1 AHA International Stroke Conference, Pre-Con Symposium, February 5, 2013 Old Agent, New Agent or No Agent? The Decision to Anticoagulate Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Daniel E. Singer, MD Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School
2 Status of Oral Anticoagulants for AF, approved NOACs; 1 pivotal RCT left New indications, contraindications Multiple secondary studies from pivotal trials Accumulating clinical experience, particularly with dabigatran; FDA reports Main message: The novel anticoagulants look very good. But well-controlled warfarin remains a good choice, as well. 2
3 Stroke Prevention in AF: Core Facts 1. AF is the most common significant arrhythmia 2. AF prevalence strongly age-dependent 10% of age 80+ years 3. RR for stroke = 5; AF accounts for 15+% of all strokes in U.S. 4. Multiple RCTs: Warfarin reduces the risk of ischemic stroke by 68% (ITT). In primary prevention, the tradeoff: 15 ischemic strokes for 1 ICH. 5. ASA s effect is negligible to small.
4 The Optimal INR for AF Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2009;2:
5 Anticoagulation for AF: For Whom? Guideline perspective: Anticoagulate AF patients whose risk of stroke is high enough to merit the burden and risk of warfarin therapy. ASA or no antithrombotic for others.
6 CHADS 2 Scoring System* Risk Factor Score Congestive heart failure (LV dysfunction) 1 Hypertension 1 Age 75 1 Diabetes mellitus 1 Stroke, TIA, thromboembolism 2 Range 0-6 N.B: Applies to paroxysmal AF (PAF), as well *Gage, et al. JAMA 2001; 285(22):
7 CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc Scoring System Risk Factor Score Congestive heart failure/lv dysfunction 1 Hypertension 1 Age 75 2 Diabetes mellitus 1 Stroke, TIA, thromboembolism 2 Vascular disease 1 Age Sex category (i.e. female sex) 1 Maximum score 9 Note: Maximum score is 9 since age may contribute 0, 1 or 2 points. Eur Heart J Oct;31(19): Epub 2010 Aug 29.
8 AT9 Stroke Prevention Guidelines* Clinical Profile (Applies to PAF, as well) CHADS non-stroke/tia RF: CHADS 2 =1 0 RF: CHADS 2 =0 Treatment Recommendation OAC, Warf., INR 2-3, vs no Rx: 1A OAC >(C+A)>ASA: 1B OAC, Warfarin, INR 2-3: 2B No AT Rx: 2B Other RFs to consider: age 65-74, female; renal dysfn, e.g., egfr <60 * ACCP 9 (Chest 2012; 141 (2)(Suppl):e531S-e575S);
9 Warfarin works, but there are many problems with achieving high quality warfarin anticoagulation.
10 Clotting Cascade and Drug Antagonists Nature 2009;45:
11 Novel Anticoagulants Direct thrombin or factor Xa inhibitors Where warfarin blocks the synthesis of functional clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), the new anticoagulants competitively inhibit single key activated factors in the bloodstream and site of thrombus. Anticoagulant effect: rapid onset and offset; warfarin effect is slow and steady.
13 Dabigatran DTI for AF: The RE-LY Trial: Fast-acting (~2 hr), specific competitive direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) No dose adjustment, no regular monitoring 80% excreted by kidney Half-life of hours Clin Pharmacokinet 2008;47: ; N Engl J Med 2009;361(12):
14 Design of RE-LY Atrial Fibrillation 1 Risk Factor Absence of contraindications 951 centers in 44 countries R Open** Warfarin (INR ) N=6000 Dabigatran Etexilate 110 mg BID N=6000 Dabigatran Etexilate 150 mg BID N=6000 Primary efficacy outcome = all stroke or systemic embolism Primary safety outcome = major bleeding Non-inferiority margin: RR of 1.46
15 RE-LY: Trial Execution Median CHADS 2 = 2 Median follow-up of 2.0 years Mean TTR = 64% (patients on warfarin)
16 Cumulative incidence RE-LY Efficacy Outcomes: All Stroke and Systemic Embolism months N Engl J Med 2009;361(12):
17 RE-LY: Primary Outcomes D 110 mg* D 150 mg* Warfarin D 110* mg vs. warfarin D 150* mg vs. warfarin Stroke or systemic embolism Rate/yr Rate/yr Rate/yr RR 95% CI p 1.54 % 1.11 % 1.71 % RR 95% CI p <0.001 Hemorrhagic stroke 0.12 % 0.10 % 0.38 % 0.31 < <0.001 Ischemic stroke and NK Death, All cause 1.34 % 0.92 % 1.21 % % 3.64 % 4.13 % Numbers are from the revised table: Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Reilly PA, Wallentin L. Newly identified events in the RE-LY trial. N Engl J Med.363(19): and the appendix cited there.
18 RE-LY: Major Bleeding and ICH D 150 mg Annual Rate Warfarin Annual Rate D 150 mg vs. warfarin RR 95% CI p Major Bleed 3.32% 3.57% Intracranial (ICH) 0.32% 0.76% <0.001 GI Bleed 1.51% 1.02% Analyses are based on time to 1st event. P-values are for superiority. Results are according to randomized treatment group (ITT). Numbers are from the revised table: Connolly SJ, et al. Newly identified events in the RE-LY trial. N Engl J Med.363(19): and the appendix cited there.
