# Systems of Linear Equations

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1 Chapter 1 Systems of Linear Equations 1.1 Intro. to systems of linear equations Homework: [Textbook, Ex. 13, 15, 41, 47, 49, 51, 65, 73; page 11-]. Main points in this section: 1. Definition of Linear system of equations and homogeneous systems. 2. Row-echelon form of a linear system and Gaussian elimination. 3. Solving linear system of equations using Gaussian elimination. 1

2 2 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Definition A linear equation in n (unknown) variables x 1,..., x n has the form a 1 x 1 + a 2 x a n x n = b. Here a 1, a 2,..., a n, b are real numbers. We say b is the constant term and a i is the coefficient of x i. For real numbers s 1,..., s n, if a 1 s 1 + a 2 s a n s n = b we say that is a solution of this equation. x 1 = s 1, x 2 = s 2,..., x n = s n 1. An example of a linear equation in two unknowns is 2x + 7y = 5. A solution of this equation is x = 1, y = 1. The equation has many more solutions. The graph of this equation is a line. 2. An example of a linear equation in three unknowns is 2x+y+πz = π. A solution of this equation is x = 0, y = 0, z = 1. The equation has many more solutions. The graph of this equation (in 3-space) is a plane. 3. See [Textbook, Example 1, page 2] for examples of linear and non-linear equations. Definition By a System of Linear Equations in n variables x 1, x 2,..., x n we mean a collection of linear equations in these variables.

3 1.1. INTRO. TO SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 3 A system of m linear equations in these n variables can be written as a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x a 1n x n = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x a 2n x n = b 2 a 31 x 1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x a 3n x n = b 3 a m1 x 1 + a m2 x 2 + a m3 x a mn x n = b m where a ij and b i are all real numbers. Such a linear system is called a homogeneous linear system if b 1 = b 2 = = b m = A solution to such a system is a sequence of n numbers s 1,..., s n that is solution to all these m equations. 2. In two variables, the following is an example of a system of two equation: 2x + y = 3 x 9y = 8 Clearly, x = 1, y = 1 is the (only) solution to this system. Geometrically, solution given by precisely the point where the graphs (two lines) of these two equations meet. Also note that the system 2x + y = 3 2x + y = 7 does not have any solution. Such a system would be called an inconsistent system. Geometrically, these two equations in the system represent two parallel lines (they never meet).

4 4 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 3. In three variables, the following is an example of a system of two equation: 2x + y + 2z = 3 x 9y + 2z = 8 Clearly, x = 1, y = 1, z = 0 is a solution to this system. This system has many more solutions. For example, x = 11, y = 0, z = 19/2 is also a solution of this system. Geometrically, solution given by precisely the points where the graphs (two planes) in 3-space of these two equations meet. 4. Classification of linear systems: Given a linear system in n variables, precisely on the the following three is true: (a) The system has exacly one solution (consistent system). (b) The system has infinitely many solutions (consistent system). (c) The system has NO solution (inconsistent system). 5. Two systems of linear equations are called equivalent, if they have precisely the same set of solutions. 6. Following operations on a system produces an equivalent system: (a) Interchange two equations. (b) Multiply an equation by a nonzero constant. (c) Add a multiple of an equation to another one. These three operations are sometimes known as basic or elementary operations.

5 1.1. INTRO. TO SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 5 7. A linear system of the form x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x a 1n x n = b 1 is said to be in row-echelon form. x 2 + a 23 x a 2n x n = b 2 x a 3n x n = b 3 In two variables x, y this would (sometime) look like x + a 12 y = b 1 y = b 2 In three variables x, y, z this would (sometime) look like x + a 12 y + a 13 z = b 1 y + a 23 z = b 2 z = b 3 Theorem Any system of linear equations is equivalent to a linear system in row-echelon form. 2. This can be achieved by a sequence of application of the three basic operation described in (6). 3. This process is known as Gaussian elimination. Read Examples 5-9 (page 6-). Practice: For exercise (page 110), reduce the system to a rowechelon form and solve.

