disclosure requirements in case of relatedparty transactions Extent of director liability index (0 10) Ability of shareholders to hold interested parties and members of the approving body liable in case of related-party transactions Available legal remedies (damages, repayment of profits, fines, imprisonment and rescission of the transaction) Ability of shareholders to sue directly or derivatively Ease of shareholder suits index (0 10) Access to internal corporate documents (directly or through a government inspector) Documents and information available during trial Strength of investor protection index (0 10) Simple average of the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits indices the company purchase used trucks from another company he owns. The price is higher than the going price for used trucks, but the transaction goes forward. All required approvals are obtained, and all required disclosures made, though the transaction is prejudicial to Buyer. Shareholders sue the interested parties and the members of the board of directors.

59 59 PROTECTING INVESTORS Where does the economy stand today? How strong are investor protections in? The economy has a score of 6.7 on the strength of investor protection index, with a higher score indicating stronger protections (see the summary of scoring at the end of this chapter for details). Globally, stands at 25 in the ranking of 185 economies on the strength of investor protection index (figure 7.1). While the indicator does not measure all aspects related to the protection of minority investors, a higher ranking does indicate that an economy s regulations offer stronger investor protections against self-dealing in the areas measured. Figure 7.1 How and comparator economies rank on the strength of investor protection index

60 60 PROTECTING INVESTORS What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how well regulations in protect minority investors today, data over time show whether the protections have been strengthened (table 7.1). And the global ranking on the strength of investor protection index over time shows whether the economy is slipping behind other economies in investor protections or surpassing them. Table 7.1 The strength of investor protections in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Extent of director liability index (0-10) Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) Strength of investor protection index (0-10) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year.

61 61 PROTECTING INVESTORS One way to put an economy s scores on the protecting investors indicators into context is to see where the economy stands in the distribution of scores across economies. Figure 7.2 highlights the score on the extent of disclosure index for in 2012 and shows the number of economies with this score in 2012 as well as the regional average score. Figure 7.3 shows the same thing for the extent of director liability index, and figure 7.4 for the ease of shareholder suits index. Figure 7.2 How strong are disclosure requirements? Number of economies with each score on extent of disclosure index (0 10), 2012 Figure 7.3 How strong is the liability regime for directors? Number of economies with each score on extent of director liability index (0 10), 2012 Note: Higher scores indicate greater disclosure. Note: Higher scores indicate greater liability of directors. No economy receives a score of 10 on the extent of director liability index.

62 62 PROTECTING INVESTORS Figure 7.4 How easy is access to internal corporate documents? Number of economies with each score on ease of shareholder suits index (0 10), 2012 Note: Higher scores indicate greater powers of shareholders to challenge the transaction.

63 63 PROTECTING INVESTORS The scores recorded over time for on the strength of investor protection index may also be revealing (figure 7.5). Equally interesting may be the changes over time in the regional average score on this index. Figure 7.5 Have investor protections become stronger over time? Strength of investor protection index (0 10) Note: The higher the score, the stronger the investor protections.

64 64 PROTECTING INVESTORS Economies with the strongest protections of minority investors from self-dealing require more disclosure and define clear duties for directors. They also have well-functioning courts and up-to-date procedural rules that give minority investors the means to prove their case and obtain a judgment within a reasonable time. So reforms to strengthen investor protections may move ahead on different fronts such as through new or amended company laws or civil procedure rules. What investor protection reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 7.2)? Table 7.2 How has strengthened investor protections or not? By Doing Business report year DB year DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Reform No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2006), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

