Conference Working towards polycentricity Polycentricity in knowledge intensive Munich

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1 Polycentricity in knowledge intensive Munich Stephan Schott Regional Planner, City of Munich

2 Contents 1. Polycentricity why? 2. General spatial overview 3. Urban planning concept Centers and Subcenters of the City of Munich 4. Regional directions based on Bavarian regulations 5. Munich Metropolitan Region 6. What is working? What should be improved? Seite 2

3 1. Polycentricity why? Polycentricity is a general development strategy to organise our territory in order to shorten the distances to fulfill the necessary functions; therefore it helps to save time, energy and money... Precondition for a successful strategy against urban sprawl is a long-term vision, which is based on the principle of decentralized concentration (= limited no. of central places) in the sense of polycentricity Polycentricity can be applied on different levels: e.g. local, regional, state

4 1. Settlement areas in and around Munich 1950

5 1. Settlement areas in and around Munich 2000

6 2. General spatial overview central places (coloured symbol)

7 2. General spatial overview City of Munich: 1.4 million inhabitants, 1 million working places, 310 km² Planning region of Munich: 2.7 million inhabitants, 1.6 million working places, km² 88 of the overall 186 municipalities in 8 counties are officially central places!

8 2. General spatial overview locations of university facilities

9 2. General spatial overview independent research institutes

10 2. General spatial overview - clusters of knowledge

11 3. Urban planning concept Centers and Subcenters of the City of Munich Some subcenters have a historical origin as former towns or villages (e.g. Pasing), some were/are planned (e.g. Arabellapark) The main reason for the concept is the growing importance of the retail trade as a major factor in the development of sub(centers) The concept is based on a hierarchic system with subcenters, neighborhood centers and locations of specialised stores The system intends to guarantee supply structures close to the residents, especially with respect to the basic (daily) needs The concept tries to avoid shopping centers at the urban fringe to minimize car traffic and to keep the intra-urban quality of life

12 3. Urban planning concept Centers and Subcenters of the City of Munich - overview

13 3. Urban planning concept Centers and Subcenters of the City of Munich detailed registration

14 4. Regional directions based on Bavarian regulations - Central places in the Bavarian Development Plan -

15 4. Regional directions based on Bavarian regulations More than 900 of the overall 2052 Bavarian municipalities are officially central places (Zentrale Orte) High order, middle order and low order centers as well as Siedlungsschwerpunkte (= low order centers around high order centers along the public transport axes) are defined in the Bavarian Development Plan So-called Kleinzentren (smaller than low order centers, but also central places) are defined in the regional plans Polycentricity is a goal of the Bavarian Development Plan, but in practice it does not work effectively

16 4. Regional directions based on Bavarian regulations - reality

17 4. Regional directions The planning region of Munich is still monocentric, the City of Munich has 30 times more inhabitants than the second in size (Freising) Within the region we had between 1980 and 2004 almost the same amount of development in central places (according to the Bavarian Delopment Plan) like in non-central places (including Kleinzentren) All municipalities try to attract business because of the trade tax Bavaria has 18 planning regions, each planning region draws up a regional plan Munich's regional plan contains goals and principles of the intended spatial development including central places

18 4. Regional directions red hatched area: areas suited for settlement green dotted area: regional green belt source: Regional Plan Munich

19 5. Munich Metropolitan Region voluntary association of many cities and counties 5.5 million inhabitants km² forum for marketing only small budget no shared long-term vision of development so far

20 6. What is working? What should be improved? Active regulation needs strict rules or money! The concept Centers and Subcenters works more or less properly within the City of Munich The attempt to concentrate further settlement development next to public transport stops has to be continued The number of official central places in Bavaria has to be reduced dramatically in order to achieve polycentricity The striking arguments for the advantages of decentralised concentration have to be communicated in a generally understandable way; Munich tries a new approach to do so within the EU-project MORECO (Mobility and Residential Costs)

21 Questions?

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