REVIEW OF THE SURVEY OF ENTERPRISES ON BUSINESS FINANCING. Second half

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1 + REVIEW OF THE SURVEY OF ENTERPRISES ON BUSINESS FINANCING Q1 REVIEW OF THE SURVEY OF ENTERPRISES ON BUSINESS FINANCING Second half

2 ISSN (ONLINE) REVIEW OF THE SURVEY OF ENTERPRISES ON BUSINESS FINANCING 2016 / 1 In the preparation of the Review of the Survey of Enterprises on Business Financing, the data of the Survey of Non-financial Enterprises, commissioned by the Bank of Lithuania, was used. Reproduction for educational and non-commercial purposes is permitted, provided that the source is acknowledged. Bank of Lithuania, 2016

3 AIMS, METHODS AND PRINCIPLES OF THE SURVEY 3 Surveys of Non-financial Enterprises (hereinafter Enterprises) on Business Financing 1 are conducted twice a year in order to obtain information on the trends in the financial standing and operations of enterprises, assess the demand of enterprises for financial resources, changes in borrowing from credit and other financial institutions 2 (hereinafter credit institutions), developments in credit standards. Commissioned by the Bank of Lithuania, the Survey was conducted in February 2016; responses were received from 503 enterprises operating in Lithuania. During the Survey, heads or financiers of the enterprises, classified by main activity and number of employees, were surveyed. Enterprises with up to 50 employees accounted for slightly more than two-thirds of the surveyed respondents, while those having 50 and more employees made up the rest of the respondents (see Tables 1). Further in this Review, enterprises having less than 9 employees are referred to as small enterprises, those having more than 10 but less than 50 employees medium enterprises, and those with more than 50 employees large enterprises. 3 The number of surveyed enterprises by economic activity and location of registration is presented in Table 2. Table 1. Number of surveyed enterprises with a specified number of employees and engaged in a specified economic activity Number of employees Industry Construction Trade Services and more The average operating period of the surveyed enterprises is 18 years. Slightly more than 84 per cent of the surveyed enterprises operated as private or public limited liability companies, 10 per cent were comprised of sole proprietorships, while the rest of them included partnerships, municipal and other enterprises. Table 2. Number of surveyed enterprises by economic activity and location of registration County Industry Construction Trade Services Alytus Kaunas Klaipėda Marijampolė Panevėžys Šiauliai Tauragė Telšiai Utena Vilnius The Survey consists of 3 parts. The first part summarises the data on developments in key financial indicators of enterprises. The second part examines business funding of enterprises and its sources. The third part summarises the assessment of enterprise borrowing from credit institutions as well as relations between enterprises and creditors. In the Review, a half-year means a calendar half-year, i.e. the first half of the year covers the period of January June, the second half the period of July December. Net percentage is defined as the difference between the percentage of enterprises that responded, e.g., with tightening of credit standards and the percentage of enterprises that responded with easing of credit standards. A positive net percentage means that more enterprises believe that credit institutions have tightened their credit standards, while a negative percentage (with a minus sign) that they have eased them. The analogous net percentage is explained by calculating changes in financial indicators (or the factor s importance, its change): positive difference of percentages means that the indicators increased (importance is great, will increase), negative that it decreased (importance is low, will decrease). The Review was prepared by the Economics and Financial Stability Service of the Bank of Lithuania 1 Similar to any selective quantitative research, statistical error is applied to the results of this Survey. 2 In this Survey, credit and other financial institutions are commercial banks, credit unions, leasing companies and other investment undertakings, from which non-financial enterprises borrow financial resources. 3 The division used by the European Commission and most often encountered in international practice is as follows: very small enterprises are those that have less than 10 employees, small enterprises having 10 or more employees, but not exceeding 50; medium enterprises more than 50 but less than 250 employees, and large enterprises more than 250 employees. Since small and medium-sized businesses dominate in Lithuania, the enterprise classification adapted for Lithuania is applied in this Review.

