Arabic Grammar Rules for Madeenah Book One

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1 ب س م ا ه لل الر ح من الر ح ي م Arabic Grammar Rules for Madeenah Book One The three vowel markings ال ح ر ك ات الث الث ة kasrah - - ض م ة mmmhddh ف ت ح ة - fathah ك س ر ة (i) (u) (a) Sukoon س ك و ن - shaddah ه ش د ة - الت ن و ي ن at-tanween: (un) (in) (an) - fathataan - dhammataan kasrataan - ف ت ح تا ن ض م ت ان ك س ر ت ان When vowel markings are doubled at the end of a word they are called (tanween). The additional vowel at the end of a word represents a ت ن و ي ن e.g. is not written but is only pronounced. ن (noon saakinah). The ن م س ج د - م س ج د ن The Arabic language is made up of ك ل م ات (words) and these words are of three types they are known as: ح ر ف - rhprel/alcarrap ف ع ل - ذ ه ب - e/ oanrtlr/ إ لى- to ا س م - Noun blre/nliapa ب ي ت- m/uoa 1

2 Latanran: ea oanr r/ h m/uoa The table below shows the properties of an ا س م (noun): ال ج م ل ة : ذ ه ب إ ل ى ب ي ت Examples Translation Properties م ذ ك ر م ؤ ن ث Masculine, feminine ط ال ب ط ال ب ة م ف ر د م ث ن ى ج م ع Singular, dual, plural ط ال ب ط ال ب ان ط ال ب ع اق ل غ ي ر ع اق ل Intellect, non-intellect ط ال ب ب ي ت ن ك ر ة م ع ر ف ة Indefinite, definite ط ال ب الط ال ب is when an ism is indefinite or not specific, it is general i.e., the ن ك ر ة ism ك ت اب a book this can be any book from the different types of books. is when an ism is definite or specific, it is not general i.e., the م ع ر ف ة ism ال ك ت اب the book or ك ت اب م ح م د Muhammad s book, here the book is a particular book not just any book in general. An ism in the Arabic language can be م ث ن ى (dual) meaning it shows upon ان means two students this is done by adding ط ال ب ان two i.e., the ism (alif and noon)at the end of an ism. An ism can be ع اق ل possess intellect such as humans, angels and jinns or it can be غ ي ر ع اق ل possess no intellect such as animals, objects, trees e.t.c. The أ ص ل (Asl) origin of an ism is that it carries ض م ت ان - two dhammas (tanween) on the last letter of the word. The tanween generally is also a sign showing that the ism is ن ك ر ة (indefinite), however there is an exception to this because you will find that Arabic male names such as م ح م د ع ب اس accept tanween but they are م ع ر ف ة (definite). The tanween is the Arabic indefinite article corresponding to the English a / an. 2

3 الد ر س األ و ل( ١ ) This is a house ت ي ه ذ ا carrap r/ APene r/ hrranre/n /P h/apr ه ا - ح ر ف ل لت ن ب ي ه is a letter that is used to alert or to bring to attention the ح ر ف ل لت ن ب ي ه أ س م اء person who is being addressed and it is mostly connected to indication). (nouns of اإل ش ار ة ذ ا - noun of indication ا س م اإل ش ار ة alif. but it is written without the first,ه اذ ا is pronounced as ه ذ ا The ا س م اإل ش ار ة is used to point or indicate to people, animals, objects things which can be felt or touched and can also indicate to things that have meaning such as ر أ ي opinion or ع ل م knowledge. ن اف ع ه ذ ا مل ع emeo eo AanaieLeh/ bn/o/amea ا س م اإل ش ار ة )ه ذ ا ( The table below shows the properties of the Indicates,points to the near The masculine the singular اإل ش ار ة إ ل ى ال ق ر ي ب ال م ذ ك ر ال م ف ر د The ا س م اإل ش ار ة is م ع ر ف ة (definite). 3