6 6 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Exercise (Ex. 32. p 11) Reduce the following system and solve: 4x 5y = 3 Eqn 1 8x + 10y = 14 Eqn 2 Add 2 times Enq-1 to Eqn-2: 4x 5y = 3 Eqn 1 0 = 20 Eqn 3 The Eqn-3 is absurd. So, the system has no solution. The system is inconsistent. Exercise (Ex. 34. p 11) Reduce the following system and solve: Multiply Eqn-2 by 18: Subtract Eqn-1 from the Eqn-3 Divide Eqn-4 by 10: Divide Eqn-1 by 9: 9x 4y = 5 Eqn 1 1 x + 1y = 0 Eqn x 4y = 5 Eqn 1 9x + 6y = 0 Eqn 3 9x 4y = 5 Eqn 1 10y = 5 Eqn 4 9x 4y = 5 Eqn 1 y = 1 2 Eqn 5 x 4 9 y = 5 9 Eqn 6 y = 1 2 Eqn 5

7 1.1. INTRO. TO SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 7 This is the row-echelon form. Now substitute y = 1 in Eqn-6 2 x 4 ( 1 ) = or x = 1 3. So, the solution is x = 1 3, y = 1 2. Exercise (Ex. 44. p 12) multiply Eqn-1 by 12 and simplify: x x 2 1 = Eqn 1 2x 1 x 2 = 12 Eqn 2 3x 1 + 4x 2 = 7 Eqn 3 2x 1 x 2 = 12 Eqn 2 Add 2 3 times Eqn-3 to Eqn-2: Multiply Eqn-4 by 3 11 : Multiply Eqn-3 by 1 3 : 3x 1 + 4x 2 = 7 Eqn x 2 = 22 3 Eqn 4 3x 1 + 4x 2 = 7 Eqn 3 x 2 = 2 Eqn 5 x x 2 = 7 3 Eqn 6 x 2 = 2 Eqn 5 So, above is the row-echelon form of the system. Now substitute x 2 = 2 in Eqn-6 and get x 1 = = 5. So, the systme is consistentand 3 3 has unique solution x 1 = 5, x 2 = 2.

8 8 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Exercise (Ex. 50, p 12) Deduce an equivalent row-echelon form and solove the following system: 5x 1 3x 2 + 2x 3 = 3 Eqn 1 2x 1 + 4x 2 x 3 = 7 Eqn 2 x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 First, switch Eqn-1 and Eqn-3: x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 2x 1 + 4x 2 x 3 = 7 Eqn 2 5x 1 3x 2 + 2x 3 = 3 Eqn 1 Subtract 2 times Eqn-3 from Eqn-2 and 5 times Eqn-3 from Eqn-1: x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 26x 2 9x 3 = 1 Eqn 4 52x 2 18x 3 = 12 Eqn 5 Subtract 2 times Eqn-4 from Eqn-5: x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 26x 2 9x 3 = 1 Eqn 4 0 = 14 Eqn 6 The system is inconsistent because Eqn-6 is absurd. row-echelon form, we divid Eqn-4 by 26: To obtain the x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 x 2 9 x 26 3 = 1 26 Eqn 7 0 = 14 Eqn 6 Exercise (Ex. 52, p 12) Deduce an equivalent row-echelon form and solove the following system: x 1 + 4x 3 = 13 Eqn 1 4x 1 2x 2 + x 3 = 7 Eqn 2 2x 1 2x 2 7x 3 = 19 Eqn 3

9 1.1. INTRO. TO SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 9 Subtract 4 times Eqn-1 from Eqn-2 and suntract 2 times Eqn-1 from Equn-3: x 1 + 4x 3 = 13 Eqn 1 2x 2 15x 3 = 45 Eqn 4 2x 2 15x 3 = 45 Eqn 5 Subtract Eqn-4 from Eqn-5: x 1 + 4x 3 = 13 Eqn 1 2x 2 15x 3 = 45 Eqn 4 0 = 0 Eqn 6 Multiply Eqn-4 by -.5 and we get x 1 + 4x 3 = 13 Eqn 1 x x 3 = 22.5 Eqn 7 0 = 0 Eqn 6 The above is the row-echelon form of the system. The system is consistent. Since the echelon form has actually two equations and number of variables is three, the system has infinitely many solutions. For any value x 3 = t, we have x 2 = t and x 1 = 13 4t. So, a parametric solution of this system is x 1 = 13 4t, x 2 = t, x 3 = t. Exercise (Ex. 56, p 12) Deduce an equivalent row-echelon form and solve the following system: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 2x 2 x 3 x 4 = 0 Eqn 2 3x 2 2x 4 = 1 Eqn 3 2x 1 x 2 +4x 3 = 5 Eqn 4

