Biomass and waste pyrolysis. Evolution to high-quality marketable fuels

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1 Biomass and waste pyrolysis Evolution to high-quality marketable fuels

2 CE Delft Independent research and consultancy since 1978 Transport, energy and resources Know-how on economics, technology and policy issues 40 Employees, based in Delft, the Netherlands Not-for-profit Clients: European Commission and Parliament, national and regional governments, industries and NGO s All our publications 2

3 Introduction waste-to-fuel The issue: How to valorise non-recyclable biomass and waste streams and avoid unnecessary incineration in a distributed way? 3

4 Introduction waste-to-fuel The answer: Distributed (hydro-)pyrolysis of solid plastics wastes and biomass, optimally producing the following three product streams: 1. Liquid MGO type fuel or oil with very low to zero sulfur content 2. Cracking gas for green power 3. Bio-fertilizer/salts and metal retrieval 4

5 Overview of thermal conversion pyrolysis processes Process Input Features Energy efficiency 1. Classic pyrolysis Plastics only Pure biomass 2. Hydro-pyrolysis Plastics and biomass, mixed waste streams Single step process Low value acidic fuel Char waste production Catalyst is wasted Good fuel Char waste production Requires hydrogen input Char waste stream Char energy is lost Fuel stabilisation required/ hydro-treatment Char energy is wasted Hydrogen production requires additional energy input limiting energy efficiency and adds CAPEX cost 3. Integrated hydro-pyrolysis Plastics and biomass, mixed waste streams Good fuel No char waste Autonomous, no other energy input after start-up Highly energy efficient (typically > 90%) 5

6 Target markets for distributed waste-to-fuel Where would this solution be most optimally situated? Any industrial site or harbour where: a. Caloric waste is available and its discharge is expensive b. High/rising power and fuel cost is encountered c. Preferably with a presence of a CHP/energy generation Energy intensive industries with waste Any (remote) community where there is a: a. Local waste station b. Need for local energy generation (IPP) c. A local CO 2 emission reduction target d. Isolated off-grid locations, where it replaces diesel gen-sets Remote sites, airports, islands and municipalities 6

7 Three generations of sustainable fuel First generation: used food crops rapeseed, corn, etc.: Low energy efficiency, even down to zero (i.e. by fertilizer use) Large footprint, extensive use of land Competes with food chain Food versus Fuel issue Only in tight integration with other crops (ethanol in Brazil) Approx. 60 eurocents/liter Second generation: bio-waste derived/gasification/flare gas/fischer-tropsch GTL enzymatic and conventional pyrolysis conversions of bio-wastes: GTL: Energy efficiency losses using multiple process steps GTL: Large scale required for economies of scale GTL: Complex, not yet developed for the market Enzymatic: Good potential, but produces only biogas Approx. 50 eurocents/liter Third generation: Waste-to-fuel /hydro-cracking: Highly energy efficient, and works with biomass-plastic mixtures (unlike pyrolysis) Simple one step cracking process no char waste High quality middle distillate fuel ready for local use (unlike pyrolysis) Solves both a local waste and energy issue Decentralization of waste and energy saves on transportation and reduces CO 2 emissions Already economical on a small scale (10,000 tons/yr) Approx. 20 eurocents/liter! 7

8 What types of waste are applicable? Non-recyclable waste with reasonable calorific value (>14 GJ/ton, the higher the better) Non-recyclable plastics Contaminated biomass AND/OR AND/OR Mixtures of plastic & biomass/municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises largest field of application Preferably only minor pre-sorting is required 8

9 Third generation sustainable fuel A highly economic one step waste-to-liquids process Shredding Hydro-cracking Biomass+plastics containing waste Secondary solid fuel Waste derived green fuels 9

10 The process scheme of hydro-pyrolysis A single step closed process into fuel for local use (i.e. in bio-chp) High Calorific Waste Mixtures Inorganics and metals Input (= 100 %) Closed system, no emissions to the air! Syngas for power or boiler room ( %) Low Sulphur MGO type diesel fuel ( %) Shredder Self powered pre-drier, and non-pressurised reactors at 400 and 800 C Bio-fertilizer salt and metal retrieval, 0-10 %) * Numbers are indicative and depend on specific waste composition, etc. 10