65 65 PROTECTING INVESTORS What are the details? The protecting investors indicators reported here for are based on detailed information collected through a survey of corporate and securities lawyers as well as on securities regulations, company laws and court rules of evidence. To construct the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits indices, a score is assigned for each of a range of conditions relating to disclosure, director liability and shareholder suits in a standard case study transaction (see the notes at the end of this chapter). The summary below shows the details underlying the scores for. Summary of scoring for the protecting investors indicators in Indicator South Asia average OECD high income average Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Extent of director liability index (0-10) Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) Strength of investor protection index (0-10) Note: In cases where an economy s regional classification is OECD high income, regional averages above are only displayed once. Score Score description Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 6 What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? 2 Board of directors and Mr. James is not allowed to vote Whether disclosure of the conflict of interest by Mr. James to the board of directors is required? Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public and/or shareholders is required? 2 Full disclosure of all material facts 0 No disclosure obligation Whether disclosure of the transaction in published periodic filings (annual reports) is required? 2 Disclosure on the transaction and Mr. James' conflict of interest Whether an external body must review the terms of the transaction before it takes place? 0 No Extent of director liability index (0-10) 7 Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? 1 Yes

66 66 Score Score description Whether shareholders can hold Mr. James liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether shareholders can hold members of the approving body liable for the damage that the Buyer- Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff? Liable for negligence or influencing the approval of the transaction Liable for unfair/oppressive transaction or prejudicial to minority shareholders Possible when the transaction is oppressive or prejudicial to minority shareholders Whether Mr. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff? Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff? Whether fines and imprisonment can be applied against Mr. James? 1 Yes 1 Yes 0 No Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 7 Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can inspect transaction documents before filing suit? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can request an inspector to investigate the transaction? 1 Yes 1 Yes Whether the plaintiff can obtain any documents from the defendant and witnesses during trial? 3 Any information that is relevant to the subject matter of the claim Whether the plaintiff can request categories of documents from the defendant without identifying specific ones? Whether the plaintiff can directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial? Whether the level of proof required for civil suits is lower than that of criminal cases? 1 Yes 0 No 1 Yes Strength of investor protection index (0-10) 6.7

67 67 PAYING TAXES Taxes are essential. They fund the public amenities, infrastructure and services that are crucial for a properly functioning economy. But the level of tax rates needs to be carefully chosen and needless complexity in tax rules avoided. According to Doing Business data, in economies where it is more difficult and costly to pay taxes, larger shares of economic activity end up in the informal sector where businesses pay no taxes at all. What do the indicators cover? Using a case scenario, Doing Business measures the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay in a given year as well as the administrative burden of paying taxes and contributions. This case scenario uses a set of financial statements and assumptions about transactions made over the year. Information is also compiled on the frequency of filing and payments as well as time taken to comply with tax laws. The ranking on the ease of paying taxes is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: number of annual payments, time and total tax rate, with a threshold being applied to the total tax rate. 1 To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the business and the taxes and contributions are used. TaxpayerCo is a medium-size business that started operations on January 1, The business starts from the same financial position in each economy. All the taxes and mandatory contributions paid during the second year of operation are recorded. Taxes and mandatory contributions are measured at all levels of government. WHAT THE PAYING TAXES INDICATORS MEASURE Tax payments for a manufacturing company in 2011 (number per year adjusted for electronic or joint filing and payment) Total number of taxes and contributions paid, including consumption taxes (value added tax, sales tax or goods and service tax) Method and frequency of filing and payment Time required to comply with 3 major taxes (hours per year) Collecting information and computing the tax payable Completing tax return forms, filing with proper agencies Arranging payment or withholding Preparing separate tax accounting books, if required Total tax rate (% of profit before all taxes) Profit or corporate income tax Social contributions and labor taxes paid by the employer Property and property transfer taxes Dividend, capital gains and financial transactions taxes Waste collection, vehicle, road and other taxes Taxes and mandatory contributions include corporate income tax, turnover tax and all labor taxes and contributions paid by the company. A range of standard deductions and exemptions are also recorded. 1 The threshold is defined as the highest total tax rate among the top 15% of economies in the ranking on the total tax rate. It is calculated and adjusted on a yearly basis. The threshold is not based on any economic theory of an optimal tax rate that minimizes distortions or maximizes efficiency in the tax system of an economy overall. Instead, it is mainly empirical in nature, set at the lower end of the distribution of tax rates levied on medium-size enterprises in the manufacturing sector as observed through the paying taxes indicators. This reduces the bias in the indicators toward economies that do not need to levy significant taxes on companies like the Doing Business standardized case study company because they raise public revenue in other ways for example, through taxes on foreign companies, through taxes on sectors other than manufacturing or from natural resources (all of which are outside the scope of the methodology). This year s threshold is 25.7%.

