TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 5 GLOSSARY OF BENGALI TERMS INTRODUCTION... 21

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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 5 GLOSSARY OF BENGALI TERMS INTRODUCTION PART I SITUATING THE RESEARCH 2 RESEARCH CONTEXT Dhaka: the urban context Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority: the statutory institution Summary INFORMALITY AND THE POLITICS OF REGULATION The informality discourse The concept of the state and its territoriality The regulatory mechanism of the state Evidence of state facilitated informal practices Politics and practices for claim making at the periphery Deep democracy: the politics for recognition Occupancy urbanism: the politics of negotiation and contestation Quiet encroachment: a survival strategy of the ordinary Semi-autonomous social field: the process of transformative decision making Politics in the regulation of water supply Politics of water at the city scale Politics of water at the national scale Conclusion RESEARCH FRAMEWORK Research objectives Research questions... 86

2 8 Table of contents 5 METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK Research tradition, positionality and stance Framework for the empirical investigation Grounded theory as an empirical framework Critical aspects of grounded theory Brief of the empirical study Overview of the research settlements Overview of the empirical study Preparation for field investigation Relationship building and access to information The empirical research methods Mapping the settlements and water supply Theoretical sampling and selection of respondents Dependency and resource mapping Adda, conversations and interviews Participation and observation Visualisation of water: quality testing, quantity measurement, photographs and videos Data processing, analysis and reporting Reflection PART II EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE 6 KORAIL BOSTI: UNDERSTANDING THE SETTLEMENT Sketching Korail Bosti at the city scale Everyday life Spatial structure Economic situation and property transactions Social structure Local associations and their members Threat of eviction Summary LOCAL PRACTICE OF NEGOTIATION AND CONTESTATION IN WATER SUPPLY IN KORAIL BOSTI A historical reading of water supply Present water supply situation Water vendors: spatial distribution, typology Water supply in room-clusters Water supply at vending locations Water quality of the available supply Operation and management of water supply Financial resources

3 Table of contents Social relationships and mutual supports Political affiliation and mutual support Relationship with police administration Personal knowledge and know-how as important resource Power and politics of the general inhabitants Summary of the water supply in Korail Bosti Conclusion LOCAL ASSOCIATION IN ORGANISATION AND REGULATION: THE CASE OF BOU BAZAAR COMMITTEE/SOMITI Bou Bazaar Committee/Somiti: a historical reading Bou Bazaar Committee/ Somiti in the regulation of water supply Negotiation, contestation and regulation of utilities in Korail Bosti Politics of informal regulation of the local association NGO INVOLVEMENT IN WATER SUPPLY IN KORAIL BOSTI Bosti Somonnoy in water supply Bosti Somonnoy and its organisational structure Description of BS s water and sanitation project under study Implementation of the project activities After-implementation scenario of the project Local investment in the small scale piped water supply Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) and the history of water supply in the bosti of Dhaka DSK development work at city scale DSK development activities in Korail Bosti Extension of DWASA water supply in Korail Bosti DWASA water network in Korail Bosti Coordination of NGO activities in Korail Bosti Contestation and negotiation in NGO development activities Application of participatory discourse to land issues UTTOR BADDA: UNDERSTANDING THE SETTLEMENT Sketching Uttor Badda in the context of Dhaka Everyday life Socio-economic situation Spatial structure Utilities and community facilities Municipal authority and local associations Summary

4 10 Table of contents 11 CONTESTATION AND NEGOTIATION IN DWASA WATER SUPPLY IN UTTOR BADDA An overview of the water supply situation Contestation and negotiation of water supply Negotiating construction works of DWASA Negotiating monitoring and disciplinary actions Organising logic of the DWASA water supply PART III RECONNECTING EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEORETICAL DISCUSSION 12 REVISITING URBAN INFORMALITY: CLAIM MAKING AND INFORMAL REGULATION OF PUBLIC RESOURCES Informal negotiation of public resources in Dhaka Revisiting urban informality CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX AND PHOTO GALLERY Appendix A Appendix B PHOTO GALLERY LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Historical growth of Dhaka city Figure 2.2: Growth of Dhaka city between 1970 and Figure 2.3: Map of the locations of bosti in the Dhaka Metropolitan Area Figure 5.1: Selection of cases for investigations Figure 5.2: Schematic view of Venn diagram Figure 5.3: Overview of the empirical framework Figure 6.1: Korail Bosti with its surrounding settlements Figure 6.2: Stages of development of Korail Bosti

