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1 Team Urban Areas and Land Management Applications Products - Techniques

2 Team focus: Thematic Urban sprawl Global Urban Footprint Megacities, Mega regions, City regions Urban corridors Peri-urbanization Global patterns and trends of urbanization Detection Decision support Characterization Team SL Urban climate Energy-efficiency Quality of life Characteristics of Vulnerability Modeling Assessment Development of cultural landscape Land use intensity Transformation processes & drivers Updating of land use data bases Landscape structuring

3 Team focus: Methodic Object-oriented image analysis Hyperspectral data analysis Detection Decision support Multi-source/multisensor data analysis Characterization Team SL Modeling SAR data analysis Assessment Time series & change analysis

4 Team Urban Areas and Land Management Applications

5 Urban sprawl Global Urban Footprint Megacities, Mega regions, Team focus: Thematic City regions Urban corridors Peri-urbanization Global patterns and trends of urbanization Detection Decision support Urban climate Energy-efficiency Quality of life Vulnerability Characterization Team SL Characteristics of Modeling Assessment Land use intensity Transformation processes & drivers Updating of land use data bases Development of cultural landscape Landscape structuring

6 Global urban footprint TerraSAR-X Image Derived urban footprints (red = settlement) Reference data (ATKIS) Contact: Thomas Esch

7 Chart 7 Global urban footprint: Speckle analysis TerraSAR-X Amplitude image Speckle Divergence image Distinct Backscattering Clusters Contact: Thomas Esch / Wieke Heldens

8 Megacities: Urban growth Manila, 1975 Manila, 1990 Manila, 2000 Manila, 2010 Urban footprints derived from Landsat and terrasar-x data Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

9 City regions: Urbanisation EO time series analysis for Munich, Germany EO time series analysis for Cologne, Germany Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

10 City regions: Urbanisation Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

11 Global patterns and trends of urbanisation Relevant Publications - Taubenböck H, Esch T, Felbier A, Wiesner M, Roth A & Dech S (2012): Monitoring of mega cities from space. In: Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 117, pp Taubenböck H, Esch T, Felbier A, Roth A & Dech S (2011): Pattern-based accuracy assessment of an urban footprint classification using TerraSAR-X data. In: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. Vol. 8; No. 2; pp Taubenböck H (2011): Diagnose aus dem All: Die gigantische Flächenexpansion von Megastädten. Geographische Rundschau. 3/2011, S Esch, T., Thiel, M., Schenk, A., Roth, A., Muller, A. and Dech, S. (2010): Delineation of Urban Footprints From TerraSAR-X Data by Analyzing Speckle Characteristics and Intensity Information, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 48, Issue 2, pp

12 Urban sprawl Global Urban Footprint Megacities, Mega regions, Team focus: Thematic City regions Urban corridors Peri-urbanization Global patterns and trends of urbanization Detection Decision support Characterization Team SL Urban climate Energy-efficiency Quality of life Vulnerability Characteristics of urban environment Modeling Assessment Land use intensity Transformation processes & drivers Updating of land use data bases Development of cultural landscape Landscape structuring

13 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Imperviousness Percent impervious surface derived from Landsat imagery and ATKIS vector data (2000) Contact: Thomas Esch

14 Characteristics of Urban charcteristics: Imperviousness in Germany Year 2000 [%] [%] [m 2 ] Percent impervious surface for total of residential, industrial and transport-related areas Percent impervious surface per municipality Impervious surface per person Contact: Thomas Esch

15 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: 3D City model München Automatic approaches for the derivation of individual building footprints and heights from digital surface models. Berlin Contact: Michael Wurm

16 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: 3D City model Building Street Water Impervious Lawn Trees Bare soil 3D city model of Munich based on IKONOS and HRSC Data Contact: Michael Wurm

17 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Land cover classification Ikonos image, Munich city centre (1m, R-G-B) HRSC height data, Munich city centre Building Street Water Impervious Lawn Trees Bare soil Contact: Michael Wurm

18 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Basic land cover mapping with SAR data Contact: Thomas Esch

19 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Material identification Subset of HyMap image (Munich, Germany) Derived material map Roofing tiles Roofing concrete Roofing metal Roofing bitumen / tar Roofing synthetic / glass Vegetated roof Roofing gravel Unknown Concrete Asphalt Tartan/ synthetic turf/polyethylene surfaces Loose chippings Railway tracks Sand/soil Trees Lawn Water Shadow Unclassified Cloud cover, GPS-error Contact: Wieke Heldens