4 It can be used to indicate or point to those possessing intellect ع اق ل or.غ ي ر ع اق ل things that do not possess intellect Interrogative or Questioning Noun ا س م إ س ت ف ه ام م ا- The Interrogative Noun م ا is used to ask a question about something that does not possess intellect غ ي ر ع اق ل and it always comes at the beginning of a sentence. When a word comes at the beginning of a.ص د ر ال ج م ل ة sentence it is called in Arabic ه ذ ا م ا this? What is أ -ح ر ف اإل س ت ف ه ا م ه م ز ة اإل س ت ف ه ا م Particle/Letter of interrogation or questioning or also known as the Interrogative Hamzah. comes at the beginning of the sentence as do all the ه م ز ة اإل س ت ف ه ا م The nouns or particles of questioning. It can be used to ask a question about those possessing intellect as well as the things that do not possess intellect. Is this a house? Is this a boy? أ ه ذ ا أ ه ذ ا ب ي ت و ل د ن ع م -ح ر ف ج و اب Letter of answer or reply Letter/particle of answer and negation ال -ح ر ف ن ف ي و ج و اب The particle of reply ن ع م is used to reply to a question with affirmation whereas the particle ال is used to reply to a question with negation. Is this a pen? nao rmeo eo h san أ ه ذ ا ق ل م ن ع م ه ذ ا ق ل م. 4

5 Is this a shirt? No, this is a pen. أ ه ذ ا ق م ي ص ال ه ذ ا ق ل م Noun of interrogation/questioning م ن ا س م اإل س ت ف ه ام emeo enrapp/ehreha n/un eo uoam r/ hob h tuaore/n ha/ur rm/oa om/ s/ooaoo ع اق ل enra//alr Who is this man? ل ر الا ذ ه م ن - ع ال م ة اإل س ت ف ه ا م Question mark 5

6 )٢( الد ر س الث ان ي ذ ل ك - ة ع ا مس Noun of indication/pointing ه ذا ب ي ت و ذ ل ك This is a house and that is a mosque م س ج د is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to objects or people ذ ل ك that are distant or far. ذ ل ك can be broken down into three parts: Noun of indication ا س م اإل شار ة ذ ا- The laam is for the far/distant Particle of address ل ا لالم ل ل ب ع د ك - ح ر ف خ ط اب Some of the grammarians say that the particle of address also indicates upon far/distant and the shows upon even more or increased furtherness/distance. The letter/particle of address is used if the person /P /AoaLr we are addressing is masculine. :ذ ل ك The table below shows the properties of Indicates,points to The far/distant The masculine the singular اإل ش ار ة إ ل ى ال ب ع ي د ال م ذ ك ر ال م ف ر د All the أ س م اء اإل ش ار ة nouns of indication are م ع ر ف ة definite. alif. but is written without the ذ ال ك is pronounced ذ ل ك 6

7 Some of the grammarians say that the أ س م اء اإل ش ار ة have three levels : ثالث م ر ات ب For the near/close ه ذ ا ل لق ر ي ب For the far/distant For the middle between near and far ل ل ب ع ي د ل ل و س ط ذ ل ك - ذ اك - ع ي ج ت م ال ه ا ل لت ن ب ي ه و الم ال ب ع د The particle of alert/bringing to attention and the laam indicating upon the distant or far will never come together in a noun of indication i.e;. أطخ this -ه اذ ل ك is wrong 7

8 )٣( الد ر س الث ال ث ا ل - ح ر ف ت ع ر ي ف (al) Definite Particle The definite particle ا ل is prefixed to an ism which is ن ك ر ة (indefinite) and it causes it to become م ع ر ف ة (definite), and it also causes the tanween at the end to be dropped. The definite particle (al) corresponds to the English the. This is a doctor. The doctor is sitting. ه ذ ا بت ب الط ب ي ب ا را The Arabic alphabet consists of 28 letters. Of these 14 are called Solar Letters ال ح ر و ف الش م س ي ة, and the other 14 are called Lunar Letters. ال ح ر و ف ال ق م ر ي ة In the articulation of the Solar Letters the tip or the blade of the tongue is involved in the pronunciation. The tip or the blade of the tongue does not play any part in the articulation of the Lunar Letters, (refer to lesson 3, pg.19 Madinah bk.1). When ال is prefixed to an ism beginning with a Solar Letter the laam of al is not pronounced but is written, and the first letter of the ism takes a shaddah ه. For example, ا لش م س (ash-shamsu). When ا ل is prefixed to an ism beginning with a Lunar Letter the laam of al is pronounced and written. For example, ا ل ق م ر (al-qamaru). In the definite particle ا ل (al) the ا (a) is known as Connecting Hamzah. the ه م ز ة ال و ص ل If it is not preceded by a word it will be pronounced with the vowel marking - (fathah). If it is preceded by a word it is dropped in pronunciation, though remains in writing. م ث ال: ال ط ال ب ج ال س و ال م د هر س و اق ف The student is sitting and the teacher is standing, (wa l-mudarrisu ). 8