5 Table of contents 11 Figure 6.3: Spatial structure and community facilities in Korail Bosti Figure 6.4: Schematic sketch of the room-clusters in Korail Bosti Figure 7.1: Spatial distribution of water vendors in Korail Bosti Figure 7.2: Actors and institutions in water supply in Korail Bosti Figure 7.3: Water tanks and newly constructed DWASA water line Figure 7.4: Schematic diagram of the resource structure of a water vendor Figure 8.1: Historical development of Bou Bazaar Committee/Somiti Figure 8.2: Local association regulating water supply in Korail Bosti Figure 9.1: Overview of water supply and sanitation project of Bosti Somonnoy Figure 9.2: Actors and institutions involved in DWASA water supply extension project Figure 10.1: Uttor Badda in the context of Dhaka Figure 10.2: Uttor Badda with its different stages of development Figure 11.1: Involvement of different actors in the decision making of DWASA Figure 11.2: DWASA approval procedure for an individual water connection Figure 11.3: Actors involved in negotiation of water bills and revenue collection Figure 11.4: Actors and institutions involved in the allocation of DWASA construction Figure A: Spatial distribution of water vendors in Korail Bosti LIST OF PHOTOS Unless otherwise stated, all the photographs have been taken by me or by my field assistants, whom I instructed to do so. See photo gallery for additional photos. Photo 5.1: Venn diagram exercise with a water vendor at night Photo 6.1: Korail Bosti surrounded by Banani Lake and high income group settlements Photo 6.2: Paddle boat service a popular transport to the other side of Banani Lake Photo 6.3: Room-clusters on both sides of a road Photo 6.4: Small grocery shops beside a road in Korail Bosti Photo 6.5: Vegetable shop beside an access road Photo 6.6: Contractual agreement on official stamp of the Government of Bangladesh Photo 6.7: Regular gathering of inhabitants in front of a tea stall Photo 6.8: Application to the committee for a salish (left) and a salish decision (right) Photo 6.9: Committee s application to the local police station Photo 7.1: Water use and common reservoir at a room cluster Photo 7.2: Lake water for different non-drinking domestic use Photo 7.3: Water collection and bathing facilities at a water tank in Korail Bosti Photo 8.1: Water tank with bathing facilities in Korail Bosti Photo 8.2: Waste collection with a rickshaw-van in Korail Bosti Photo 9.1: Water supply system with a sanitary complex in Korail Bosti Photo 9.2: DSK meeting with CBO and MC members in Korail Bosti Photo 10.1: Spatial structure in the central part of Uttor Badda Photo 10.2: Outward extension of Uttor Badda with row houses and poultry farms Photo 10.3: Regular water logging and overflow of sewage line on a major road Photo 11.1: Waste sorting activity beside a roadside location near Uttor Badda

6 12 Table of contents LIST OF TEXT BOXES Text Box 7.1: Community police to prevent police harassment and arrest Text Box 9.1: DSK s project experience in other bosti of Dhaka Text Box 9.2: Involvement of Ward Commissioners in NGO project activities Text box 11.1: Waste collection service in Uttor Badda LIST OF TABLES Table 5.1: Overview of the empirical investigations LIST OF ACRONYMS AC ADB AL BD BNP BOSC BRAC CBA CBO CP CUS DCC DESCO DFID DIT DMDP DSK DSMA DWASA ED Ex-En FC GD LGED LGRD&C LTM MC MD MOU MP NDBUS Advisory Committee Asian Development Bank Awami League (a major political party in Bangladesh) Bangladesh Bangladesh Nationalist Party (a major political party in Bangladesh) Bosti Bashi Odhikar Surokha Committee (Bosti inhabitants Rights Protection Committee) Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (a very large NGO) Collective Bargaining Agent Community Based Organisation Connection Permission Centre for Urban Studies Dhaka City Corporation Dhaka Electricity Supply Company Department for International Development, UK Dhaka Improvement Trust Dhaka Metropolitan Development Planning Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (a local NGO) Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority Executive Director Executive Engineer Fecal Coliform General Diary at police office Local Government Engineering Department Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperative Limited tendering method Management Committee Managing Director Memorandum of Understanding Member of Parliament Nagar Daridra Bostibashir Unnayan Sangstha (development organisation of urban poor bosti inhabitants)

7 Table of contents 13 NGO OTM PRSP RAJUK RCC SASF SE SSPWS TC T&T UN UNDP UNICEF UP UPPR Non-government organisation Open Tendering Method Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Rajdhani Unnayan Kortripakhha (planning and development control authority of Dhaka) Reinforced Concrete Construction Semi Autonomous Social Field Superintendent Engineer Small Scale Piped Water Supply Total Coliform Telephone and Telecommunication United Nations United Nations Development Programme United Nations International Children s Emergency Fund Union Parishad (UP, the lowest tier of the urban local government structure) Urban Partnerships for Poverty Reduction

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