19 RE-LY Trial Bullet Points As good or better in preventing stroke Substantially less risk of ICH (4-5 per 1000/yr) More GI bleeding on 150mg dose (+5 per 1000/yr) 6% more with dyspepsia +2 MI per 1000/yr (ns)
20 Pradaxa (dabigatran) Ad FDA approval Oct 19, 2010 U.S: 150 mg bid no 110 mg dose 75 mg bid for CrCl Canada: 150 mg bid 110 mg bid for >80 y or at high risk for bleeding
21 RE-LY: Bleeding by Age, CrCl, ASA GI Bleed Dabi 110 bid Warfarin Dabi 150 bid Rate per 100 py Rate per 100 py Rate per 100 py Age< Age * ** ICH Age < Age Age interaction, p-value: *0.02, **0.06 CrCl <50: ~2-fold increase in major bleeding, no interaction ASA use: 40-50% increase in all major bleeding with addition of ASA (not randomized), no interaction Eikelboom et al. Circulation 2011;123:
22 Pradaxa: FDA Post-Marketing Concerns 12/07/11: Package insert update recommends frequent monitoring of renal function. 12/29/12: Contraindicated in patients with mechanical heart valves.
23 Pradaxa: FDA Drug Safety Communication: Update on the risk for serious bleeding, 11/02/12 October August 2012: ~3.7 million Pradaxa prescriptions ~ 725,000 patients from U.S. outpatient pharmacies. For new users: RR for ICH + GIB, warf/dabi RR for GIB; RR for ICH NB: unadjusted The results of this Mini-sentinel assessment indicate that bleeding rates associated with new use of Pradaxa do not appear to be higher than bleeding rates associated with new use of warfarin, which is consistent with observations from the large clinical trial used to approve Pradaxa (the RE-LY.trial).
24 Rivaroxaban, FXa-I, and the ROCKET AF RCT
25 Rivaroxaban for AF: The ROCKET AF Trial: Fast-acting (~2 hr), specific competitive direct factor Xa inhibitor No dose adjustment, no regular monitoring 80% bioavailability, 33% excreted by kidney Half-life of 8-15 hours Patel M, et al. Am Heart J 2010;159:
26 ROCKET AF RCT: Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin, INR 2-3 Double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial 14,264 AF patients at increased risk for stroke Rivaroxaban vs Dose-adjusted Warfarin: 20 mg daily for creatinine clearance 50ml/min 15 mg daily for creatinine clearance of 30 to 49 ml/min Patients with CrCl <30 ml/min excluded Warfarin arm: mean TTR=55% Patel et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365:
27 ROCKET: Baseline Patient Features Feature Rivaroxaban (N=7131) Warfarin (N=7133) Age, median Prior stroke, SE or TIA CHF Hypertension Mean CHADS 2 Score (+/-SD) 3.48 (+/- 0.94) 3.46 (+/- 0.95)
28 ROCKET AF Primary Efficacy End Point Per Protocol Intent to Treat Rivaroxaban Warfarin Rate, %/yr (n) 1.7 (188) 2.1 (269) Rate, %/yr (n) 2.2 (241) 2.4 (306) HR 0.79 ( ) 0.88 ( ) Both comparisons meet non-inferiority criterion. ITT superiority p value=0.12 Patel MR, et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365:
29 ROCKET AF Per Protocol vs. Intention to Treat Figure 1. Cumulative rates of the primary endpoint (stroke or systemic embolism) in the per-protocol population and in the intention-to-treat population Patel MR, et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365:
30 Components of Primary Efficacy Outcome Data from safety, on-treatment population Rivaroxaban (n=6958) Warfarin (n=7004) Rivaroxaban vs. Warfarin Rate per 100 pys Rate per 100 pys Hazard Ratio (95% CI) Stroke ( ) Hemorrhagic ( ) Ischemic ( ) MI ( ) p-value Death, All cause ( ) Patel MR, et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365: (Supplementary Appendix).
31 ROCKET AF: Safety Endpoints Rivaroxaban (n=7111) Warfarin (n=7125) Rate per 100 pys Rate per 100 pys HR p value Major bleed ( ) ICH ( ) Fatal bleed ( ) Patel MR, et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365:
32 Rocket AF Trial: Conclusions In this trial of high stroke risk patients, rivaroxaban was at least as effective as warfarin and safer re intracranial hemorrhage. TTR achieved in trial is a concern. FDA approval Nov. 4, 2011 for NVAF. FDA approval Nov. 2, 2012 for DVT/PE.
33 Rivaroxaban, as Xarelto, Approved by FDA for AF, Nov. 4, 2011
34 ROCKET AF: FDA Concern re Stroke Risk Following Discontinuation
35 ROCKET AF: Events post Completion 30d post d/c Riva: 22 events vs Warf: 6 events Patel MR, et al. N Engl J Med 2011;365: (Supplementary Appendix).