9 ال ج م ل ة اإل س م ي ة ال م ب ت د أ ر ال خ ب and it is made,)ج م ل ة م ف ي د ة ) sentence is a beneficial ا ل ج م ل ة اإل س م ي ة l-khabar). (al-mubtada wa ا ل م ب ت د أ و ال خ ب ر up of 2 parts known as ا ل م ب ت د أ meaning the beginning or ا إل ب ت د اء is from the Arabic word ا ل م ب ت د أ (1) starting, and from its origin is that it comes at the beginning of the sentence. discussion. is an ism that is the subject of talk or ا ل م ب ت د أ (2) (marfoo ) meaning it takes a dhammah or م ر ف و ع is ا ل م ب ت د أ (3) dhammataan on the last letter of the ism. khabar). (the ا ل خ ب ر (origin) precedes أص ل in its ا ل م ب ت د أ (4) (definite). م ع ر ف ة (origin) is أص ل in its ا ل م ب ت د أ (5) ا ل خ ب ر (origin). أص ل in its ا ل م ب ت د أ is that which comes after ا ل خ ب ر (1) and by which it,ا ل م ب ت د أ gives information or news about ا ل خ ب ر (2).ا ل م ب ت د أ completes a benefit with 9

10 (indefinite). ن ك ر ة (origin) is أص ل in its ا ل خ ب ر (3) (marfoo ) meaning it takes a dhammah or م ر ف و ع is ا ل خ ب ر (4) dhammataan on the last letter of the ism. ا ل ج م ل ة اإل س م ي ة ا ل م س ج د لي ب near. The mosque is ا ل خ ب ر ا ل م ب ت د أ 10

11 (٤) ا لد ر س الر اب ع rhprel/a /i thpp ال ج هر ح ر ف - From- ع ل ى On/Above- ف ي - nn م ن ح ر ف ال ج هر only. is a Letter/Particle that enters upon an ism ح ر ف ال ج هر )1( (majroor), م ج ر و ر changes the state of the ism to ح ر ف ال ج هر (2) meaning the ism takes kasrah/kasrataan on the last letter. can have many meanings and its meaning is not known ح ر ف ال ج هر (3) or complete until it enters upon a sentence. Then its exact meaning is known from the context of the sentence. م ر ف و ع ا ل ب ي ت ح ر ف ال ج هر ف ي ال ب ي ت م ج ر و ر ال ب ي ت ف ي م ح م د Muhammad is in the house e/un /i fuaore/nene i/p r/hla أي ن ل ل م كا ن ا س م ا س ت ف ه ام 11

12 is an ism which is used to ask a question about the ا س م ا س ت ف ه ام ل ل م ك ا ن whereabouts of someone/something. Where is the book? ال ك ت اب أي ن It is on the desk/table? ه و ع ل ى ال م ك ت ب ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل ه و - He/It ه ي - nrltma أن ت - You أن ت - You أن ا- I Detached -ا لض م ي ر Pronoun ال م ن ف ص ل is a type of ism that is used to indicate upon the ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل (1) (Speaker). م لكع (Addressed), or the م خ اط ب (Absent), or the غ اء ب it. you can begin a sentence with ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل (2) م ب ت د أ is a type of a ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل (3) (definite). م ع ر ف ة is ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل (4) 5) The dhameer ه و and ه ي can be used for those who possess intellect and things that do not possess intellect. If they are used for the latter they will have the meaning it. 12

13 Where is Aaisha? She is in the room Where is the watch? It is on the bed أي ن ه ي أي ن ه ي ع اء ش ة ف ي ال غ ر ف ة الس اع ة ع ل ى الس ر ي ر The table below shows the properties of الض م اء ر ال م ن ف ص ل ة (the Detached Pronouns): ع د د Number ا لض م ي ر ال م ن ف ص ل Detached Pronoun ملع ي د ل ج ن س Gender ال م ف ر د (1) ال م ذ ك ر eh/a Indicates upon The Absent - nrlea ه و - ال غ اء ب ال م ؤ ن ث Female ال م ف ر د ة (1) ال م ف ر د (1) ال م ف ر د ة (1) ال م ذ ك ر eh/a ال م ؤ ن ث h/amad ال م ذ ك ر و ال م ؤ ن ث ال م ف ر د (1) ه ي - She/It ال غ اء ب ة - Absent The أن ت - You ال م خ اط ب - Addressed The أن ت - You ال م خ اط ب ة - Addressed The The Speaker- ال م ت ك له م I/Me أن ا - 13