20 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Spatial indicators Building volume [m 3 ] Vegetation density [%] Impervious surface [%] Contact: Wieke Heldens

21 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Identification of urban structure types using VHR satellite imagery Mapping of urban structure types in Munich based on spatial characteristics derived from IKONOS and other sensors. Contact: Michael Wurm

22 Characteristics of Urban characteristics: Identification of urban structural types using SAR data Identification of urban structural types based on TerraSAR-X data (building blocks provided) Actual Class Block development Detached and semi-detached housing Large multistorey building complexes Predicted class Total class Total 4638 % correct average Overall % correct Contact: Thomas Esch

23 Characteristics of Urban characteristics Relevant Publications - Heiden, U., Heldens, W., Roessner, S., Segl, K., Esch, T. & Müller, A. (2012): Urban structure type characterization using hyperspectral remote sensing and height information. Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 105, pp Sirmacek B, Taubenböck H, Reinartz P & Ehlers M (2012): Evaluation of automatically generated three-dimensional city models derived from remotely sensed data. In: Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observation and Remote Sensing. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp Esch, T., Schenk, A., Ullmann, T., Theil, M., Roth, A. and S. Dech (2011): Characterization of Land Cover Types in TerraSAR-X Images by Combined Analysis of Speckle Statistics and Intensity Information, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Xplore /TGRS , 15 pp. - Wurm, M., Taubenböck, H., Dech, S. (2010): Quantification of urban structure on building block level utilizing multisensoral remote sening data. In: Proceedings of SPIE Europe Remote Sensing,Toulouse Wurm M, Taubenböck H, Schardt M, Esch T & Dech S (2011): Object-based image information fusion using multisensor earth observation data over urban areas. In: International Journal of Image and Data Fusion, 2(2),

24 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Population estimation Estimated population distribution in Munich city centre Contact: Michael Wurm

25 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Population estimation Day Tag Inhabitants/km 2 > 500 Image recorded by 3K camera 0 Estimated population distribution in Mutterstadt area Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

26 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Population estimation Estimation of population affected by extreme flood event (Cologne) Contact: Michael Wurm

27 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Mapping of land cover and land use Land cover and land use mapping in Padang, Indonesia, based on IKONOS and height data Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

28 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Population estimation Vulnerability: population affected Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

29 Characteristics of Vulnerability: Estimation of social impact Vulnerability: social impact Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

30 Characteristics of Vulnerability Relevant Publications - Taubenböck H, Wurm M, Netzband M, Zwenzner H, Roth A, Rahmann A & Dech S (2011): Flood risks in urbanized areas Multi-sensoral approaches using remotely sensed data for risk management. In: Nat. Hazards and Earth Sys. Sci., vol. 11, pp Taubenböck, H., Goseberg, N., Setiadi, N., Lämmel, G., Moder, F., Oczipka, M., Klüpfel, H., Wahl, R., Schlurmann, T., Strunz, G., Birkmann, J., Nagel, K., Siegert, F., Lehmann, F., Dech, S., Gress, A., Klein R. (2009): Last-Mile preparation for a potential disaster Interdisciplinary approach towards tsunami early warning and an evacuation information system for the coastal city of Padang, Indonesia. In: Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. vol. 9, pp Taubenböck, H., Münich, C., Zschau, J., Roth, A., Dech, S. & Mehl, H. (2009): Assessing building vulnerability using synergistically remote sensing and civil engineering. In: Krek, Rumor, Zlatanova & Fendel (eds). "Urban and Regional Data Management", Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN pp Wurm, M., Taubenböck, H., Krings, S., Birkmann, J., Roth, A., Dech, S. (2009): Derivation of population distribution for vulnerability assessment in flood-prone German cities using multisensoral remote sensing data. In: SPIE Europe, Berlin. - Taubenböck, H., Post, J., Roth, A., Zosseder, K., Strunz, G. & Dech, S. (2008): A conceptual vulnerability and risk framework as outline to identify capabilities of remote sensing. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. vol. 8, no. 3, pp nhess html

31 Characteristics of Urban climate: Mapping of thermal patterns Urban heat island effect in the Munich area recorded by NOAA-AVHRR Contact: Wieke Heldens

32 Characteristics of Urban climate: Micro climate modelling Preparation of model input data based on remote sensing data sets 100 m 100 m HyMap (Lai, Albedo) Material map 100 m Height data (Buildings, vegetation) Model input Urban micro climate model: ENVI-met Contact: Wieke Heldens Data base (soil, plant, roof)