36 Xarelto: U.S. FDA Boxed Warning
37 Apixaban FXa-I for AF
38 Apixaban for AF: The AVERROES and ARISTOTLE Trials Fast-acting (~2 hr), specific competitive direct factor Xa inhibitor No dose adjustment, no regular monitoring 25% excreted by kidney Half-life of 9-14 hours
39 The ARISTOTLE Trial Apixaban vs. Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation N Engl J Med 2011;365:
40 The ARISTOTLE Trial Randomized, double-blind trial Apixaban (oral factor Xa inhibitor) 5mg twice daily vs. warfarin with target INR mg bid for 2 of the following 3 features: 80 years old; Weight 60 kg; Creatinine mg/dl 18,201 patients with AF and at least one additional RF for stroke, mean CHADS2 score of yr median follow-up TTR mean of 62% in warfarin
41 ARISTOTLE: Primary Outcome Granger CB et al. Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. NEJM 2011
42 ARISTOTLE: Efficacy Outcomes Outcome Primary outcome: stroke or SE Ischemic or uncertain type of stroke Apixaban (n=9120) Warfarin (n=9081) Event rate, %/yr Event rate, %/yr Hazard Ratio (95% CI) ( ) ( ) Hemorrhagic stroke ( ) Death from any cause Myocardial infarction ( ) ( ) Granger CB et al. Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. NEJM 2011
43 ARISTOTLE: Safety Outcome Granger CB et al. Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. NEJM 2011
44 ARISTOTLE: Sites of Bleeding Apixaban Group (n=9088) Warfarin Group (n=9052) Bleeding Event Event rate, %/yr. Event rate, %/yr Hazard Ratio (95% CI) Major bleeding (ISTH definition) ( ) Intracranial ( ) Other location ( ) Gastrointestinal ( ) Granger CB et al. Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. NEJM 2011
45 The ARISTOTLE Trial Fewer strokes (mainly decreased hemorrhagic stroke) Fewer bleeds (~same as ASA per AVERROES RCT) Fewer intracranial hemorrhages Extremely positive results; FDA approval for AF, Dec 28, Black box re discontinuations.
46 Other Novel Agents to Prevent Stroke in AF* Edoxaban/DU 176-b (ENGAGE-AF TIMI 48), FXa-I, high (60 mg qd) and low dose (30 mg qd) n=20,500, recruitment complete, in follow-up. *ClinicalTrials.gov
47 Novel Anticoagulants for AF: What have we learned? 1. In trials, novel anticoagulants are clearly as good as moderately controlled warfarin and probably are better. The reduction in ICH is an unexpected but crucially important benefit. 2. The initial analyses from clinical care indicate that dabigatran s safety is no worse than warfarin s. 3. However, it is not certain that patients on well-controlled warfarin (TTR ~75+%) have much to gain, other than convenience, by switching to NOAC.
48 AF Guidelines ACCF/AHA/HRS, 2011, Focused Update: Dabigatran is useful as an alternative to warfarin ESC, 2012, Focused Update: NOACs should be considered rather than adjusted dose VKA (INR 2-3) for most patients with nonvalvular AF ACCP 9, 2012: Dabigatran 150mg bid favored over warfarin Circ, epub Feb 14, 2011 Europace Oct;14(10): Chest 2012;141(2 Suppl):e531S-75S.
49 Potential Beneficial Impact of Novel Anticoagulants Enlarging the % AF patients well protected from ischemic stroke Attracting the warfarin-reluctant Lowering stroke risk threshold for anticoagulants Reducing intracranial hemorrhage
50 OAC for AF: Choice of Agent Patients at moderate to high stroke risk, i.e., CHADS2 1: OAC or NOAC TTR>75%: Warfarin remains OK Poor TTR in compliant patient: NOAC indicated New starts, willing to try new meds, and cost is acceptable: NOACs have advantages
51 OAC for AF: Choice of NOAC All appear worthy; no head-to-head comparisons No reversal agent; no quantitative monitoring test in US Dabigatran Particularly effective for ischemic stroke (150mg bid) Seems safe in clinical care Most sensitive to renal insufficiency Dyspepsia; higher extracranial bleed risk in elderly Apixaban Most impressive trial results, partic. very good bleed results Risk on discontinuation Rivaroxaban Once daily Effective in the highest risk patients DVT/PE Rx indication Risk on discontinuation
52 OAC to Prevent Stroke in AF: The Beginning of the NOAC Era Truly remarkable period; a success story for modern drug development and for our patients. Multiple options, including improved warfarin: Used properly, all OACs very effective and adequately safe. We need to accumulate more clinical experience with the NOACs to validate performance in usual care and better address multiple practical problems: management of interruptions, bleeds, strokes, concomitant meds, and generally optimizing match of patient with OAC agent.