14 م م ن و ع م ن الص ر ف ف اط م ة م ر ي م ح م ز ة (Prevented from Tanween) is a eapd that is used م م ن و ع م ن الص ر ف for a particular group of nouns which do not accept tanween and when they are in a state of م ج ر و ر (kasra) they take Fathah. This particular group of nouns further divides up into many categories and from them is the category known in the Arabic language as: ا ل ع ل م ي ة م ع ال هت ه أ ن ي ث ب غ ي ر أل ف Female Names Without Alif This category contains Female Names which do not accept tanween but there is a condition ط' 'ش ر for them not accepting tanween and that is, that the names are made up of more than 3 letters. This category of names is divided up into into 3 types oerm regards to their femininity. الت أن ي ث Femininity- ل ف ظ ي (In)Wording- م ع ن و ي م ع ن و ي و ل فظ ي- (In)Meaning- (In)Meaning and Wording en o/ 9 آم ن ة م ر ي م ز ي ن ب ح م ز ة ط ل ح ة ف اط م ة 14

15 (Round Taa) is a letter that is added at the end of an ism ة م ر ب و ط ة The and it signifies femininity of a word. The diagram above shows that there are 3 categories of femininity in female names without alif: 1) In wording and meaning - names which are feminine in their wording i.e. they end in taa marboota and in their meaning i.e. they are names which are used for females. 2) In meaning - names which are used for females but not feminine in wording. 3) In wording - names which are feminine in wording but not meaning, they are names which are used for males. Round )ة Taa) is only to م ر ب و ط ة The origin of nouns ending with the distinguish the feminine from the masculine. And you will mostly find that with the ص ف ات (Adjectives) i.e. ي م ة ك ر ي مlك ر (Generous, Noble). ا ل ف ع ل - Verb/Action The ال ف ع ل األم ر ال ف ع ل ال م اض ي ا ل ف ع ل ال م ض ار ع The Command Verb The Present Verb The Past Verb ك ت ب Wrote- He ي ك ت ب Writes- He ا ك ت ب (you)write!- الت ع ر ي ف Definition: The الف ع ل ال م اض ي- م ا د ل ع ل ى ح د ث و ق ع ف ي الز م ان ال ذ ي ق ب ل ز م ان الت ك ل م. The Past Verb-that which indicates upon an event/happening taking place in the time which is before the time of speaking/conversation. 15

16 أي ن ع ب اس Abbaas? Where is He went to the head teacher ري ر م لي ل ذ ه ب For every action we have a doer or the one who performs the action. In Arabic the doer of the action is called ا ل ف اع ل (al-faa il). الت ع ر ي ف Definition: The ه و اإل س م ا ل ف اع ل ال م ر ف و ع ال م ذ ك و ر ق ب ل ه ف ع ل ه. takes dhammah or ال م ر ف و ع (the Doer) is an ism which is ا ل ف اع ل dhammataan on the last letter and mentioned before it is its ف ع ل verb. م ر ف و ع Haamid went to the mosque ذ ه ب ح ام د إ ل ى ال م س ج د ف ع ل م اض ال ف اع ل م ج ر و ر.ذ ه ب is not always apparent after the verb ا ل ف اع ل You will find that That is because in the past-tense verbs for the Male Absent if ا ل ف اع ل is not apparent then the ض م ي ر (pronoun) ' 'ه و (He) will be.ا ل ف اع ل bnd this dhameer is known as ا لض م ي ر ال م س ت ت ر (The Hidden Dhameer), you will not see it in writing or pronounce it even though it is there. دامل ه أي ن Muhammad? Where is He left from the mosque خ ر ج م ن ال م س ج د 16