4 4 SUMMARY, enterprises that increased their income, profit and asset holdings grew in number. More than three fourths of the surveyed enterprises reported that they operated at a profit, and the share of such enterprises grew by over 6 p.p. over the half-year. The largest share of enterprises that operated at a profit was in the industrial sector (80.5%), the smallest in the service sector (72.6%). Despite an improvement in the operating results, the number of enterprises that increased the number of their employees was almost the same as the number of those that cut it, while compared to the previous half-year, the share of enterprises that increased the number of their employees dropped by 7.6 p. p. Enterprises within the industrial and service sectors more often indicated as having decreased the number of their employees, while enterprises within the construction and trade sector as having increased it. In the second half-year of 2015, prices were raised by slightly over a fourth of the surveyed enterprises, while nearly every second enterprise raised remuneration. Similar trends are projected in the future as well. Most of the surveyed enterprises see the outlook for their operation as being optimistic: growth in domestic demand and export development are expected. More than every third enterprise claimed that it planned to expand its export volumes over the upcoming 12 months. Nearly half of the surveyed enterprises tended to specify the tax burden as a major concern. Moreover, the significance of stronger competition, legal (administrative) requirements and a lack of proper staff increased markedly. While internal resources remained the most popular means of funding, the share of enterprises that used them alone contracted for the second consecutive half-year, dropping by 11.7 p.p. (to 46.1%) over the year. The diversity of external funding sources increased, while the share of enterprises that used bank lending grew the most (to 38.8%). Slightly more than every third surveyed enterprise plans to finance its business development in the first half-year of 2016 from internal resources alone; however, this is 11 p.p. less than the figure for enterprises that claimed as having done that in the second half-year of More than half of enterprises planning to develop their business reported that they would finance at least part of the development in the first half-year of 2016 by using external financing sources. The viewpoint of enterprises on the availability of credit to businesses remained basically unchanged in the second half-year of 2015: nearly half of the surveyed enterprises further reported that the availability of credit by credit institutions to businesses was fully or partly limited. The share of rejected applications to borrow or to change the contractual terms of existing liabilities increased by 3 p.p., to 11.6 per cent. Compared to the previous half-year, enterprises planned to borrow slightly less actively in the first half-year. Lending conditions and fees for services offered by a credit institution are likely to further exert major influence on the choice of a credit institution.

5 SUMMARY OF THE SURVEY RESULTS 1. Business Trends of Non-financial Enterprises 5 Enterprises reported an improvement in their operating results in the second half of 2015 (see Chart 1). The number of profitable enterprises increased: slightly more than three quarters (77.0%) of the respondents claimed that in the second half of 2015 their operations were profitable (an increase of 6.2 p. p from the previous half-year). Most of profitable enterprises operated in the industrial sector (80.5%), while the least number in the services sector (see Table1 of the Annex). Almost half of the surveyed enterprises (45.7%) indicated that their income increased in the period under review, while every third of them (31.6%) claimed that they remained unchanged. The number of respondents who managed to increase their income was 6.5 p.p. higher than in the previous half-year, while that of enterprises that experienced a fall in income dropped by 12 p.p. (see Table 1 of the Annex). 4 An increase in the book value of assets and equity was mainly reported by industrial and construction enterprises. Compared to the previous half-year, the difference between the net percentage of enterprises that reported an increasing or decreasing book value of assets widened by 3.1 per cent, while in terms of equity capital, this indicator rose even more (by 5.3 p.p.). About a fifth (20.5%) of enterprises claimed that they had increased their liabilities: compared to the previous half-year, their share dropped by 4.2 p.p. and the number of such enterprises was higher than of those that managed to reduce their liabilities (see Table 1 of the Annex). Fewer enterprises increased the number of their employees than in the previous half-year. While the number of enterprises that increased the number of employees in the second half of 2015 was almost the same as the number of those that cut it, compared to the previous half-year, the share of enterprises that increased the number of employees dropped by 7.6 p.p. (from 27.7 to 20.1 per cent). Industrial enterprises and enterprises providing services tended to cut the number of their employees the most, while construction and trade enterprises tended to increase it (see Chart 1 and Table 1 of the Annex). The tax burden remained a major concern to the biggest share of enterprises; stronger competition as well as tighter legal and administrative requirements posed difficulties to a greater number of enterprises as well. Nearly half of enterprises (47.3%) that participated in the Survey indicated that in the second half of 2015 the tax burden was a highly significant challenge compared to the previous half-year, 6.9 p.p. more respondents reported this. The tax burden raised the most concerns for small-sized enterprises and enterprises engaged in the provision of services (52.6% and 50.0% respectively). The net percentages reflecting the significance of more intense competition and legal environment grew by 9.7 and 13.2 p. p. In addition, increasingly more enterprises indicate a lack of proper staff as a major challenge: during the previous survey, the respective net percentage for the first time became positive, while increasing further this half-year (see Chart 2 and Table 2 of the Annex). The future expectations of most enterprises are optimistic: export volumes and domestic demand are expected to increase (see Chart 3). Nearly half (49.5%) of the surveyed enterprises reported that they had earned all of their income in the local market; over a third of them (35.2%), however, claimed that they planned to expand their export volumes as well over the next 12 months (see Tables 3 and 4 of the Annex). Moreover, growth in domestic demand is also expected: nearly every third enterprise projected an increase in the domestic demand for its production (services) in the next half-year, while another half reported that the domestic demand was likely to remain unchanged (see Table 5 of the Annex). 4 Data of the Survey of the previous half-year mentioned in this and other paragraphs is available here: Chart 1. Changes in key financial indicators and number of employees of non-financial enterprises (net Sales income Book value of assets Book value of liabilities Book value of equity Number of the staff In the first half of 2014 In the second half of Decreased Increased Net percentage Chart 2. Assessment of significance of challenges by non-financial enterprises Shortage of customers Increase of competition Decline in financing sources Higher production costs Shortage of skilled staff Indebtedness of business partners Increase in the tax burden Legal and (or) administrative requirements In the first half of 2014 In the second half of Low High Net percentage Chart 3. Wage, price and domestic demand developments and projections Wages Prices Internal demand Decreased Increased Will decrease Will increase Net percentage In the first half of 2016 (forecast)