11 Polymer conversion/cracking a. Poly-olefins, i.e. PE: Thermal cracking of straight CH chains b. Oxygenated polymers i.e. PET: Thermal cracking of CHO containing chains Oxygen is removed in the hydro-pyrolysis process c. Halogenated polymers i.e. PVC: Thermal cracking of CHX containing chains Chlorine becomes chloride salt, thus free of dioxins 11

12 Biopolymer conversion (biomass) Issue: oxygen needs to be removed for good fuel a. Polysaccharides : Mainly contains C 5 and C 6 sugars i.e. (C 5 H 10 O 5 )n, (C 6 H 12 O 6 )n,... (ligno-)cellulose, etc. b. Polypeptides: Contains CHNO (S, P) Oxygen is removed in a hydro-cracking process c. Halogenated polymers i.e. PVC: Contains C 5 H 7 O 2 N 12

13 Typical gaseous products fuels Syngas: H 2 CO C 2 /C 3 (minor amounts) N 2 (inert) 13

14 Integrated hydro-cracking pilot-plant Emergency flare Controls Hydrocracker Self-powered steam dryer 14

15 Fuel analyses points to low-sulfur MGO quality 15

16 First Order Business Cases

17 First order Business Case Example 1: Moderate caloric value Investment Annual income Capacity 10,000 ton waste/year Liquid fuel (3.7 m liter) 1.8 million euro Fuel installation 5.3 million euro Gas (0.7 MW power) 0.4 million euro Generator 1.1 million euro Avoided gate fee (3.6 euro/ton) 0.04 million euro Seperator shredder 0.3 million euro Subsidies + carbon credits Assumed zero Total investment 6.7 million euro Total annual income 2.2 million euro Operational costs Annual costs Labor (3 shifts) 300 k Maintenance 400 k Ash disposal p.m. (input related) Interest 440 k Total operational costs 1.1 million euro Summary Investment Annual operational costs Annual income Annual margin Earn back period 6.8 million euro 1.1 million euro 2.2 million euro 1.1 million euro 6 years * Numbers are indicative and depend on specific waste situation, mean market prices, etc. 17

18 First order Business Case Example 2: High caloric value Non-recyclable plastic waste (NPW)/waste oils Investment Annual income Capacity 10,000 ton waste/year Liquid fuel (9 m liter) 4.4 million euro Fuel installation 5.3 million euro Gas (0 MW power) Assumed zero Generator Not used/minor Gate fee & transportation cost (0 /ton) Assumed zero Seperator shredder 0,1 million euro Subsidies + carbon credits Assumed zero Total investment 5.4 million euro Total annual income 4.4 million euro Operational costs Annual costs Labor (3 shifts) 300 k Maintenance 400 k Ash disposal p.m. (input related) Interest 320 k Total operational costs 1.0 million euro Summary Investment Annual operational costs Annual income Annual margin Earn back period 5.4 million euro 1.0 million euro 4.4 million euro 3.4 million euro 2 years * Numbers are indicative and depend on specific waste situation, mean market prices, etc. 18

19 Waste-bio-CHP - A local waste supply chain Added value CE Delft: Know-how concerning: - Thermodynamics - Subsidies - Ecologic impact Clean fuel Heat CO 2 - Technical integration - Economic value for all parties Gas concerned Experience with design of sustainable systems Network of players 19

20 Project references Industry Obtain 100% waste recycling bio-chp power generation Energy security for greenhouses Airplane catering waste concersion bio-chp for KLM-KCS at Amsterdam Int. Airport Forbo, Flooring industry Essent, Dutch utility KLM Catering Services Government Municipal solid waste and industrial bio-waste Accra Rotterdam municipality waste collection - transportation fuel for own waste trucks Rijsenhout 120 ha greenhouse development bio-chp power generation ATMF-Ghana Roteb SGN/BNG Bio-CHP Clusters 20

21 Contact CE Delft ir. Diederik Jaspers MBA Coordinator Industrial Energy +31(0)

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