17 The four signs of an ism ع الم ات اإل س م) ٤ ( ت ن و ي ن ال ح ر و ف ال ج هر ال ج هر There are 4 signs by which an ism is known, and you will not find these signs entering upon the verbs or particles/letters, so they are specific to أس م اء the nouns. These 4 signs can be used to distinguish between the (nouns) and the أف ع ال (verbs) and ح ر و ف (particles). (1) The first sign is that the ism accepts ت ن و ي ن (tanween). (2) The second sign is that ا ل (alif and laam) can enter upon the ism. (3) The third sign is that ح ر و ف ال ج هر (particles of jarr) can enter upon the ism. (4) The fourth sign is that the ism can take ال ج هر (kasrah/kasrataan) on the last letter. ا ل ت ن و ي ن م ح م د ص ل ى ف ي ال م س ج د Muhammad prayed in the mosque ا ل ج هر ح ر ف ال ج هر (kasrah) 17

18 )٥( الد ر س ال خ ام س ا إل ض اف ة رت ل م ض اف م ض اف ك ت اب م ح م د اإل ض اف ة : ه ي ن س ب ة ب ي ن الس م ي ن ع ل ى ت قد ي ر ح ر ف ال ج هر اإل س م األ و ل ي س م ى م ض اف و اإل س م الث ان ي ي س م ى م ض اف إ ل ي ه. (al-idhaafah) is a relationship between two nouns with a اإل ض اف ة hidden particle of jarr, the first noun is called م ض اف (mudhaaf) and the second noun is called م ض اف إ ل ي ه (mudhaaf ilaih). ت ف ي د ت ع ر ي ف ه ذ ااإل ض اف ة ال م ضاف أ و ت خ ص ي ص ه. This Particular idhaafah gives benefit by giving ت ع ر ي ف (to make definite) to the mudhaaf or ت خ ص ي ص (to narrow down/particularise). Meaning, if the م ض اف إ ل ي ه is م ع ر ف ة (definite) then the م ض اف will م ض اف (indefinite) then the ن ك ر ة is م ض اف إ ل ي ه if the,م ع ر ف ة become will be particularised or not so general but it will not be م ع ر ف ة (definite). م ض اف م ض اف إ ل ي ه This is the teacher s book ك ت اب ال م د هر س ه ذ ا م ع ر ف ة ف لعم 18

19 The Idhafaah construction has a ح ر ف ال ج هر which is omitted/hidden. This ح ر ف ال ج هر gives meaning to the Idhaafah, there are 3 different of) (from/part م ن (in), ف ي (1) have, that an Idhaafah can ح ر و ف ال ج هر and الالم ( ) (for/belonging to). الالم At the moment we have only taken one meaning of the Idhaafah the to/possession. which has the meaning of, for/belonging ح ر ف ال ج هر )ل ( So when we say ك ت اب م ح م د it literally means, the book belongs to.)ك ت اب ل م ح م د( Muhammad or Muhammad s book ح ر ف ال ج هر )الالم( م ت دامل Always Majroor ي ن هو ن ال ال م ض اف إ ل ي ه ا ل م ض اف Does not accept tanween د اء ما م ج ر و ر ال ي قب ل ا ل laam Does not accept alif rmapa( -)/hap ا س م اإل ش ار ة ل ل م ك ان ال ب ع ي د ه ن اك - is a noun which is used to indicate/point to a place that is distant or ه ن اك far. Where is Muhammad s book? It is on the table over there م ث ال:أ ي ن ك ت اب م ح م د ه و ع ل ى ال م ك ت ب ه ن ا ك (under) ا س م ال م ك ان lظ ر ف ال م ك ان )ي ج ر م ا ب ع د ه ( majroor. is a noun of place and the ism that follows it is ا س م ال م ك ان ema Ahe eo unmap rma rha/a ال م ك ت ب ت ح ت ت ح ت - ال ح ق ي ب ة 19