10 10 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Subtract 2 time Eqn-1 from Eqn-4: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 2x 2 x 3 x 4 = 0 Eqn 2 3x 2 2x 4 = 1 Eqn 3 x 2 +4x 3 6x 4 = 3 Eqn 5 Multiply Eqn-2 by.5: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 3x 2 2x 4 = 1 Eqn 3 x 2 +4x 3 6x 4 = 3 Eqn 5 Subtract 3 times Eqn-6 from Eqn-3 and add Eqn-2 to Eqn-5: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 1.5x 3.5x 4 = 1 Eqn 7 3.5x 3 6.5x 4 = 3 Eqn 8

11 1.1. INTRO. TO SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 11 Myltiply Eqn-7 by 2 3 : x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 Subtract 3.5 times Eqn-9 from Eqn-8: x x 4 = 2 3 Eqn 9 3.5x 3 6.5x 4 = 3 Eqn 8 x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 Multiply Eqn-10 by 3 16 : x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 x x 4 = 2 3 Eqn x 4 = 16 3 Eqn 10 x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 x x 4 = 2 3 Eqn 9 x 4 = 1 Eqn 11 The above is a row-echelon form of the system. By back-substitution: x 4 = 1, x 3 = = 1, x 2 = 1, x 1 = 1.

12 12 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.2 Gaussian, Gauss-Jordan Elimination Homework: [Textbook, Ex.21, 29, 33, 35(by Gauss-Jordan), 45, 47, 49, 53, 57, 63; page 26-] Main points in this section: 1. Definition of matrices. 2. Elementary row operation on a matrix. 3. Definition of Row-echelon form of matrix. 4. Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan elimination. 5. Solving sytems of linear equations using Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan elimination.

13 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 13 Definition For two positive integers m, n and m n matrix is a rectangular array a 11 a 12 a 13 a 1n a 21 a 22 a 23 a 2n a 31 a 32 a 33 a 3n a m1 a m2 a m3 a mn 1. the array has m rows ana n column. 2. Here a ij is a real number, to be called ij th entry. This entry sits in the i th row j th column. The first subscript i of a ij is called the row subscript and j is called the column subscript. 3. It is possible to talk about matrices whose entries a ij are not real numbers. We can talk about matrices of any kind of objects. We will only talk about matrices with real entries and such matrices are also called real matrices. 4. We say that the size of the matrix is m n. 5. A square matrix of order n is a matrix whose number of rows and columns are same and equal to n. 6. For a square matrix of order n, the entries a 11, a 22,..., a nn are called the main diaginal entries. The most common use, for this class, of matrices is to represent system of liner equation. Given a system of liner equations, an associated matrix to be called the augmented matrix contains all the information regarding the system.

14 14 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Definition Given a system of m linear equations a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x a 1n x n = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x a 2n x n = b 2 a 31 x 1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x a 3n x n = b 3 a m1 x 1 + a m2 x 2 + a m3 x a mn x n = b m the augmented matrix of the system is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 a 1n b 1 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 2n b 2 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 3n b 3 a m1 a m2 a m3 a mn b m and the coefficient matrix is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 a 1n a 21 a 22 a 23 a 2n a 31 a 32 a 33 a 3n a m1 a m2 a m3 a mn. 1. Conversely, given a m (n + 1) matrix, we can write down a system of linear m equations in n unknowns (variables). 2. Consider the linear system (from exercise 1.1.4): 4x 5y = 3 8x + 10y = 14

15 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 15 The augmented matrix of the system is ( ) and the coefficient matrix is ( ) 3. Consider the linear system (from exercise 1.1.7): 5x 1 3x 2 + 2x 3 = 3 2x 1 + 4x 2 x 3 = 7 x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 The augmented and the coefficient matrices of this system are: ; Recall that we deduced an equivalent system in row-echelon form: x 1 11x 2 + 4x 3 = 3 Eqn 3 x = 1 26 Eqn 7 0 = 14 Eqn 6 The augmented and the coefficient of this row-echelon form is: ;