68 68 PAYING TAXES Where does the economy stand today? What is the administrative burden of complying with taxes in and how much do firms pay in taxes? On average, firms make 20 tax payments a year, spend 302 hours a year filing, preparing and paying taxes and pay total taxes amounting to 35.0% of profit (see the summary at the end of this chapter for details). Globally, stands at 97 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of paying taxes (figure 8.1). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing the tax compliance burden for businesses in. Figure 8.1 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of paying taxes Note: DB2013 rankings reflect changes to the methodology. For all economies with a total tax rate below the threshold of 25.7% applied in DB2013, the total tax rate is set at 25.7% for the purpose of calculating the ranking on the ease of paying taxes.

69 69 PAYING TAXES What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how easy (or difficult) it is to comply with tax rules in today, data over time show which aspects of the process have changed and which have not (table 8.1). That can help identify where the potential for easing tax compliance is greatest. Table 8.1 The ease of paying taxes in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Total tax rate (% profit) Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year. DB2013 rankings reflect changes to the methodology. For all economies with a total tax rate below the threshold of 25.7% applied in DB2013, the total tax rate is set at 25.7% for the purpose of calculating the ranking on the ease of paying taxes.

70 70 PAYING TAXES Equally helpful may be the benchmarks provided by the economies that over time have had the best performance regionally or globally on the number of payments or the time required to prepare and file taxes (figure 8.2). These benchmarks help show what is possible in easing the administrative burden of tax compliance. And changes in regional averages can show where is keeping up and where it is falling behind. Figure 8.2 Has paying taxes become easier over time? Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year)

71 71 PAYING TAXES Total tax rate (% of profit)

72 72 PAYING TAXES Economies around the world have made paying taxes faster and easier for businesses such as by consolidating filings, reducing the frequency of payments or offering electronic filing and payment. Many have lowered tax rates. Changes have brought concrete results. Some economies simplifying tax payment and reducing rates have seen tax revenue rise. What tax reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 8.2)? Table 8.2 How has made paying taxes easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Reform made it more costly for company to pay taxes by increasing the corporate income tax rate. No reform as measured by Doing Business. eased the burden of paying taxes on businesses by reducing the corporate income tax rate to 37.5% from 40%, while the capital gains tax rate increased from 5% to 15%. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2006), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

73 73 PAYING TAXES What are the details? The indicators reported here for are based on a standard set of taxes and contributions that would be paid by the case study company used by Doing Business in collecting the data (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators cover). Tax practitioners are asked to review standard financial statements as well as a standard list of transactions that the company completed during the year. Respondents are asked how much in taxes and mandatory contributions the business must pay and what the process is for doing so. LOCATION OF STANDARDIZED COMPANY City: Dhaka The taxes and contributions paid are listed in the summary below, along with the associated number of payments, time and tax rate. Summary of tax rates and administrative burden in Indicator South Asia average OECD high income average Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Profit tax (%) Labor tax and contributions (%) Other taxes (%) Total tax rate (% profit) Note: In cases where an economy s regional classification is OECD high income, regional averages above are only displayed once. Tax or mandatory contribution Payments (number) Notes on payments Time (hours) Statutory tax rate Tax base Total tax rate (% of profit) Notes on total tax rate Corporate income tax % taxable profit 25 Municipal tax (property tax) % rental value 9.2 Capital gains tax 0 paid jointly 0 15% capital gains 0.8 Tax on interest 0 withheld 0 10% interest income 0.3 included in other taxes