54 Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy ASA ASA New Safer Anticoagulant threshold 10 ASA Warfarin threshold New Safer Anticoagulant NO AC Annual Rate of Ischemic Stroke CHADS 2 Derivation Model CHADS 2 ATRIA Cohort Eckman et al. Circ CV Q&O 2010;4:14-21
55 NOACs: Practical Issues Real-world efficacy and safety Cost Acute bleed no reversal agent Emergency surgery no reversal agent Stroke or bleed on therapy: too little drug?, too much, is pt taking med? Peri-procedural management/discontinuations Drug interactions Older, frail pt Poor renal function CAD: add ASA? ACS: triple therapy? Cardioversion; ablation
56 Pharmacological features of novel anticoagulants Drug Target Prodrug Bioavail- Ability, % Dosing Halflife Renal clearance, % Routine coagulation monitoring Drug interactions Dabigatran fiia Yes 6% Fixed, twice daily Rivaroxaban fxa No 80% Fixed, once daily Apixaban fxa No 60% Fixed, twice daily Edoxaban fxa No 50% Fixed, once daily 12-17h 80% No Quinidine, amiodarone, potent P-gp inhibitors 7-11h 66% No Potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp 12h 25% No Potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 9-11h 35% No Potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp Table adapted from: Eikelboom and Weitz, Circulation 2010;121:
57 HAS-BLED Bleeding Risk Score Letter Clinical Characteristic Points Awarded H Hypertension 1 A Abnormal renal and liver function (1 point each) 1 or 2 S Stroke 1 B Bleeding 1 L Labile INRs 1 E Elderly (e.g. age >65 years) 1 D Drugs or alcohol (1 point each) 1 or 2 Maximum 9 points Eur Heart J Oct;31(19): Epub 2010 Aug 29.
58 ATRIA Hemorrhage Risk Score Clinical Characteristic Points Awarded Anemia 3 Severe renal disease (egfr <30 ml/minute or dialysis-dependent) Age 75 years 2 Any prior hemorrhage diagnosis 1 Diagnosed hypertension 1 3 Maximum 10 points Fang MC et al. A New Risk Scheme to Predict Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhage. JACC 2011;58:
59 Observed Major Bleeding Rates by ATRIA Hemorrhage Risk Category ATRIA hemorrhage risk category Events per 100 personyears Low risk (score 0-3) 0.76 Intermediate risk (score 4) 2.62 High risk (score 5-10) 5.76 Fang MC et al. A New Risk Scheme to Predict Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhage. JACC 2011;58:
60 RE-LY Secondary Analyses: Patients with Prior Stroke/TIA 20% (~1200 per arm) of RE-LY patients HR estimates of effect and safety consistent with overall RE-LY results Patients with History of Stroke or TIA Event Dabi 110 Dabi 150 Warfarin Stroke + SE p=ns Hemorrhagic stroke p<0.05 All ICH p<0.05 Diener H-C, et al. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:
61 RE-LY Secondary Analyses: Renal Function Annualized rate of ischemic stroke and TE (%) CrCl ml/min (n=3505) (n=8766) 80 (n=5826) Dabi 110 Dabi 150 Warfarin No interaction by renal function Connolly,SJ et al. N Engl J Med 2009;9:
62 Dabigatran: Practical Considerations Delicate capsule Cardioversion: probably OK Pt taking med?: aptt Bleed: no clear antidote Dialyzable Circ 2011;123:
63 ACS Plus AF Stable CAD: consider no ASA ACS, no stent: CHADS2=2+: triple therapy for 3-6 mos, then VKA plus ASA or clopidogrel PCI/stent: CHADS2=2+: triple therapy, then VKA plus 1 antiplatelet; at 12 mos, VKA alone Adapted from ESC Guidelines. Europ Hrt J, epub Aug 29, 2010
64 Ideal Anticoagulant Efficacy Low bleed risk Fixed dosing, twice daily, w/o routine monitoring Good, consistent bioavailability No interaction with food, drugs Rapid onset Monitoring test available Antidote available Adapted from Steffel, Braunwald. Euro Heart J 2011: epub March 18, 2011
66 ROCKET AF: Efficacy by Prior stroke/tia Hankey G, et al. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:
67 CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc distributions in Swedish AF population Piccini JP, Singer DE. Eur Heart J 2012;33:
68 NOACs : Quick Comparison Distinctive qualities: All 3 have hemorrhagic stroke and composite ICH Dabigatran: DTI; all stroke; ischemic strokes; dialyzable; open label RCT; twice daily; dyspepsia; extracranial bleed in elderly Rivaroxaban: FXa-I; effective in highest risk pts; blinded trial; once daily; take with food; NI, not superior efficacy; lowest TTR; TE risk on stopping Apixaban: FXa-I; all stroke; all bleed; safe in moderate renal insufficiency; blinded trial; twice daily; TE risk on stopping
69 RE-LY Secondary Analyses: ACS Event Dabi 110 Dabi 150 Warfarin MI p~0.10 Composite* *Composite: MI, unstable angina, cardiac arrest, cardiac death; Rates per 100 pys Patients with history of CAD/MI Event Dabi 110 Dabi 150 Warfarin Composite** **Composite: MI, UA, PCI, CABG, cardiac arrest, cardiac death Hohnloser SH, et al. Circulation 2012;125:
70 RE-LY Secondary Analyses: Periprocedural Bleeding Over 2 years, 25% had a procedure causing discontinuation of drug Most common (all ~8-10%): pacemaker/icd, dental, biopsy/other diagnostic, cataract, colonoscopy Most common major surgery (~6%): TKR/THR Rates of major bleeds and stroke were low in both warfarin and dabigatran arms Healey J, et al. Circulation 2012;126:
71 ROCKET AF Dose Adjustment* CrCl (Cockcroft-Gault) 50 ml/min Rivaroxaban dose 20 mg/day ml/min 15 mg/day <30 ml/min excluded *25% dose reduction to produce similar maximal serum concentrations
72 AT9 Stroke Prevention Guidelines* Clinical Profile (Applies to PAF, as well) Prior stroke/tia and/or 2 of the following RFs: CHF, HTN, age 75, DM CHADS non-stroke/tia RF: CHADS 2 =1 0 RF: CHADS 2 =0 Treatment Recommendation Warfarin, INR 2-3, vs no Rx: 1A Warfarin >(C+A)>ASA: 1B Dabigatran 150 bid > Warf: 2B Warfarin, INR 2-3, > (C+A) >ASA ( mg/d): 2B Dabigatran 150 bid > Warf: 2B No AT Rx: 2B * ACCP 9 (Chest 2012; 141 (2)(Suppl):e531S-e575S);
73 AF and Stroke: Framingham Study, 30-Year Follow-up* Strokes Strokes Age Prev AF per 1000py o per 1000py AF RR % % % * Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB, Arch Intern Med 1987;147: ; adjusted for BP
74 Annual stroke rate (%) RCTs of VKA vs Control to Prevent Stroke in AF 14 Control 12 Warfarin 66%* %* 86%* 69%* 52% 79%* *p< AFASAK BAATAF SPAF-I CAFA SPINAF EAFT Go AS et al. Progr Cardiovasc Dis 2005;48:
75 Efficacy of Aspirin for AF Pooled 3 trials versus placebo: AFASAK 75 mg daily SPAF I 325 mg daily EAFT 300 mg daily Relative Risk Reduction: 21% (0-38%) No signif impact on severe/fatal stroke *JAMA 2002;288: (AFASAK I &II, EAFT, PATAF, SPAF I-III)
76 % Dispensed warfarin Warfarin use in AF Patients in MarketScan Database , n=64, % 80% 60% 40% 20% 62.8% 62.4% 56.2% 0% Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk (CHADS 2 =0-1) (CHADS 2 =2-3) (CHADS 2 =4-6) Risk Category Casciano et al. Poster, AHA CV Qual and Outcomes meeting, 2011
77 ROCKET AF: Efficacy and Safety by Prior stroke/tia Stroke and SE No Prior Stroke/TIA (n=6796) Annualized rates (%) Yes Prior Stroke/TIA (n=7468) Riva Warf Riva Warf Major Bleed ICH Fatal bleed No signif interaction of effect by prior stroke/tia Hankey G, et al. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:
78 ARISTOTLE: Efficacy and Safety by Prior stroke/tia Stroke and SE No Prior Stroke/TIA (n=14765) Annualized rates (%) Yes Prior Stroke/TIA (n=3436) Apix Warf Apix Warf Major Bleed ICH GI bleed No signif interaction of effect by prior stroke/tia Easton et al. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:
79 Efficacy of Anticoagulation for AF Trial Target Ranges: INR ~ Relative Absolute Risk Reduction Risk Reduction Pooled 5 RCTs 68% (50-79%) 3.1% per year EAFT 66% (43-80%) 8.4% per year Arch Intern Med 1994;154: Lancet 1993;342:
80 Safety of Anticoagulation for AF: Pooled Primary Prevention RCTs Absolute Rates of Hemorrhage: Anticoagulation Control Intracranial 0.3% per yr 0.1% per yr (n=6) (n=2)
82 ARISTOTLE: Efficacy Results by Subgroups Efficacy: No interaction. Relative effect of apixaban vs warfarin was consistent across multiple subgroups. Safety: Notable interaction for renal insufficiency. Eliquis Prescribing Information 2012.
83 Warfarin s Effect on Outcome of Ischemic Stroke and ICH: ATRIA Cohort Fang MC, et al. Stroke 2012;43:
84 ARISTOTLE: Efficacy and Safety by Prior stroke/tia Stroke and SE No Prior Stroke/TIA (n=14765) Annualized rates (%) Yes Prior Stroke/TIA (n=3436) Apix Warf Apix Warf Major Bleed ICH GI bleed No signif interaction of effect by prior stroke/tia Easton et al. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:
85 ROCKET AF: Efficacy and Safety by Prior stroke/tia Stroke and SE No Prior Stroke/TIA (n=6796) Annualized rates (%) Yes Prior Stroke/TIA (n=7468) Riva Warf Riva Warf Major Bleed ICH Fatal bleed No signif interaction of effect by prior stroke/tia Hankey G, et al. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:
86 Net Clinical Benefit of Warfarin for AF in Community Practice Annals Intern Med 2009;151:
87 Anticoagulant Use in AF: Kirley K. Circ CV Q&O;5: NB: Figure is AC for all indications
88 AVERROES Trial Apixaban, 5 mg bid, vs. aspirin, mg qd, in patients with AF who cannot or will not take a VKA. CHADS 2 =2.0/2.1 1 st interim analysis: study stopped with f/u=1.1 yr Stroke + SE: RRR=55% ~No increase in bleeding (ICH: 0.4%/yr in both arms) Am J Med 2010; 159:348-53; NEJM 2011; epub Feb 10, 2011
89 AVERROES: Efficacy Results: K-M Display
90 Problems with Warfarin Drug and diet interactions Narrow therapeutic index Much inter- and intra-individual variation in dosing. Monitoring is crucial (17 INRs/yr) Wide variation in quality of anticoagulation ~4 day lag in effect, both on and off Much physician and patient burden; significant discontinuation rates
91 Risk Factors for Stroke in AF: Additional Info Vasc : Independent effect is negligible to small Renal dysfunction, e.g., egfr <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 : consistent, modest RF 91
92 RE-LY Secondary Analyses: Patients with Prior Stroke/TIA 20% (~1200 per arm) of RE-LY patients HR estimates of effect and safety consistent with overall RE-LY results Patients with History of Stroke or TIA Event Dabi 110 Dabi 150 Warfarin Stroke + SE p=ns Hemorrhagic stroke p<0.05 All ICH p<0.05 Diener H-C, et al. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:
Anticoagulation in the 21 st Century Adam Karpman, D.O. Saint Francis Medical Center/Oklahoma State University Medical Center Disclosures: None Atrial Fibrillation Most common arrhythmia in clinical practice.