16 16 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 4. Consider the linear system (from exercise 1.1.9): x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 2x 2 x 3 x 4 = 0 Eqn 2 3x 2 2x 4 = 1 Eqn 3 2x 1 x 2 +4x 3 = 5 Eqn 4 The augmented and the coefficient matrices are: ; Recall that we deduced an equivalent system in row-echelon form: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 Eqn 6 x x 4 = 2 3 Eqn 9 x 4 = 1 Eqn 11 The augmented and the coefficient matrices of this echelon form are given by: ; The above discussions and examples demonstrate that the three basic operations that we used to reduce a system of linear equations to a row-echelon form, can be translated to a version for matrices. Definition By an elementary row operation on a matrix we mean one of the following three:

17 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION Interchange two rows. 2. Multiply a row by a nonzero constant. 3. Add a multiple of a row to another row. Two matrices are said to be row-equivalent if one can be obtained from another by application of a sequence of elementary row operations. Two row-equivalent matrices, correspond to two equivalent system of equations. Now we define the matrix version of row-echelon form: Definition A matrix is said to be in row-echelon form, if it has the following properties: 1. All rows conssiting entierly of zeros occur at the bottom of the matrix. 2. For each non-zero row, first nonzero entry is 1 (called the leading 1). 3. For each successive nonzero rows, the leading 1 in the higher row is farther to the left than the leading 1 in the lower row. A matrix in row-echelon form is said to be in reduced row-echelon form, if every column that has a leading 1 has zeros in evey position above and below the leading 1. Theorem A matrix is row-equivalent to a matrix is row-echelon form. We gave (see below definition above) the augmented matrix of the system in exercise and that of the equivalent system in rowechelon form.

18 18 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Read [Textbook, Example 4, p 16] for examples of matrices in row echelon form. Definition The method Gaussian elimination with becksubstitution of solving a system os equation is described as follows: 1. Write the augmented matrix of the system. 2. Use the elemetary row operations tto reduce the augmented matrix to a matrix in row-echelon form. 3. Write the linear system corresponding to the row-echeclon matrix and solve by back-substitution. Exercise (Ex 1.1.9se GEBS) We will use the method of Gaussian elimination with beck-substitution to solve exercise 1.1.9, using analogous steps. Recall the system: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 Eqn 1 2x 2 x 3 x 4 = 0 Eqn 2 3x 2 2x 4 = 1 Eqn 3 2x 1 x 2 +4x 3 = 5 Eqn 4 The augmented matrix is: Subtract 2 times row-1 from row-4:

19 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 19 Multiply row-2 by.5: Subtract 3 times row-2 from row-3 and add row-2 to Eqn-4: Myltiply row-3 by 2: Subtract 3.5 times row-3 from row-4: Multiply row-4 by 3 :

20 20 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS The above is a matrix in row-echelon form row-equivalent to the augmented matrix. Now the system of linear equations corresponding this row-echelon matrix is By back-substitution: x 1 +3x 4 = 4 x 2.5x 3.5x 4 = 0 x 3 1x 3 4 = 2 3 x 4 = 1 x 4 = 1, x 3 = = 1, x 2 = 1, x 1 = 1. Read [Textbook, Example 5, 6, p 19-] for other such use of this method. Definition A matrix in row-echelon form is said to be in Gauss- Jordan form, if all the entries above leading entries are zero. The method of Gaussian elimination with back substitution to solve system of linear equations can be refined by first further reducing the augmented matrix to a Gauss-Jordan form and work with the sytem corresponding to it. This method is called Gauss-Jordan elimination method of solving linear sytems. Consider exercise 1.2.7, the matrix in the row-echelon form, equivalent to the augmented matrix, is

21 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 21 All the entries above the leading 1 in row 2 is zero. So, we try to achieve the same above the leading 1 in row 3. Add.5 times row 3 to row 2: Now we want to get zeros above the leading 1 in row 4. Subtract 3 times the row 4 from row 1; add 2 times the row 4 from row 2; add times the row 4 from row 3: This matrix is in Gauss-Jordan form. The system of linear equation corresponding to this one is: x 1 = 1 So, the solution to the system is: x 2 = 1 x 3 = 1 x 4 = 1 x 4 = 1, x 3 = 1, x 2 = 1, x 1 = 1. Read [Textbook, Example 7, 8 p 22-23] for more on Gauss-Jordan elimination. Remark. If you feel comfortable working with matrices, it is best to reduce a system to Gauss-Jordan, instead of only to row-echelon form.