6 6 Chart 4. Breakdown of enterprises by source of satisfying business funding needs with internal resources Percentages and less In the first half of 2014 In the second half of 2014 Chart 5. Significance of factors that determined the choice of internal resources in satisfying business needs Enough internal financing sources / no need for borrowing Unwillingness to take additional financial liabilities Unwillingness to lose control of company Unwillingness to share profit Lack of information about external financing sources External financing is very costly Mistrust of credit institution Rejection of credit institution to provide funding In the first half of 2014 In the second half of 2014 The share of internal sources of funding, % Low High Net percentage Chart 6. Financing sources of enterprises (share of enterprises that reported a respective source, Internal resources Credit line** Bank loans Leasing* New shares issue Debt securities EU funds Trade credits State (municipality) support 0 In the first half of In the second half of 2014 Percentage Note: *factorings are included; **overdrafts are included Enterprises project a rise in wages and prices for the production (services) being sold., 27.6 per cent of enterprises raised prices and nearly every second one (45.7%) increased wages (see Tables 6 and 7 of the Annex). Similar trends are also observed in terms of future expectations: prices and wage increases were projected by 23.1 and 40.8 per cent of enterprises respectively, their decreases by 9.7 and 4.8 per cent of the surveyed respectively. Relatively the largest number of enterprises expecting wage and price increases was within the services and trade sectors (the net percentages accounted for 42.2% and 15.1% respectively). 2. Funding of the Business of Non-Financial Enterprises and Its Sources The number of enterprises claiming that they only use internal financing sources is declining for the second consecutive half-year. Almost half of the Survey participants (46.1%) indicated that they financed their business activities using only internal resources; however, compared to the previous half-year, there were 1.3 p.p. fewer of such enterprises, while over the year, this share contracted by 11.7 p.p. (see Chart 4). Only internal resources were used mostly by small-sized enterprises and enterprises providing services (62.6% and 56.6% respectively), while large-sized enterprises and those within the industrial sector used them most rarely (28.8% and 34.8% respectively). Traditionally, sufficient internal financing resources and high external financing costs had the most significant impact on the choice of internal financing resources (see Chart 5): the latter factor was accentuated by small-sized enterprises (42.9%). Moreover, the share of enterprises that base the use of internal resources on the unwillingness of their owners to assume additional liabilities and the fear to lose control over management of the enterprise has been increasing gradually since the first half of 2014, and increased particularly markedly in the second half of The significance of these factors was again more accentuated by small-sized enterprises (29.5% and 27.6% respectively) (see Table 8 of the Annex). Enterprises claimed that, in the future, they would use internal resources as the only means of business financing more rarely. While more than every third surveyed enterprise plans to finance its business development in the first half of 2016 from internal resources alone, this is 11 p.p. below the figure for enterprises that claimed having done that in the second half of Small-sized (45.0%) and construction enterprises (38.6%) plan to use internal financing resources most actively, while largesized (27.4%) and industrial enterprises (28.9%) plan to use them most rarely. Slightly more than half (57.7%) of enterprises planning their business development in the first half of 2016 intended to finance at least part of its development using external financing sources. Compared to the second half of 2015, the number of such enterprises grew by 11.9 p.p. (see Table 8 of the Annex). The diversity of external funding sources increased, while the share of enterprises that used bank lending grew the most. In the second half of 2015, rent-to-own services were used by 40.2 per cent of respondents, bank loans 38.8 per cent, while credit line and trade credit 35.2 and 29.0 per cent respectively (see Chart 6 and Table8 of the Annex). The share of each means in the total funding means portfolio expanded, while the share of enterprises using bank loans expanded the most (7.9%). In addition, there was an increase in the number of enterprises that financed their business activities with less traditional means, e.g. increase of share capital (a new issue of shares) and European Union (EU) funds were used by 8.2 per cent and 6.2 per cent more enterprises than in the previous half-year.