Long term anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation at high risk of stroke: a new scenario after RE-LY trial Camillo Autore Università di Roma Sapienza II Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia
ΠΟΙΟ ΑΝΤΙΠΗΚΤΙΚΟ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΝ ΑΣΘΕΝΗ ΜΟΥ? ΚΛΙΝΙΚΑ ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ Σωκράτης Παστρωμάς Καρδιολόγος Νοσοκομείο Ερρίκος Ντυνάν The AF epidemic Mayo Clinic data (assuming a continued increase in the AF incidence) Mayo
Mary Bradbury, PharmD, BCPS Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Cardiac Surgery September 18, 2012 Mary.email@example.com This presentation will discuss unlabeled and investigational use of products The author
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Xarelto (Rivaroxaban) Hightly selective, reversible, direct oral FXa inhibitor Maxium concentratiion after 2 to 4 hrs High bioavailability(66%),increase with food ( suggest with food) 1/3 from renal excretion,
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Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Therapy Dr Curry Grant Stroke Prevention Clinic Quinte Health Care Disclosure of Potential for Conflict of Interest Dr. F.C. Grant Atrial Fibrillation FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE:
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The New Anticoagulants are Here! Do you know how to use them? Arrhythmia Winter School February 11 th, 2012 Jeff Healey RELY: A New Era in AF Connolly SJ et al. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139-1151 ROCKET-AF:
Objectives Atrial Fibrillation and Prevention of Thrombotic Complications: Therapeutic Update Andrea C. Flores Pharm.D Pharmacy Resident at the Miami VA Healthcare System Review the epidemiology, pathophysiology
Novel Anticoagulation Agents DISCLOSURES James W. Haynes, MD Department of Family Medicine Univ of TN Health Science Center (Chattanooga) Objectives Understand mechanism of action behind the NOAC agents
Update on atrial fibrillation Prevention of thrombo - embolic complications Felicita Andreotti Dept of Cardiovascular Science Catholic University, Rome, IT Consultant or speaker in past 2 years for Amgen,
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New Anticoagulants: Are we Ready to Replace Warfarin? Carole Goodine, RPh Horizon Health Network Stroke Conference 2011 Warfarin Decreases stroke risk by 60-70% Superior to ASA and ASA plus clopidogrel
This policy has been developed through review of medical literature, consideration of medical necessity, generally accepted medical practice standards, and approved by the IEHP Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Current and new oral Anti-coagulation Lancashire and Cumbria Network 2 February 2012 Question Warfarin is an abbreviation What does the W stand for? What is this plant and what is the connection with warfarin?
Financial Disclosure Information Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Plus Systemic Anticoagulation: Bleeding Risk and Management Robert D. McBane, M.D. Division of Cardiology Mayo Clinic Rochester Dual Antiplatelet
Cardiology Update 2014 Update on the Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Raymond Kawasaki, MD AMG Cardiology December 6, 2014 Disclosures I have no disclosures relevant to this presentation Contents I. The
Devang M. Desai, MD, FACC, FSCAI Chief of Interventional Cardiology Director of Cardiac Catheterization Lab St. Mary s Hospital and Regional Medical Center A.Fib affects 2.2 million Americans. The lifetime
5 th McMaster University Review Course in INTERNAL MEDICINE What s New in Stroke? Robert Hart, M.D. HHS / McMaster Stroke Program Department of Medicine (Neurology) McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario
Cardiovascular Subcommittee of PTAC Meeting held 27 February 2014 (minutes for web publishing) Cardiovascular Subcommittee minutes are published in accordance with the Terms of Reference for the Pharmacology
Anticoagulation: How Do I Pick From All the Choices? Jeffrey H. Neuhauser, DO, FACC BHHI Primary Care Symposium February 28, 2014 Atrial Fibrillation 2 Atrial Fibrillation The most common arrhythmia encountered
Antiplatelet and Antithrombotics From clinical trials to guidelines Ashraf Reda, MD, FESC Prof and head of Cardiology Dep. Menofiya University Preisedent of EGYBAC Chairman of WGLVR One of the big stories
Page 1 WOMEN AT RISK Anticoagulation Issues In Atrial Fibrillation WOMEN AT RISK Anticoagulation Issues In Atrial Fibrillation J E A N N A P P I, P H A R M. D., F C C P, B C P S Accreditation: Pharmacists:
Anticoagulation Therapy Update JUDY R. WALLING, FNP-BC ARRHYTHMIA MANAGEMENT MUSC CARDIOLOGY Outline Who do we anticoagulate? Review classes of Anticoagulants Review examples of Anticoagulants Review CHADS2
Name: generic (trade) Rivaroxaban (Xarelto ) HERTFORDSHIRE MEDICINES MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (HMMC) RIVAROXABAN RECOMMENDED see specific recommendations for licensed indications below What it is Indications
Objectives New and Emerging Anticoagulants Adraine Lyles, PharmD, BCPS Clinical Pharmacy Specialist VCU Medical Center Describe the pharmacology of the novel oral anticoagulants Discuss the clinical evidence
FDA Approved Oral Anticoagulants Generic (Trade Name) Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven ) 1 FDA approved indication Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic
Perioperative Bridging in Atrial Fibrillation: Is it necessary? Jason B. Thompson M.D., Ph.D. August 29, 2015 2015 NCVH Birmingham Hypothesis: When bridging, risk of bleeding < risk systemic embolism (SE).