22 22 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Exercise (Ex. 30, p 26) Solve the following using Gaussian elemination or Gauss-Jordan elemination: 2x 1 x 2 +3x 3 = 24 Eqn 1 2x 2 x 3 = 14 Eqn 2 7x 1 5x 2 = 6 Eqn 3 The augmented matrix is Divide first row by 2 and divide second row by 2: Subtract 7 times first row from third row: Add 3 2 times second row to the third row: Multiply third row by 4 :

23 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 23 The above matrix is in row-echelon form. So, we can use back substitution and solve the system. The system corresponding to this matrix is: By back-substitution: x x x 3 = 12 x x 3 = 7 x 3 = 6 x 3 = 6, x 2 = = 10, x 1 = = 8. 2 Alternately, we could reduce the row-echelon matrix to a Gauss-Jordan form. We will do this. To do this add 1 2 second row to the first: Subtract 1.25 times third rwo from the first: Now add.5 time the third row to the second: time the

24 24 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS This matrix is in Gauss-Jordan form. The system of liner equations corresponding to this matrix is: x 1 = 8 x 2 = 10 x 3 = 6 This gives the solution of our system. Exercise (Ex. 32, p 26) Solve the following using Gaussian elemination or Gauss-Jordan elemination: The augmented matrix is 2x 1 +3x 3 = 3 Eqn 1 4x 1 3x 2 +7x 3 = 5 Eqn 2 8x 1 9x 2 15x 3 = 10 Eqn We will reduce this matrix to row-echelon form. Subtract 2 times first row from second row and subtract 4times first row from 3rd row: Subtract 3 times the second row from third:

25 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 25 Divide first row by 2 and second row by -3: The matrix is in rwo-echelon form. The sytem corresponding to thsi equation is: x x 3 = 3 2 x 2 1x 3 3 = = 1 The last equation is absurd. So, the sytem is inconsistent. Exercise (Ex. 34, p 26) Solve the following using Gaussian elemination or Gauss-Jordan elemination: x +2y +z = 8 3x 6y 3z = 21 The augmented matrix is ( ) Add 3 times first row to the second row: ( The above matrix is in row-echelon form. The corresponding system of linear equations is ) x +2y +z = 8 0 = 3 The last equation is absurd. So, the system is inconsistent.

26 26 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Exercise (Ex. 44, p26) Solve the homogeneous linear system corresponding to the coefficient matrix: ( ) Since it is a homogeneous sytems have all the constants zero and they system is: x 1 = 0 x 2 +x 3 = 0 The system is already in row-echelon form. So, by back substitution: x 2 = x 3, x 1 = 0. With x 3 = t a paramentric solution is x 1 = 0, x 2 = t, x 3 = t. Note that this is a four variable problem and unknowns are x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4. The variable x 4 does not appear in these equations. So for any x 4 = s for any s, for each solutions above. So, final parametric solution is x 1 = 0, x 2 = t, x 3 = t, x 4 = s where s, t are paramenters. Exercise (Ex. 50, p27) Consider the system of linear equations. x +y = 0 Eqn 1 y +z = 0 Eqn 2 x +z = 0 Eqn 3 ax +by +cz = 0 Eqn 4 Find the values of a, b, c such that the system has (a) a unique solution, (b) no solution (c) an infinite number of solution.

27 1.2. GAUSSIAN, GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION 27 Solution: The augmented matrix of the equation: a b c 0 Subtract 1 times first row from third and a times first row from fourth: b a c 0 Add second row to third: b a c 0 Divide third row by 2: b a c 0 Add (a b) second row to fourth: c + a b 0

28 28 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Subtract c + a b times third row from fourth: i The matrix is in row-echelon form. The corresponding liner system is: x +y = 0 y +z = 0 z = 0 0 = 0 The system is consistent for all values of a, b, c, and by back substitution the sytem has unique solution x = y = z = 0.