20 ي ا ع ب اس ء ح ر ف النه د ا ال م ن اد ى ع ب اس - ي ا- Abbaas- The one being called O- Particle of calling The particle ي ا (O!) is used when we want to call somebody and the person we are calling is the ism which comes after this particle and it is,ال م ن اد ى (the one being called). There are 5 types of ال م ن اد ى known as we will study 3 for now. ال م ن اد ى )١( ا ل م ف ر د ال ع ل م : ي ا م ح م د ح ام د ع ب ا س The first type is when we call somebody by their name i.e. O Muhammad!, Haamid!, Abbaas!, and so on. )٢( الن ك ر ة ال م قص و د ة : ي ا أس ت اذ ر ج ل The second type is when we call somebody and we intend a particular or specific person i.e. O Teacher!, Man!, and so on. )٣( ا ل م ض اف : ي ا ع ب د ا لل ب ن ت خ ال د The third type is when the one being called is mudhaaf i.e. O Abdallaahi!, O Daughter of Khaalid!, and so on. It is important to note that the first and the second types of م ن اد ى end in one dhamma, not tanween. As for the third type then the Mudhaaf will be letter). (take Fathah on the last م ن ص و ب The words ا س م and ا ب ن begin with hamzatu l-wasl. When preceded by a word the kasrah ( -) is dropped in pronunciation, i.e. ا ب ن ال م د هر س ط ب ي ب و اس م الط ب ي ب ب الل و اب ن ب الل ط ال ب ال م د هر س. 20

21 )٦( الد ر س الس اد س This is an iron م ك و ة ه ذ ه carrap r/ APene r/ hrranre/n /P h/apr ه ا - ح ر ف ل لت ن ب ي ه is a letter that is used to alert or to bring to attention the ح ر ف ل لت ن ب ي ه أ س م اء person who is being addressed and it is mostly connected to indication). (nouns of اإل ش ار ة Noun of Indication ذ ه ا س م اإل ش ار ة alif. but it is written without the first ه اذ ه isه ذ ه pronounced as The ا س م اإل ش ار ة is used to point or indicate to people, animals, objects things which can be felt or touched and can also indicate to things that have meaning such as ق اع د ة principle or ن ص ي ح ة advice. ه ذ ه ن ص ي ح ة ن اف ع ة - beneficial. This advice is.ه ذ ه The table below shows the properties of Indicates,points to the near the feminine the singular or (non-intelligent plurals) اإل ش ار ة إ ل ى ال ق ر ي ب ا ل م ؤ ن ث ال م ف ر د The ا س م اإل ش ار ة is م ع ر ف ة (definite). It can be used to indicate or point to those possessing intellect ع اق ل or.غ ي ر ع اق ل things that do not possess intellect 21

22 -Generally words ending in ة (taa marboota) are regarded as feminine so when we indicate to them we use the اإل ش ار ة ه ذ ه.ا س م However there are exceptions to this, (refer to lesson 4 under types of femininity ). This is a car and this is a bike. :ه ذ ه س ي ا رة م ث ال و ه ذ ه د ر ا جة -Body parts that are in pairs are regarded as feminine. nm rmeo eo hn adaemeo eo hn ahp h أذ ن م ث ال:ه ذ ه و ه ذ ه ع ي ن -Also words which are particular to females are regarded as feminine. أخ ت م ث ال:ه ذ ه ال مه ن د س و ه ذ ه اإلم ا م ب ن ت This is the engineer s sister and this is the imaam s daughter. Particle of Jarr (for, belongs to, ) ح ر ف ال ج هر ل - ا ل ج ر enters upon an ism and causes it to take ل The particle of jarr (kasrah). ل م ن ه ذ ه ه ذ ه Yaasir. Whose is this? This belongs to لي اس ر م ج ر و ر All Praise belongs to Allaah ا ل ح م د لل ه Note that the word ا ه لل becomes لل ه by just dropping the alif and no laam will need to be added to the word. 22

23 ) ٧ (الد ر س الس اب ع Noun of Indication This a doctor and that is a nurse. ت ل ك - ة ع ا مس ه ذ ه ط ب ي ب ة و ت ل ك م م هر ض ة is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to objects or people ت ل ك that are distant/far and feminine. canت ل ك be broken down into three parts: Noun of indication ت ي - ا س م اإل شار ة The laam is for the far/distant Particle of address ل ا لالم ل ل ب ع د ك - ح ر ف خ ط اب Some of the grammarians say that the particle of address also indicates upon far/distant and the shows upon even more or increased furtherness/distance. The letter/particle of address is used if the person /P /AoaLr we are addressing is masculine. :ت ل ك The table below shows the properties of Indicates,points to The far/distant The feminine The singular اإل ش ار ة إ ل ى ال ب ع ي د ا ل م ؤ ن ث ال م ف ر د All the أ س م اء اإل ش ار ة nouns of indication are م ع ر ف ة definite. The letter ي in ت ي is dropped when joined to the laam and kaaf and the.ت ل ك laam takes a sukoon 23