Atrial Fibrillation: A Different Perspective Michael Heffernan MD PhD FRCPC FACC Staff Cardiologist Oakville Hospital Faculty/Presenter Disclosure Faculty: Dr. Michael Heffernan Relationships with commercial
Novel OAC s : How should we use them? Jean C. Grégoire MD, FRCP(c), FACC, FACP Associate Professor, Université de Montréal, IntervenJonal Cardiologist, InsJtut de cardiologie de Montréal Disclosures Speaker
Breadth of indications matters One drug for multiple indications Sylvia Haas, MD, PhD Formerly of the Technical University of Munich Munich, Germany Disclosures: Sylvia Haas 1 Novel oral anticoagulants:
New Oral Anticoagulants July 2012 Objectives Review coagulation cascade and previous treatment options for anticoagulation Understand points of interaction within coagulation cascade and new oral agents
Atrial Fibrillation: New Approaches to an Old Friend PETER JESSEL, MD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Disclosures None relevant to this presentation Outline Introduction Natural History and Stroke Risk Stroke/Bleeding
Appendix C Factors to consider when choosing between anticoagulant options and FAQs Choice of anticoagulant for non-valvular* atrial fibrillation: Clinical decision aid Patients should already be screened
Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Commencing Non- Oral Anticoagulants in GP setting Dr Chuks Ajaero FMCP FRACP Cardiologist QEH, NALHN, SA Heart & Central Districts Disclosures NIL Classification
Novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation Special situations Dardo E. Ferrara MD Cardiac Electrophysiology North Cascade Cardiology PeaceHealth Medical Group Which anticoagulant
Update on New Anticoagulants (Apixaban, Dabigatran and Rivaroxaban) Patient Safety Daniel B. DiCola, MD and Paul Ament,, Pharm.D Excela Heath, Latrobe, PA Disclosures: Paul Ament discloses that he receives
Stroke Prevention in AF Commencing Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) in the GP Setting A/Prof Michael Nguyen Fremantle Hospital Access Cardiology General Practice Education Day Oct 2014 ORAL TTP889 Rivaroxaban
Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation Parag P. Patel, MD FACC Disclosures Eliquis Speakers Bureau 1 Clinical Scenario Ms. L is a 76F admitted to the stroke service with a dense right sided hemiparesis
P a g e 1 Dorset Cardiac Centre Patients with Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter undergoing DC Cardioversion or Ablation procedures- Guidelines for Novel Oral Anti-coagulants (NOACS) licensed for this use February
What s in a name? Practical aspects of using DOACs (Direct Oral Anticoagulants) James L. Sebastian, MD, MACP Professor of Medicine (GIM) Medical College of Wisconsin February 5, 2016 DOAC NOAC NOAC ODI
Atrial Fibrillation: New Therapies for an Old Problem Nguyen Park, MS, PA-C UNM Physician Assistant Program Dept. of Family & Community Medicine Univesity of New Mexico Lead Clinician Special Environmental
Novel OACs: How should we use them?" Iqwal Mangat, MD FRCPC" Director, Arrhythmia Service, St. Michaelʼs Hospital" Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto" Presenter Disclosure Dr. Iqwal
Medication Policy Manual Policy No: dru361 Topic: Pradaxa, dabigatran Date of Origin: September 12, 2014 Committee Approval Date: September 12, 2014 Next Review Date: September 2015 Effective Date: November
Venous Thromboembolism: Long Term Anticoagulation Dan Johnson, Pharm.D. Disclosures No financial relationships with products discussed Off-label use of drug therapy always discussed Objectives Review clinical
Practical everyday use of NOACs Dr. Elisabetta Toso SOC Cardiologia Ospedale Cardinal Massaia - Asti THE NEW ANTICOAGULANTS HISTORY Oral Inhibitors Edoxaban Apixaban Betrixaban EXPLORE-Xa Phase II trial
Key Points to consider when prescribing NOACs Introduction Three new/novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have been licensed in Ireland since 2008: Dabigatran Etexilate (Pradaxa ) 75mg, 110mg, 150mg. Rivaroxaban
Rivaroxaban Practical Experience in the Cardiology Setting Bernhard Meier, Bern Bayer Satellite Symposium Cardiology Update Davos February 11, 2013 Overview of phase III clinical trials of new oral anticoagulants
New Anticoagulants and GI bleeding DR DANNY MYERS MD FRCP(C) CLINICAL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE, UBC Conflicts of Interest None I am unbiased in the use of NOAC s vs Warfarin based on risk benefit
Optimizing Anticoagulation Selection for Your Patient C. Andrew Brian MD, FACC NCVH 2015 Who Needs to Be Anticoagulated and What is the Patient s Risk? 1. Atrial Fibrillation ( nonvalvular ) 2. What regimen