74 74 Tax or mandatory contribution Payments (number) Notes on payments Time (hours) Statutory tax rate Tax base Total tax Notes on rate (% of total tax rate profit) Stamp duty on contracts 1 0 varies Vehicle tax 1 0 type of contract fixed fee depending on type of vehicle 0 small amount 0 small amount Value added tax (VAT) % value added 0 not included Totals

75 75 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS In today s globalized world, making trade between economies easier is increasingly important for business. Excessive document requirements, burdensome customs procedures, inefficient port operations and inadequate infrastructure all lead to extra costs and delays for exporters and importers, stifling trade potential. Research shows that exporters in developing countries gain more from a 10% drop in their trading costs than from a similar reduction in the tariffs applied to their products in global markets. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business measures the time and cost (excluding tariffs and the time and cost for sea transport) associated with exporting and importing a standard shipment of goods by sea transport, and the number of documents necessary to complete the transaction. The indicators cover procedural requirements such as documentation requirements and procedures at customs and other regulatory agencies as well as at the port. They also cover trade logistics, including the time and cost of inland transport to the largest business city. The ranking on the ease of trading across borders is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: documents, time and cost to export and import. To make the data comparable across economies, Doing Business uses several assumptions about the business and the traded goods. The business: Is of medium size and employs 60 people. Is located in the periurban area of the economy s largest business city. Is a private, limited liability company, domestically owned, formally registered and operating under commercial laws and regulations of the economy. The traded goods: Are not hazardous nor do they include military items. WHAT THE TRADING ACROSS BORDERS INDICATORS MEASURE Documents required to export and import (number) Bank documents Customs clearance documents Port and terminal handling documents Transport documents Time required to export and import (days) Obtaining, filling out and submitting all the documents Inland transport and handling Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Does not include sea transport time Cost required to export and import (US$ per container) All documentation Inland transport and handling Customs clearance and inspections Port and terminal handling Official costs only, no bribes Do not require refrigeration or any other special environment. Do not require any special phytosanitary or environmental safety standards other than accepted international standards. Are one of the economy s leading export or import products. Are transported in a dry-cargo, 20-foot full container load.

76 76 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS Where does the economy stand today? What does it take to export or import in? According to data collected by Doing Business, exporting a standard container of goods requires 6 documents, takes 25 days and costs $1025. Importing the same container of goods requires 8 documents, takes 34 days and costs $1430 (see the summary of procedures and documents at the end of this chapter for details). Globally, stands at 119 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of trading across borders (figure 9.1). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful information for assessing how easy it is for a business in to export and import goods. Figure 9.1 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of trading across borders

77 77 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS What are the changes over time? While the most recent Doing Business data reflect how easy (or difficult) it is to export or import in today, data over time show which aspects of the process have changed and which have not (table 9.1). That can help identify where the potential for improvement is greatest. Table 9.1 The ease of trading across borders in over time By Doing Business report year Indicator DB2006 DB2007 DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Rank Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number) , Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container) 1,287 1,287 1,148 1,290 1,290 1,305 1,370 1,430 Note: n.a. = not applicable (the economy was not included in Doing Business for that year). DB2012 rankings shown are not last year s published rankings but comparable rankings for DB2012 that capture the effects of such factors as data corrections and the addition of 2 economies (Barbados and Malta) to the sample this year.

78 78 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS Equally helpful may be the benchmarks provided by the economies that over time have had the best performance regionally or globally on the documents, time or cost required to export or import (figure 9.2). These benchmarks help show what is possible in making it easier to trade across borders. And changes in regional averages can show where is keeping up and where it is falling behind. Figure 9.2 Has trading across borders become easier over time? Documents to export (number) Time to export (days)

79 79 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number)

80 80 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container)

81 81 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS In economies around the world, trading across borders as measured by Doing Business has become faster and easier over the years. Governments have introduced tools to facilitate trade including single windows, risk-based inspections and electronic data interchange systems. These changes help improve the trading environment and boost firms international competitiveness. What trade reforms has Doing Business recorded in (table 9.2)? Table 9.2 How has made trading across borders easier or not? By Doing Business report year DB year DB2008 DB2009 DB2010 DB2011 DB2012 DB2013 Reform No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. The automation of customs clearance procedures at the Chittagong port of have decreased the time required to clear goods. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. No reform as measured by Doing Business. Note: For information on reforms in earlier years (back to DB2006), see the Doing Business reports for these years, available at