33 Characteristics of Urban climate: Micro climate modeling results Wind speed [m/s] Buildings Air temperature [Kelvin] <291,25 291,25 291,5 291,5 291,75 291, ,25 292,25 292,5 292,5 292,75 292, ,25 > 293,25 Air temperature and wind Modeling software: ENVI-met (University of Mainz) HyMap for orientation 15: m above ground 100 m Humidity [%] < m 0 m x Humidity 50 m 15:00 y Contact: Wieke Heldens

34 Characteristics of Urban Climate Relevant Publications - Heldens, W., H. Taubenböck, M. Wurm, T. Esch (2010): Urban heat island of Munich, Germany a multisensoral and multiscale approach. EARSeL Joint SIG Workshop, Sept., Gent, Belgium. pp Heldens, W. (2010): Use of airborne hyperspectral data an height information to support urban micro-climate characterisation. Phd Thesis, University of Wuerzburg, Germany. - Ruppert, T., Sparwasser, N. & Taubenböck, H.: Temperatureffekte in der Stadt-Umland Region München. In: Taubenböck, H. & Dech S. (Eds.) (2010): Fernerkundung im urbanen Raum Erdbeobachtung auf dem Weg zur Planungspraxis. WBG - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt. September - Heldens, W.; Esch, T.; Heiden, U. & Dech, S. (2010): Potential of hyperspectral data for urban micro climate analysis. ESA Hyperspectral Workshop, March , Frascati, Italy

35 Characteristics of Quality of life: Green roofing Identified green roofs using multispectral imagery and VHR height data Contact: Michael Wurm

36 Poverty Risk Characteristics of Quality of life: Spatial distribution of poverty risk in East and West Germany Automatic derivation of relative Distance of Household to city center based on geographic location and CORINE LandCover Poverty risk derived from socio-economic data (SOEP) by the DIW (German Institute for economic research) Distance from city center (normalized: 0-1: Within the city boundary, 0- : outside the city boundary) Contact: Michael Wurm

37 Characteristics of Quality of life: Human comfort PMV Predicted Mean Vote A human comfort index ranging from -3 (uncomfortably cold) to 3 (uncomfortably hot). 0 indicates a comfortable climate. Result of the micro climate model ENVI-met (www.envi-met.com), input parameters derived from airborne hyperspectral and height data. 3K aerial photo for orientation Contact: Wieke Heldens

38 Characteristics of Quality of Life Relevant Publications - Goebel, J., Wurm, M. (2010): Räumliche Unterschiede im Armutsrisiko in Ost- und Westdeutschland. In: Krause, P., Ostner, I. (Hg.) Leben in Ost- und Westdeutschland Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Bilanz der deutschen Einheit Campus, Frankfurt/New York, 796 S. - Wurm, M., Goebel, J. & Wagner, G.G.: Integration raumrelevanter Indikatoren in sozialund verhaltenswissenschaftliche Analysen. In: Taubenböck, H. & Dech S. (Eds.) (2010): Fernerkundung im urbanen Raum Erdbeobachtung auf dem Weg zur Planungspraxis. WBG - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt. September Goebel, J., Wagner, G.G., Wurm, M. (2010): Exemplarische Integration raumrelevanter Indikatoren auf Basis von Fernerkundungsdaten in das Sozio-oekonomische Panel (SOEP). SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research Heldens, W.; Esch, T.; Heiden, U. & Dech, S. (2010): Potential of hyperspectral data for urban micro climate analysis. ESA Hyperspectral Workshop, March , Frascati, Italy.

39 Characteristics of Energy: District heating potential Potential for district heating modeled on the basis of data on the settlement structure Contact: Christian Geiss

40 Characteristics of Energy: District heating potential Potential for district heating modeled on the basis of data on the settlement structure Example of Munich Contact: Christian Geiss

41 Characteristics of Urban climate: Solar energy potential Solar irradiation per building [kwh m-²day-1] Contact: Michael Wurm

42 Characteristics of Energy Relevant Publications - Esch T, Taubenböck H, Geiss C, Nast M, Schillings C, Metz A, Heldens W, Keil M & Dech S (2011): Potenzialanalyse zum Aufbau von Wärmenetzen unter Auswertung siedlungsstruktureller Merkmale. Projektbericht. Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt-, und Raumforschung im Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung. Berlin. Förderkennzeichen Geiss C, Taubenböck H, Wurm M, Esch T, Nast M, Schillings C & Blaschke T (2011): Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat. In: Remote Sen. 2011, 3, pp ; doi: /rs

