# HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model

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1 HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model Alexander Remorov University of Toronto November 19, 2010 Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 1 / 18

2 Background: Efficient Market Hypothesis Assumptions: market is efficient; many investors; no inside information Therefore any new information is immediately reflected in stock price via supply and demand At any point in time a stock trades at its fair value, i.e. only normal rate of return provided to investor Therefore can t beat the market and should just invest in an index fund Then how does one explain Warren Buffet s or Goldman Sachs prop trading success? If the market were rational we would not have the stock movement observed in the past 3 years Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 2 / 18

3 Valuation Some stocks don t trade at their fair value Objective: determine the intrinsic value of a company and compare with market value If the two values significantly differ, this could be a signal to trade the stock How can we value a company? What aspects to consider? Extreme Case: Deep Value Investing - find extremely undervalued stocks (e.g. P/E below 7) This is how Warren Buffet started Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 3 / 18

4 DCF Steps 1. Forecast revenue growth Revenue determines all other financial statement items However, company cost structure will probably change 2. Forecast Free Cash Flows (FCF) How much cash does the company have left to pay to investors? More cash means higher value 3. Determine discount rate \$100 today is not the same as \$100 one year from now 4. Calculate intrinsic value of the company Determine present value of all future FCFs Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 4 / 18

5 Forecast Revenue Growth 1. Determine Forecast Period Slow growth: 1 year Relatively fast growth: 5 years (standard) High growth: 10 years 2. Forecast Revenue Growth Rate What aspects to consider? Historical growth, market share, economic situation, products, competition Not easy to estimate Could use analyst estimates 3. The big picture: How does the company make money? Will it be able to make money in the future If you can predict the firm s success (or failure) accurately, you win Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 5 / 18

6 Forecast Revenue Growth - Example Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Take forecast period of 5 years Revenue growth : 0.9%; : 7.3% Yahoo Finance Analyst 5-year annual growth estimate: 10.35% Expect moderate growth in the near future; as US economy improves, revenue will grow faster Very mature market; hard to achieve very high growth (e.g. 14%) Table: Projected Revenue Growth Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 6.4% 8% 9% 10% 10% 10.5% 416.6B 449.9B 490.4B 539.5B 593.4B 655.7B Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 6 / 18

7 Forecast Free Cash Flows FCF = NI (CapEx Dep) WC + (ND DR), where: FCF = Levered Free Cash Flow (to Equity) NI = Net Income CapEx = Capital Expenditure, Dep = Deprecitation WC = Change in Working Capital ND = New Debt, DR = Debt Repayment Unlevered Cash flow: FCF = EBITDA CapEx WC Assume ND = DR, then formula becomes: FCF = (R C I )(1 t) + Dep CapEx WC, where: R = Revenue, C = Operating Expenses, I = Interest paid, t = Tax Rate. Need to estimate future C, I, t, CapEx, WC based on projections for revenue. How? Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 7 / 18

8 Forecast Free Cash Flows - Example Calculate as percentage of Revenue. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. - Historical TTM Revenue Op. Margin 94.1% 94.1% 94.2% 94.4% 94.1% 94.05% Op. Costs Interest (%) 0.54% 0.63% 0.66% 0.67% 0.64% 0.60% Interest Tax Rate 33.4% 33.6% 34.2% 34.1% 32.4% 32.6% Depr. (%) 1.68% 2.09% 1.87% 1.95% 1.84% 1.87% Depr CapEx (%) 4.62% 4.50% 3.93% 2.84% 3.14% 2.88% CapEx WC (1.2) (1.4) (0.6) (1.3) (4.3) (4.0) FCF Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 8 / 18

9 Forecast Free Cash Flows - Example FCF = (R C I )(1 t) + Dep CapEx WC Wal-Mart Stores Inc. - Forecast TTM Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Revenue Op. Margin 94.05% 94.05% 94.05% 94.05% 94.1% 94.1% Op. Costs Interest (%) 0.60% 0.61% 0.62% 0.62% 0.61% 0.60% Interest Tax Rate 32.6% 32.6% 32.6% 32.6% 32.5% 32.5% Depr. (%) 1.87% 1.89% 1.92% 1.95% 2.0% 2.05% Depr CapEx (%) 2.88% 2.95% 3.00% 3.10% 3.20% 3.30% CapEx WC (4.0) (4.1) (4.2) (4.3) (4.4) (4.5) FCF Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 9 / 18

10 Determine Discount Rate WACC = W d R d (1 t) + W pr R pr + W e R e, where: WACC = Weighted Average Cost of Capital; W d = debt portion of financing, R d = cost of debt; W pr = preferred stock portion of financing, R pr = cost of preferred stock; W e = common stock portion of financing, R e = cost of common stock. WACC - weighted cost of all capital in the firm (same as the return the company requires to pay off all its capital providers) Often companies don t have preferred shares, so the preferred share term is not used WACC will give the discount rate at which to discount FCFs Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 10 / 18