82 82 TRADING ACROSS BORDERS What are the details? The indicators reported here for are based on a set of specific procedural requirements for trading a standard shipment of goods by ocean transport (see the section in this chapter on what the indicators cover). Information on the procedures as well as the required documents and the time and cost to complete each procedure is collected from local freight forwarders, shipping lines, customs brokers, port officials and banks. LOCATION OF STANDARDIZED COMPANY City: Dhaka The procedural requirements, and the associated time and cost, for exporting and importing a standard shipment of goods are listed in the summary below, along with the required documents. Summary of procedures and documents for trading across borders in Indicator South Asia average OECD high income average Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) 1,025 1,603 1,028 Documents to import (number) Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container) 1,430 1,736 1,080 Note: In cases where an economy s regional classification is OECD high income, regional averages above are only displayed once. Procedures to export Time (days) Cost (US$) Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals 25 1,025 Procedures to import Time (days) Cost (US$) Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control 3 150

83 83 Procedures to import Time (days) Cost (US$) Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals 34 1,430 Documents to export Bill of Lading Certificate of origin Commercial Invoice Customs export declaration Packing list Pre-shipment inspection clean report of findings Documents to import Bill of lading Cargo release order Certificate of origin Commercial invoice Customs import declaration Packing list Technical standard/health certificate Terminal handling receipts

84 84 ENFORCING CONTRACTS Well-functioning courts help businesses expand their network and markets. Without effective contract enforcement, people might well do business only with family, friends and others with whom they have established relationships. Where contract enforcement is efficient, firms are more likely to engage with new borrowers or customers, and they have greater access to credit. What do the indicators cover? Doing Business measures the efficiency of the judicial system in resolving a commercial dispute before local courts. Following the step-by-step evolution of a standardized case study, it collects data relating to the time, cost and procedural complexity of resolving a commercial lawsuit. The ranking on the ease of enforcing contracts is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators: procedures, time and cost. The dispute in the case study involves the breach of a sales contract between 2 domestic businesses. The case study assumes that the court hears an expert on the quality of the goods in dispute. This distinguishes the case from simple debt enforcement. To make the data comparable across economies, Doing Business uses several assumptions about the case: The seller and buyer are located in the economy s largest business city. The buyer orders custom-made goods, then fails to pay. The seller sues the buyer before a competent court. The value of the claim is 200% of income per capita. The seller requests a pretrial attachment to secure the claim. WHAT THE ENFORCING CONTRACTS INDICATORS MEASURE Procedures to enforce a contract through the courts (number) Any interaction between the parties in a commercial dispute, or between them and the judge or court officer Steps to file and serve the case Steps for trial and judgment Steps to enforce the judgment Time required to complete procedures (calendar days) Time to file and serve the case Time for trial and obtaining judgment Time to enforce the judgment Cost required to complete procedures (% of claim) No bribes Average attorney fees Court costs Enforcement costs The dispute on the quality of the goods requires an expert opinion. The judge decides in favor of the seller; there is no appeal. The seller enforces the judgment through a public sale of the buyer s movable assets.

85 85 ENFORCING CONTRACTS Where does the economy stand today? How efficient is the process of resolving a commercial dispute through the courts in? According to data collected by Doing Business, enforcing a contract takes 1442 days, costs 63.3% of the value of the claim and requires 41 procedures (see the summary at the end of this chapter for details). Globally, stands at 182 in the ranking of 185 economies on the ease of enforcing contracts (figure 10.1). The rankings for comparator economies and the regional average ranking provide other useful benchmarks for assessing the efficiency of contract enforcement in. Figure 10.1 How and comparator economies rank on the ease of enforcing contracts

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