24 أس م اء ا إلش ار ة ل ل ق ر ي ب ه ذ ا دامل ه ذ ه آم ن ة أس م ا ء اإل ش ار ة ل ل ب ع ي د ذ ل ك ل ت ل ك ي ن ب ا إلع ر اب b/-i raab- الت ع ر ي ف : اإل ع ر اب ه و : ت غ ي ي ر أ و اخ ر ل ف ظا أ و ت قد ي را. ال ك ل م ال خ ت ال ف ال ع و ام ل ع ل ي ه ا الد اخ ل ة The Definition: The I raab is: Changing of the endings of the words because of the changing of the active elements entering upon them (the change is) apparent or not-apparent. اإل س م ح االت The cases of the ism ع الم ات اإل ع ر ا ب األص ل ي ة The origin signs of Iraab اإل ع ر ا ب أ ن و اع Types of Iraab ا لر ف ع -/ - م ر ف و ع ا لن ص ب - / - م ن ص و ب ا ل ج ر - / - م ج ر و ر The above definition for I raab mentions the ending of words changing what is meant by this is the changing of vowel markings that are on the end or last letter of a word. It also mentions that it is the active elements that enter upon a word that cause the change at the ending of a word, an example of active elements are the ح ر و ف (letters/particles). The active.ا ل ع و ام ل (al- aamil) in Arabic and the plural is ا ل ع ام ل element is called 24

25 The definition also mentions that the change of a word can be apparent or not apparent. What is meant by ل ف ظا apparent change is when the vowel markings at the end of a word can be pronounced and when the vowel markings at the end of a word cannot be pronounced then the change ت قد ي راis not apparent. This part will be explained in more depth later. The table above illustrates types of I raab and its origin signs. (ar-raf u) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a dhammah الر ف ع ب ي ت l ال ب ي ت or dhammataan (an-nasbu) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a fatha الن ص ب ب ي تا l ال ب ي ت or fathataan (al-jarru) is when the end or last letter of a word takes a khasrah or ال ج ر ب ي ت l ال ب ي ت khasrataan م ر ف و ع (ar-raf u) it is called الر ف ع Also when an ism is in the state of (marfoo ). م ن ص و ب (an-nasbu) it is called الن ص ب When an ism is in the state of mansoob). م ج ر و ر (al-jarru) it is called ال ج ر When an ism is in the state of (majroor). ال ع ام ل ) م اض ف ع ل م ف ع و ل ب ه م ج ر و ر اإل س م م ن ص و ب ) hdm o/huemrapam rma with the knife. م ث ال: ذ ب ح ز يد الد ج ا جة ب ال هس ح ر ف ال ج هر هك ين ) ل ) ال ع ام LmeLban 25

26 مر ف و ع ال ف اع ل The example above shows the three types of I raab, ز ي د is م ر ف و ع the ف ع ل is the م ر ف و ع (active element) which is causing it to be ع ام ل (active ع ام ل the م ن ص و ب is الد ج اج ة, ذ ب ح verb) (past tense م اض element) which is causing it to be م ن ص و ب is the ف ع ل م اض (past tense verb) ال هس هك ي ن,ذ ب ح (knife) is م ج ر و ر the ع ام ل (active element) which. ح ر ف ال ج هر )ب ) the is م ج ر و ر is causing it to be The words which fall into the definition of I raab as mentioned above are known in Arabic as م ع ر ب (mu rab). (al-binaa) ال ب ن اء (al-binaa) are words which do not show change in their endings and الب ن اء they are considered by the grammarians to be the opposite of words which take اإل ع ر اب (al-i raab), as mentioned above. The words which fall into this category are called ب نب (mabni). ت ع ر ي ف ب س ب ب آخ ر ه ي ت غ ي ر ال م ب ن هي :م ا ال ال ع و ام ل الد اخ ل ة ع ل ي ه ا. Definition of م ب ن هي (mabniyy): That which it s ending doesn t change because of the active elements entering upon it. The definition explains that words which are م ب ن هي their endings do not change because of the ع و ام ل (active elements) entering upon them, but rather they are built upon one ending which doesn t change at all. However, these words can grammatically have a place in I raab but they will be in the position or state of الر ف ع الن ص ب ال ج ر due to their place in the sentence. This point will be elaborated upon later. 26