29 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS Application of Linear systems Homework: [Textbook, Ex. 1, 4, 13, 21, 23; page 38-] As the section heading suggests, we do a few applications of linear systems. We do the following applications: 1. Fitting polynimials, 2. Network anlysis, 3. Kirchoff s Laws for electrical networks

30 30 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS System of linear equations is much easier to handle than nonlinear systems. (I do not mean for this class only, I mean for expert mathematicians and scientists.) In fact, it is really very difficult to handle nonlinear systems. That is why, there is a wide range of applications of linear systems Polynomial curve fitting Recall two facts (1) there is exactly one line y = c + mx that passes through two given points; (2) there is exactly one parabola y = ax 2 + bx+c that passes through three given points (barring some exceptions). These facts generalizes to n number of points in the plane and polynomials p(x) of degree n 1, so that these points will pass through the graph of y = p(x). We describle it as follows. Suppose a collection of data is represented by n points: (x 1, y 1 ), (x 2, y 2 ),..., (x n, y n ). If the x coordinates x 1, x 2,..., x n are distinct, then there is a UNIQUE polynomial p(x) = a 0 + a 1 x 1 + a 2 x a n 1 x n 1 of degree n 1 (or less) so that the graph of y = p(x) passes through these points. Given n such points, to determine p(x) we need to find the coefficents a 0, a 1,..., a n 1. Since the points (x i, y i ) pass through the graph of y = p(x), we have y i = p(x i ). More explicitly, a 0 +a 1 x 1 +a 2 x a n 1 x n 1 1 = y 1 a 0 +a 1 x 2 +a 2 x a n 1 x n 1 2 = y 2 a 0 +a 1 x 3 +a 2 x a n 1 x n 1 3 = y 3 a 0 +a 1 x n +a 2 x 2 n + +a n 1 x n 1 n = y n This is a linear system of n equations, with n unknowns (variables) a 0, a 1, a 2,..., a n 1. It is known that, under our condition that x 1, x 2,..., x n are distinct, the system has a unique solution.

31 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 31 The augmented matrix of this linear system is: and the coefficients matrix is 1 x 1 x 2 1 x n 1 1 y 1 1 x 2 x 2 2 x n 1 2 y 2 1 x 3 x 2 3 x n 1 3 y 3 1 x n x 2 n x n 1 n 1 x 1 x 2 1 x n x 2 x 2 2 x n x 3 x 2 3 x n x n x 2 n x n 1 n y n. The coefficients matrix is called Vandermonde-matrix in x 1, x 2,..., x n. Read [Textbook, Example 1-4, p 29-32]. Exercise (Ex. 3, p 38-Changed) Determine the polynomial function (of degree 2) that passes through the points (2, 4), (3, 6), (4, 10). Let p(x) = a + bx + cx 2. Since these points pass through the graph of y = p(x) = a + bx + cx 2, we have a +b2 +c2 2 = 4 a +b3 +c3 2 = 6 a +b4 +c4 2 = 10 or a +2b +4c = 4 a +3b +9c = 6 a +4b +16c = 10 The augmented matrix of this system is:

32 32 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Now we reduce the matrix to the row-echelon form. To do this subtract row-1 from row-2 and row-3: Now, subtract 2 times row-2 from row-3: Divide the last row by 2: The matrix is in row-echelon form. They linear system corresponding to this matrix is: a +2b +4c = 4 b +5c = 2 c = 1. By back substitution c = 1, b = 2 5 = 3, a = = 6 So p(x) = a + bx + cx 2 = 6 3x + x 2. Use your TI to graph it. Exercise (Ex. 13, p 38-Changed) Some US census population data is given in the following table. Y ear population y Here population is given in millions.

33 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS Fit a second degree polynomial passing through these points. 2. Use it to predict popolation in year 2010 abd Solution: Let t be the variable time and set t = 0 for the year The table reduces to t y Let p(t) = a + bt + ct 2 be the polynomial that fits this data. Since the data points pass through the graph of y = p(t) = a + bt + ct 2, we have a +b0 +c0 2 = 227 a +b10 +c10 2 = 249 a +b20 +c20 2 = 281 or a = 227 a +10b +100c = 249 a +20b +400c = 281 The augmented matrix is Now use TI-84 (or you can hand reduce) to reduce the matrix to Gauss- Jordan form: So, a = 227, b = 1.7, c = 0.05 and y = p(t) = t +.05t 2. This answers part (1). For part (2), for year 2010, wehave t = 30 and prediceted population is p(30) = = 323 mi.

