1 Lusaka, from Garden City to Metropolitan: Toward Sustainable African City Regions Norihisa SHIMA (The University of Tokyo)
9 1. Urbanization in Africa 2. The Case of Lusaka 1. Urbanization and Planning Efforts 2. Formalizing Informal toward Sustainable Lusaka 3. Toward Sustainable African City Region
11 Urban population growth rate Urban population, > 2030 Asia: 1.36 billion -> 2.64 billion (+94%) Latin America: 0.39 billion -> 0.69 billion (+76%) Africa: 0.29 billion -> 0.74 billion (+155%)
12 Cairo, Egypt 11.9 million 1 million+ cities in Africa Lagos, Nigeria 9.6 million Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.8 million
13 Urbanization by the region Region Total populatio n (million) 2005 Urban population (million) 2005 Urban population ratio (%) 2005 Urban populatio n growth Rate (%) World 6,515 3, Africa Asia 3,938 1, Europe LAC North America Oceania GDP per capita (PPP) (US$) ,462 2,503 6,197 21,998 8,333 40,631 25,296
14 Urban slum population by the region
15 Slum proportion by the country
16 Zambia Area: 750 thousand km 2, population: 11.9 million GDP per capita (PPP): 1,040 US$ (128th in the world, LDC by the World Bank) Mono-cultural economy (mining copper and cobalt) Poverty ratio: 63.8% Average life expectancy: 42 years old School enrollment (Primary): 96% Lusaka, capital of Zambia Lusaka Area: 360km 2, population: 1.57 million (The only 1 million+ city in Zambia) Built as capital of England s Northern Rhodesia (since 1928)
23 Lusaka, planned as a Garden City
24 Urbanizing Lusaka
25 Informal settlements in 1968
26 The First Development Plan (1978)
27 Population of Lusaka
28 Planning Effort (1999 by the World Bank)
29 Planning Effort (2007 by JICA)
30 Landuse in 2007
31 Planning Reform
34 Upgrading Informal Settlements Left: Community water facility by an international NGO, CARE International Right: Upgrading project through land realocation by JICA
35 Formalizing Informality Housing (Statutory and Improvement Areas) Act: Declaring informal settlement as improvement areas In Lusaka, 25 sites for 84 thousand people,15 thousand households declared. Lusaka City Council Land Tenure Initiative ( ) To provide security of land tenure in unplanned settlements. To be achieved by strengthening the capacity of LCC by establishing an effective land delivery system.
36 Formalizing Informality at Chaisa Chaisa: spontaneous residential area since 1960 s. Declared as an improvement area in Population: 30 thousand, Household: 5,600 Upgrading project, implemented by the World Bank, SIDA, etc since the mid-1970 s
40 Fear to be evacuated by housing status Rental agreement by type
41 Effort to improve the living condition by house owner s sex
42 Land title application status Residents views on land title General apathy towards paying ground rent had affected people s willingness to obtain Occupancy Licenses. Inadequate communication between LCC and residents. Unreliable Council records. Lengthy and cumbersome procedures of acquiring the Occupancy Licenses puts the Council in bad standing with the community. Illegal allocation of land by community leaders and party cadres creates parallel power structures (to those of the Council), which work against obtaining Occupancy Licenses: residents fear that if they tried to obtain Occupancy Licenses they would be found out by LCC and, eventually, lose everything. The transport costs to and from the Council head office had discouraged residents from obtaining Occupancy Licenses. The illiterate are intimidated by the educated officers found at the Council offices.
43 Toward Sustainable African City Regions Urbanization in Africa The most urbanizing in the world. However, the lowest economic indicators, resulting in the highest proportion of slum population.
44 Toward Sustainable African City Regions The Case of Lusaka Continuous urbanization while the low economic performance, making Lusaka from a garden city to a metropolitan. Planning effort almost no control, making informal settlements expanding without any effective action. Housing (Statutory and Improvement Areas) Act and Land Tenure Initiative, encouraging to obtain land tenure. Good result comes, like decreasing fear to be evacuated, empowering women. Difficulties lies in administrative procedure, tax, etc.
45 Thank you very much for listening