Xarelto (Rivaroxaban): Effective in a broad spectrum Joep Hufman, MD Medical Scientific Liason Xarelto : Effective in a broad spectrum Introduction Therapeutic areas SPAF VTE Prevention VTE treatment Practical
Getting smart about dyspnea and life saving drug therapy in ACS patients Kobi George Kaplan Medical Center Rehovot 78 year old female Case description Presented with resting chest pain and dyspnea Co morbidities:
Deniz Yavas, PharmD PGY-2 Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Resident Detroit Veterans Affairs Medical Center } Most common arrhythmia 0.4-1% of Americans (2.2 mil people) 1,2 } Incidence increases with age 6% (65
Correlation of Drug Levels and Outcomes in Phase III New Oral Anticoagulant (NOAC) Trials October 26, 2015 CDER/OTS/OCP/DPM Jeffry Florian, Ph.D. CDER/OND/ODE1/DCRP Martin Rose, M.D. 1 Outline Overview
Turn the Beat Around-Remix: Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines-2014 Updates Brittany Karns, PharmD Alaska Pharmacists Association Annual Conference - 2015 Disclosures I have no actual or potential conflicts
The New Anticoagulants: Which one is for You? by Hans R. Larsen Although there is no evidence that otherwise healthy lone afibbers have an increased risk of ischemic stroke, it is clear that atrial fibrillation
Risk Benefit of Apixaban and Other New Oral Anticoagulants Compared with Standard of Care for the Prevention of Stroke Alexander Niessner Medical University of Vienna Content Unmet needs in atrial fibrillation
www.sign.ac.uk Prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation A guide for primary care January 2014 Evidence Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Detection...2 3 Risk stratification... 3 4 Treatment
Optimizing Anticoagulation Therapy for Older Adults with Atrial Fibrillation: The New Oral Agents" None Disclosures Brad Hein, PharmD Associate Professor of Pharmacy The University of Cincinnati Winkle
Stroke Prevention for Atrial Fibrillation Joseph A Manfredi, MD, FACC, FHRS AnMed Health Arrhythmia Specialists February 22 nd, 2014 Disclosures Speaker honorariums: STJM, BS, Medtronic Stock: Boston Scientific
Bios 6648: Design & conduct of clinical research Section 1 - Specifying the study setting and objectives 1. Specifying the study setting and objectives 1.0 Background Where will we end up?: (a) The treatment
TEGH Family Practice Clinic Day April 4, 03 Use of Anticoagulants in 03: What s New (and What Isn t) Bill Geerts, MD, FRCPC Director, Thromboembolism Program, Sunnybrook HSC Professor of Medicine, University
New Antithrombotic Agents DISCLOSURE Relevant Financial Relationship(s) Speaker Bureau - None Consultant Amgen Tom DeLoughery, MD FACP FAWM Oregon Health and Sciences University What I am Talking About
Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Stroke Collaborative 2012 Robert Hart, M.D. Stroke Neurology McMaster University Hamilton Health Sciences Hamilton, Ontario Conflict Disclosure Information 2 FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES
What You Should NOAC About the New Anticoagulants Dr Calum Young Cardiologist Overview The Burden of AF What s Wrong With Warfarin? The Era of NOACs NOACs in New Zealand Clinical Trials with NOACs Potential
A focus on atrial fibrillation Is being female really a risk factor for stroke? Dr Justin Mariani MBBS BMedSci PhD FRACP FCSANZ Consultant Cardiologist and Interventional Heart Failure Specialist Alfred
Annual Swiss Stroke Society Meeting 31st of January 2013 Symposium: From RE-LY to practice: Changing the attitude on stroke prevention in AF Translating clinical evidence into real-world outcomes Unité
Security and efficacy of Rivaroxaban in real life in the prevention of the stroke in non valvular AF patients: presentation of the results of the international study Xantus Elisabetta Toso, MD Dipartment
2011 MFMER slide-1 Anticoagulation Management Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results Fadi Elias Shamoun, MD Mayo Clinic in Arizona Albert Einstein Anticoagulation
NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS: WHAT EVERY PHARMACIST SHOULD KNOW LORI B. HORNSBY, PHARMD, BCPS ASSOCIATE CLINICAL PROFESSOR AUHSOP CLINICAL PHARMACIST MIDTOWN MEDICAL CENTER OUTPATIENT CLINIC COLUMBUS, GEORGIA
Conflict Disclosure Information Kevin J. Pistawka NOAC S New Oral Anti-Coagulants Dr. K. Pistawka - KGH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE Grants/Research Support: None Research Trial involvment RELY, RELYABLE Speakers
Bleeding/Clotting Risk Evaluation Tools for Atrial Fibrillation Patients Before prescribing anticoagulants, providers should weigh the risk of thrombosis against the risk of bleeding. The tools below can