7 3. Assessment of Borrowing from Credit Institutions 7 The assessment of the availability of credit to businesses remained basically unchanged in the second half of 2015: nearly half of the surveyed enterprises reported that lending by credit institutions to businesses was fully or at least partly limited per cent of respondents assessed the lending to business environment positively (see Table 9 of the Annex). Negative assessment dropped to 2.6 p.p. of enterprises that assessed the lending to business environment, while large-sized enterprises (19.6%), service enterprises (15.5%) and industrial enterprises (15.3%) tended to assess loans to businesses as more available or fully available. The share of enterprises with financial liabilities remained basically unchanged over the half-year. Slightly fewer than a half of the surveyed enterprises reported that they had some kind of financial liabilities to credit institutions in the second half of 2015 (an increase of 1.1 p.p. from the previous half-year). Industrial enterprises mostly reported further having financial liabilities, while the number of enterprises engaged in the provision of services with financial liabilities was the least (see Chart 7 and Table 9 of the Annex). Slightly more than two thirds of enterprises indicated that the discharge of their liabilities to credit institutions was secured by pledged assets or guarantees (a drop of 6.7 p.p. from the previous half-year). While, similarly to the previous half-year, slightly more than every third (34.6%) enterprise secured its liabilities by warranty of natural persons (see Table 9 of the Annex), significant structural changes have been observed though: an increase of more than 24.8 p.p. in the number of enterprises that had secured their liabilities by warranty of natural persons 5 and a drop of about 11 p.p. in the respective share of medium-sized enterprises., slightly less than a third of all enterprises that claimed already having financial liabilities applied to credit institutions to borrow or change the contractual terms and conditions of their current liabilities. Slightly more than three fourths of these applications were satisfied, granting the entire requested amount (see Table 9 of the Annex). Compared to the previous half-year, the number of rejected applications increased by 3 p. p. Negative decisions increased the most with respect to enterprises providing services (see Chart 8 and Table 9 of the Annex). Enterprises planned to borrow slightly less actively in the first halfyear of Compared to the previous half-year, the net percentage of enterprises planning to increase and decrease borrowing fell from 18.5 to 14.0 per cent (see Table 10 of the Annex). Funds lent will mainly be used for the repair or acquisition of equipment, machinery and vehicles (55.9%; see Table 11 of the Annex). Chart 7. Share of enterprises that had financial liabilities to credit institutions Percentage 0 In the second half of 2014 Industry Construction Trade Services All economic activities In the second half of 2015 Chart 8. Share of rejected applications for borrowing or changing the contractual terms and conditions of existing liabilities All economic activities Services Trade Construction Industry In the first half of 2014 In the second half of Percentage The most important factors determining the selection of a credit institution were favourable credit standards and low service charges of a credit institution (see Table 12 of the Annex). Compared to the second half of 2015, the latter factor was more important than the rate of decisionmaking by a credit institution. As in the previous half-year, in the perception of the surveyed enterprises, the most important factors for a credit institution in making a decision on lending were the ability of an enterprise to repay its debts, its current level of indebtedness, credit history and profitability (see Chart 9). Chart 9. Share of enterprises that see the indicated factors as important for credit institutions in making a decision on lending Size of an enterprise Possibilities to get guarantees External assessment Duration of cooperation Business expansion Possibilities to pledge assets Credit history of an enterprise Profitability of an enterprise Indebtedness level Ability to cover debt 5 Having considered the common practice of commercial banks and other credit institutions to require that a business loan is warranted by the owners of the business it is extended to or other natural persons, as well as the risk posed by such a practice, the Bank of Lithuania has prepared and submitted for a public debate its proposals on how to improve the regulation of such personal warranty measures. In the second half of 2014 In the first half of Percentage