43 Urban sprawl Global Urban Footprint Megacities, Mega regions, Team focus: Thematic City regions Urban corridors Peri-urbanization Global patterns and trends of urbanization Detection Decision support Urban climate Energy-efficiency Quality of life Vulnerability Characterization Team SL Characteristics of Modeling Assessment Land use intensity Transformation processes & drivers Updating of land use data bases Development of cultural landscape Landscape structuring

44 Development of the cultural landscape Land use intensity: Agriculture-grassland separation, Crop identification (by multi-seasonal data) Discrimination of agriculture and grassland Seasonal HR data (IRS-AWiFS) Characterization of main crops Contact: Annekatrin Metz

45 Development of the cultural landscape Land use intensity: Agriculture-grassland separation, crop identification (by multi-seasonal data) CORINE Land Cover 2006 Classification result (~85% overall accuracy) Contact: Annekatrin Metz

46 Development of the cultural landscape Land use intensity: Land cover classification (singledate, multi-date) Contact: Thomas Esch

47 Development of the cultural landscape Updating of land use data bases: Land parcels Land parcels as provided by official geo-data (ATKIS) Land parcel geometry updated by means of EO imagery Contact: Annekatrin Metz

48 Development of the cultural landscape Updating of land use data bases: Impervious surface Imperviousness analysis based on aerial imagery (left) and comparison to cadastral data (right) Increase of IS Decrease of IS Contact: Thomas Esch

49 Development of the cultural landscape Transformation processes & drivers : CORINE Land Cover: Land cover update, Region Leipzig European wide harmonized land cover & land use assessment and updates: CLC1990, CLC2000, CLC2006 Contact: Manfred Keil

50 Development of the cultural landscape Transformation processes & drivers : CORINE Land Cover: land cover update, region Leipzig CLC2000 September 1999 Satellite Image IRS-P6 LISS-3 7 Sept CLC_Change Status 2006 CLC2006 Status 2006 Contact: Manfred Keil

51 Development of the cultural landscape Cultural Landscapes Relevant Publications - Keil, M., Metz, A., Bock, M., Esch, T., Nieland, S., Feigenspan, S. (2010): Flächenerhebung und statistik in CORINE Land Cover Aktuelle Ergebnisse und Programmentwicklung. In: Gotthard Meinel, Ulrich Schumacher (Hrsg.): Flächenmonitoring II. Konzepte Indikatoren Statistik. IÖR Schriften Band 52, 2010; S Rhombos Verlag, Berlin. - Keil, M., Bock, M., Esch, T., Metz, A., Nieland, S., Pfitzner, A. (2010): CORINE Land Cover Aktualisierung 2006 für Deutschland Abschlussbericht zu den F+E Vorhaben UBA FKZ und FKZ Oberpfaffenhofen. - Conrad, C., Goessl, A., Lex, S., Metz, A., Esch, T., Konrad, C., Goettlicher, G. and S. Dech, (2010). Mapping crop distribution in administrative districts of southwest Germany using multi-sensor remote sensing data. In: Proceedings of SPIE (7824), Seiten 1-9. SPIE Remote Sensing 2010, Sept. 2010, Toulouse, Frankreich. - Metz, A., Bock, M., Keil, M. (2009): Semiautomatische Methoden zur Aktualisierung des DLM-DE aus Fernerkundungs- und Geodaten zur Ableitung einer hochauflösenden Kartierung der Bodenbedeckung gemäß CORINE Land Cover. In: Angewandte Geoinformatik 2009, Beiträge zum 21. AGIT-Symposium Salzburg, S Metz, A. (2009). Knowledge based update of DLM DE with remote sensing and geodata for deduction of a high resolution land use / land cover mapping using CORINE Land Cover. Diplomarbeit, Institut für Geographie, Diplomarbeit Technische Universität Dresden.