11 WACC - Where to get information WACC = W d R d (1 t) + W pr R pr + W e R e Want to determine market value of debt, preferred stock, and common stock to get weights Value of common stock = market cap Current share price # shares out Market value of preferred stock, debt - close to book value Get the numbers from most recent balance sheet Long Term Debt = Notes Payable + Current Portion of Long Term Debt + Long Term Debt Cost of debt = yield on company s corporate bonds Can find bond yields on Morningstar Can also use company credit rating listed on Standard & Poors Tax Rate - from past income statements Cost of equity - can use CAPM: R e = R f + β(r m R f ) Can find stock beta from any financial website R f - return on 20-year US bonds Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 11 / 18

12 Determine Discount Rate - Example Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Has no preferred shares For Q2 2010: LT Debt = \$45242 MM Market Cap (as of September 26, 2010): \$ MM Debt portion: 18.7%, Equity portion: 81.3% Coupon Rate on most recent WMT bonds: 6.50% Forecast tax rate: 32.6% Cost of Equity: R e = ( ) = 4.5% Beta: year US bond rate: 3.50% (as of September 24, 2010) S&P 500 Return (historical): 7% Bond coupon Rate is greater than expected stock return?!? Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 12 / 18

13 Determine Discount Rate - Example Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Has no preferred shares For Q2 2010: LT Debt = \$45242 MM Market Cap (as of September 26, 2010): \$ MM Debt portion: 18.7%, Equity portion: 81.3% Coupon Rate on most recent WMT bonds: 6.50% Forecast tax rate: 32.6% Cost of Equity: R e = ( ) = 4.5% Beta: year US bond rate: 3.50% (as of September 24, 2010) S&P 500 Return (historical): 7% Bond coupon Rate is greater than expected stock return?!? There is tax. But still, too close... Cost of Capital = = 4.48% This is too low Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 12 / 18

14 Calculate Intrinsic Value Discount cash flows for the next 5 years using the WACC as discount rate PV (FCFs) = FCF 1 (1+r) + FCF2 (1+r) FCF5 2 (1+r) 5 Find terminal value of the company - value beyond 5 years Can use Perpetuity Growth Model: Term. Value = FCF f (1+g) r g, where: FCF f = cash flow in final year, g = long term FCF growth rate. Exit Multiple Model - assume business will be sold; Term. Value = FCF f FCF multiple, where: Market Cap FCF multiple = FCF Discount Terminal Value (divide by (1 + r) 5 ) Fair Value = PV (FCFs) + Term. Value (1+r) 5 Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 13 / 18

15 Calculate Intrinsic Value - Example Wal-Mart Stores Inc. WACC = 4.48%; assume it is 6.5% PV (FCFs) = = \$72.5 B Using Perpetuity Growth Model Assume g = 3% (already low), then: Term. Value = = \$602.4 B Discounted: \$439.7 B. Way too high. Perpetuity Growth Model does not work here. Why? Using FCF multiplier (even though WMT is very unlikely to be sold soon) Current FCF multiplier: = 13.3 Term. Value = = \$263.3 B Discounted: = \$192.2 B 5 Fair Value = = \$264.7 B Fair Price = Fair Value # Shares Outstanding = = \$72.7 Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 14 / 18

16 Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The concept of intrinsic value seems valid A reasonable way to estimate long-term value Cash is a better estimate of value than earnings Gives an idea of what effect certain numbers in financial statements will have on company value Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 15 / 18

17 Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The concept of intrinsic value seems valid A reasonable way to estimate long-term value Cash is a better estimate of value than earnings Gives an idea of what effect certain numbers in financial statements will have on company value Disadvantages Estimating too many numbers Sometimes hard to predict the values e.g. growth companies, recession Firms cook the books Model is very sensitive to discount and growth rates These are hard to estimate in current market Interest rate is low Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 15 / 18

18 Concluding Remarks The steps: 1. Forecast revenue growth 2. Forecast Free Cash Flows (FCF) 3. Determine discount rate 4. Calculate intrinsic value of the company Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 16 / 18

19 Concluding Remarks The steps: 1. Forecast revenue growth 2. Forecast Free Cash Flows (FCF) 3. Determine discount rate 4. Calculate intrinsic value of the company In the end: Every model has its own pros and cons It comes down to your own judgement of if the model is appropriate or not Pick a company and perform DCF on it yourself Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 16 / 18

20 Any Questions? Upcoming Events: Speaker Event: John Propper - Top Five Principles of Investing Monday, November 22, 7:00-10:00 p.m., South Dining Room, Hart House HHIF First Quarterly Meeting Tuesday, November 23, 8:00-10:00 p.m., Debates Room, Hart House Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 17 / 18

21 References 1. Investopedia DCF Analysis 2. Wikiwealth - WACC Cost of Capital Portal 3. Wikipedia - DCF, WACC articles capital 5. Morningstar WMT Financial Information http: //quote.morningstar.com/stock/s.aspx?t=wmt&region=usa 5. Google Finance WMT Financial Information Alexander Remorov (University of Toronto) HHIF Lecture Series: Discounted Cash Flow Model 18 / 18

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