27 أن و اع ال ب ن ا ء أم ث لة م ب ن ي ع ل ى... Built upon Examples Types of Al-binaa س ك و ن- - م ن هذا ن ع م ف ي م ب ن ي ع ل ى س ك و ن ض م ة - - ن ح ن ح ي ث م ب ن ي ع ل ى ض م ة ف ت ح ة - - أي ن ذ ه ب أن ت م ب ن ي ع ل ى ف ت ح ة ك س ر ة - - ه ذ ه أن ت ل ه ؤ الء م ب ن ي ع ل ى ك س ر ة The table above shows that words which are م ب ن ي can fall into four types of endings which do not change due to the ع و ام ل entering upon them, rather they are fixed or built upon that particular ending. There are four. ة س ك امم عم دم و لس endings, possible م ض اف م ض اف إ ل ي ه Whose book is this? هذا ن ك ت اب م م ث ال: م ب ن ي ع ل ى س ك و ن The above example shows that the word م ن is م ض اف إل ي ه and we know that the mudhaaf ilaih is always majroor (takes kasrah), however the word م ن (who) is م ب ن ي ع ل ى س ك و ن (built upon a sukoon) so the ending will always show a sukoon even though it is in the position or ع ام ل (al-jarr) due to its place in the sentence. So the ال ج هر state of م ب ن ي (active element) does not affect the ending of a word that is (mabni). 27

28 )٨( الد ر س الثام ن ال ب د ل )h/-lhmh/(- ال م ب ت د أ ال خب ر This man is a trader. هذ ا ت اج ر. الر ج ل ال ب د ل (al-badal) ال ب د ل is grammatically known as الر ج ل In the above example the ism (al-badal), it used in a sentence in order to give ت و ك ي د (emphasis) and (clarity or explanation) to the word that precedes it. So in the above ب ي ان example the ism الر ج ل is giving emphasis and clarity to the word,ه ذ ا it is telling us that the one being indicated to is the man.it can also be understood that the badal is the same the thing as the word which precedes it, i.e. the man is the one being indicated to and the one being indicated to is the man. Another example can be used to explain this, if I had a book in my hand 'ه ذ ا new which I was indicating to and I said to my teacher, this is It would be understood that the book is new and if I was to.ج د ي د ' ه ذ ا ال ك تاب Arabic, mention the book in my sentence I would say in (extra or additional ز ي اد ة I have put a,'ال ك تاب ' mentioning. By ج د ي د word in the sentence which is known as ال ب د ل (al-badal). It is important to note here that if I were to say in Arabic, ل ر م ت this would not be considered to be a complete or beneficial sentence. To make it a beneficial sentence we must add a خ ب ر (khabar), as shown in the example 28

29 above. The subject of ال ب د ل and the types of al-badal will be covered later on inshaallaah. ر ال م قص و اإل س م اإل س م ال م قص و ر أ م ر ي ك ا م ن ا ل م د هر س و الط ال ب م ن إ ن ك ل ت را. The teacher is from America and the student is from England. Hamid went to the hospital. ذ ه ب إ ل ى ح ام د ال م س ت ش ف ى. اإل س م ال مقص و ر الت ع ر ي ف : اإل س م ال م قص و ر ه و اس م م ع ر ب آخ ر ه أ ل ف ال ز م ة م ا ق ب ل ه ا و ت ق د ر ع ل ي ه ج م ي ع ال ح ر ك ات. م ف ت و ح ة Definition: al-ismul-maqsoor, it is an ism mu rab which has an inseparable or binding alif on its end and the letter before it takes a fatha and all the vowel markings on it are not apparent. The words أ م ر ي ك ا م و س ى إ ن ك ل ت ر ا م س ت ش ف ى all end with an binding alif or the letter ى which looks like the letter ي (ya) except that it doesn t have the two dots but it is pronounced as an alif. Also the ismul-maqsoor ت قد ي ر (al-i raab) but the I raab is ا إل ع ر اب (mu rab) it takes م ع ر ب is (taqdeer) not apparent. The examples above illustrate this, the ismulmaqsoor (nouns ending with the binding alif at the end) are preceded by apparent, is not ح ر و ف ال ج هر but the change caused by the ح ر و ف ال ج هر the case of ا ل ج ر (al-jarr) cannot be seen. The Ismul-maqsoor falls into one of the categories or types of words where the I raab is ت قد ي را (please refer back to the definition of I raab). 29

30 30

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