52 Team Urban Areas and Land Management Methods

53 Methods - Definition and development of thematic processing chains - Object-oriented image analysis - Synergistic data analysis and data fusion - Time-series and change detection analysis - Continuation of geo-basis data and statistics - Hyperspectral data analysis - SAR data analysis

54 Chart 54 Thematic processing chain: Global Urban Footprint - Basic Product Generation (Speckle Analysis) fully operational: Up to ~1200 products / day - Ground resolution of ~8 m; Public domain ~75 m - Final Product Generation processing chain currently under development Contact: Wieke Heldens

55 Characteristics of Thematic processing chain: Imperviousness (isurf) in Catena Preprocessin g Multispectral imagery Ortho-corr. Impervious surface Germany 2009, from Rapid Eye 0 20 % % % % % No data Atm. corr Master scene Training of the isurf SVM model (optional: only for master scene) Rad. adjustme nt Training data (reference) Impervious surface modelling isurf Model Model Model library Imperviousnes s maps Modules currently included in CATENA Further development required before implementation in CATENA Data sets (input/output) Contact: Wieke Heldens

56 Object based image analysis: Segmentation optimization Base-segmentation Optimisation level Optimised level Homogenous or significant spectral signatures Super-objects of the optimisation levels Optimised segments Contact: Hannes Taubenböck

57 E-SAR X-band Deutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum Object based image analysis: Segmentation optimization Aerial image Ikonos SPOT-5 Landsat Contact: Thomas Esch

58 Time series and change analyses: Automatic training data selection MR EO data (time series) Time Series Analysis Identify Regional Time Frames VHR/HR EO data (seasonal) Masking Reference data CLC, SATChMo,... LUCAS points Segmentation Training region Reference data LUCAS, CLC,... Temporal/spectral/textural definition of each agricultural class Segments Feature library for each agricultural class Classification Generalization (0.25 ha) VHR/HR agricultur al product Contact: Annekatrin Metz

59 Time series and change analyses: Radiometric adjustment Selected invariant pixels Radiometric enhancement of optical data Linear regression for radiometric adjustment of invariant pixels Contact: Manfred Keil

60 Synergetic data analysis: Generalization and aggregation tools Generalization and aggregation functions Contact: Annekatrin Metz

61 SAR Data analysis: Color composite images Single-pol., single-date SAR image Color composite image derived from SAR intensity image Contact: Thomas Esch

62 SAR Data analysis: Color composite images Color composite product generated on basis of single-pol, single-date TerraSAR-X image of Munich, Germany Contact: Thomas Esch

63 SAR Data analysis: Speckle filtering E-SAR intensity image SAR image smoothed with SelectiveMean speckle filter Contact: Thomas Esch

64 Methods Selected Publications Object based image analysis - Wurm M, Taubenböck H, Schardt M, Esch T & Dech S (2011): Object-based image information fusion using multisensor earth observation data over urban areas. In: International Journal of Image and Data Fusion, 2(2), Taubenböck, H., Esch, T., Wurm, M., Roth, A. & Dech, S. (2010): Object-based feature extraction using high spatial resolution satellite data of urban areas. In: Journal of Spatial Science, vol. 55, no. 1., pp Esch, T., Thiel, M., Bock, M., Roth, A., Dech, S. (2008): Improvement of Image Segmentation Accuracy based on Multi-Scale Optimization Procedure. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 5, No. 3, July SAR data analysis - Esch, T., Thiel, M., Schenk, A., Roth, A., Muller, A. and Dech, S. (2010): Delineation of Urban Footprints From TerraSAR-X Data by Analyzing Speckle Characteristics and Intensity Information, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 48, Issue 2, pp x - Esch, T., Schenk, A., Ullmann, T., Theil, M., Roth, A. and S. Dech (2011): Characterization of Land Cover Types in TerraSAR-X Images by Combined Analysis of Speckle Statistics and Intensity Information, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Xplore /TGRS , 15 pp. Hyperspectral data analysis - Heldens, W., Heiden, U., Esch, T., Stein, E., & Müller, A. (2011): Can the Future EnMAP Mission Contribute to Urban Applications? A Literature Survey. In: Remote Sensing 3 (9), Time series and change detection - Metz, A., Bock, M., Keil, M. (2009): Semiautomatische Methoden zur Aktualisierung des DLM-DE aus Fernerkundungs- und Geodaten zur Ableitung einer hochauflösenden Kartierung der Bodenbedeckung gemäß CORINE Land Cover. In: Angewandte Geoinformatik 2009, Beiträge zum 21. AGIT-Symposium Salzburg, S Synergetic data analysis - Sirmacek B, Taubenböck H, Reinartz P & Ehlers M (2012): Evaluation of automatically generated three-dimensional city models derived from remotely sensed data. In: Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observation and Remote Sensing. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp Taubenböck H, Esch T, Felbier A., Wiesner M, Roth A & Dech S (2012): Monitoring of mega cities from space. In: Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 117, pp

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