34 34 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Similarly, for year 2020, wehave t = 40 and prediceted population is p(30) = = 375 mi Network Analysis A network consists of junctions and branches. Following is an example of netwrok: y x Z 13 z (It is a connected diagram, which I could not draw. Look at [Textbook, p 33].) Such network systems are used to model diverse situations, including in economics, traffic, telephone signal and electrical engineering. Such models assumes, the total flow into a junction is equal to total flow out of the junction. Accordingly, above network is represented by x = y z. Read [Textbook, Example 5-7, p 33-]. Exercise (Ex. 22, p 39) The flow of traffic (in vehicles per hour) through a network of streets is shown in the following figure: 300 x 1 A x 2 Y 200 x 3 x B Z x Solve this system for x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x Find the traffic flow when x 2 = 200 and x 3 = 50.

35 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS Find the traffic flow when x 2 = 150 and x 3 = 0. Solution: From junction A, we get x 1 + x 2 = 300 From junction B, we get x 1 + x 3 = x 4 OR x 1 + x 3 x 4 = 150 From junction Y, we get x = x 3 + x 5 OR x 2 x 3 x 5 = 200 From junction Z, we get x 4 + x 5 = 350. We will write the system in a better way: x 1 +x 2 = 300 x 1 +x 3 x 4 = 150 x 2 x 3 x 5 = 200 x 4 +x 5 = 350 To solve thsi linear system, we write the augmented matrix: We will reduce this matrix to row-echelon form. Subtract row 1 from row 2:

36 36 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Add second row to third: Add third roe to fourth: Multiply second row by -1 and third row by -1: The matrix is in row-echelon form. The corresponding linear system is given by: x 1 +x 2 = 300 x 2 x 3 +x 4 = 150 x 4 +x 5 = = 0 Parametrically, with x 2 = t, x 3 = s, we have x 1 = 300 t, x 2 = t, x 3 = s, x 4 = 150 t+s, x 5 = 350 x 4 = 150+t s. This answers (1). For (2) t = X 2 = 200, s = x 3 = 50. So, x 1 = 100, x 2 = 200, x 3 = 50, x 4 = 0, x 5 = 300. For (3) t = X 2 = 150, s = x 3 = 0. So, x 1 = 150, x 2 = 150, x 3 = 0, x 4 = 0, x 5 = 350.

37 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS Kirchhoff s Laws Similarly, system of Linear equations is also applicable in electrical network. Analysis of electrical network is guided by two properties known as Kirchhoff s Laws: 1. All the current flowing into a junction must flow out of it. 2. The sum of the products IR (I is current and R is resistance) around a closed path is equal to the total voltage. A battery is denoted by or and the resistance is denoted by. Exercise (Ex. 25, p 40) Consider the electrical circuit. 3 I 1 v R 1 =4 I 2 J 1 J R 2 =3 2 I3 4 v R 3 =1 (The circuit should be connected, I could not draw a better one. See, [Textbook, Ex. 25, p 40] for the actual circuit.) Use Kirchhoff-Law to determine I 1, I 2, I 3. Solution: Apply (1) of Kirchhoff-Law to junction J 1, we have I 1 +I 3 = I 2 Eqn 1 Applying the same to J 2 wil give the same equation. So, we will not write it.

38 38 CHAPTER 1. SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Now apply (2) of Kirchhoff-Law R 1 I 1 +R 2 I 2 = 3 R 2 I 2 +R 3 I 3 = 1 OR 4I 1 +3I 2 = 3 Eqn 2 3I 2 +I 3 = 1 Eqn 3 The the network system is given by The augmented matrix is: I 1 I 2 +I 3 = 0 Eqn 1 4I 1 +3I 2 = 3 Eqn 2 3I 2 +I 3 = 1 Eqn Now, we reduce this matrix to row-echelon form. To dothis, first subtract 4 time first reo from second: Divide row two by 7: Subtract 3 times rwo two from row three:

39 1.3. APPLICATION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 39 Divide row three by 19 7 : Now, we further reduce it to Gauss-Jordan form. To do this, add second row to first: Now subtract times third row from first: Now, add 4 7 time third roe to second: The corresponding linear system s given by, I 1 = 9 19 I 2 = 7 19 I 3 = 2 19

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