8 8 ANNEX. SUMMARY OF ANSWERS TO MAIN QUESTIONS Table 1. Changes in key financial indicators and number of employees of non-financial enterprises construction industry Sales income (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Book value of assets (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Book value of liabilities (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Book value of equity (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Number of employees (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Operating result for the first half of 2015 Profit Loss Unspecified Operating result for the second half of 2014 (net Profit Loss Unspecified

9 Table 2. Significance of experienced challenges and their likely development Shortage of customers in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the shortage of clients in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Increase in competitiveness in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the increase in competitiveness in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Decrease in financing sources in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the decrease in financing sources in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Increased production costs in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified

10 10 Likely development of the increased production costs in the first half of 2016 (net industry construction Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Lack of adequate staff in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the lack of adequate staff in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Indebtedness of business partners in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the indebtedness of business partners in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Increase in tax burden in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of the increase in tax burden in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified

11 Legal/administrative requirements in the second half of 2015 (net industry construction Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of legal/administrative requirements in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified , Other challenges in the second half of 2015 (net Low Medium High Unspecified Likely development of other challenges in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Table 3. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by location of sales income Income received in the domestic and foreign markets respectively share of income received in the domestic market, percentage share of income received in foreign market, percentage Unspecified Unspecified

12 12 Table 4. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by likely development of export volume within the next 12 months (unless otherwise specified, %; sample of respondents 222 enterprises) net percentage Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Table 5. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by development of demand in the domestic market Development of domestic demand in the second half of 2015 (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Likely development of domestic demand in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Table 6. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by development of prices of production (services) Development of prices of production (services) in the second half of 2015 (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified Likely development of prices in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Table 7. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by wage dynamics of employees working in an enterprise Wage dynamics in the second half of 2015 (net Decreased Remained unchanged Increased Unspecified

13 Likely development of prices in the first half of 2016 (net Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Unspecified Table 8. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by origin of satisfaction of business financial needs Share of internal financing resources, % 50 per cent and below per cent per cent per cent Unspecified Breakdown of enterprises by intention of satisfying business funding needs with internal resources 6 50 per cent and below per cent per cent per cent Unspecified Significance of factors that determined the choice of internal financing sources in satisfying business needs Sufficient internal resources or no need to borrow (net Unwillingness of owners of an enterprise to assume additional liabilities (net Unwillingness of owners of an enterprise to lose control over management of the enterprise (net Unwillingness of owners of an enterprise to share profits earned (net Lack of information or not knowing how to attract external resources (net Too high a price of external resources (net Distrust in system of credit institutions (net Refusal of a credit institutions or another lender to provide financing (net Instruments for financing enterprise operations (share of enterprises using sample 194 enterprises

14 14 an instrument) Internal resources Overdraft and credit lines Bank loans Leasing, rent-to-own, factoring Increase of share capital (new issue of enterprise stocks) Issue of debt securities Use of EU funds Trade credits Financial aid from state/municipality Venture capital and private equity funds, angel investors Share of enterprises planning to change business financing sources Table 9. Breakdown of enterprises within a specified business area or size group by assessment of borrowing from credit institutions Assessment of availability of business loans Lending to businesses is strictly limited Lending to businesses is partly limited Lending to businesses is the same as it was before Lending to businesses is partly more available Lending to businesses is fully available Not sure (did not answer) Share of enterprises with liabilities to credit institutions Share of enterprises that secured their liabilities by pledge of assets (warranties) Share of enterprises that secured their liabilities by warranty of natural persons (the results for the first half of 2015 are presented in brackets) 8 Share of enterprises that applied to credit institutions for a new loan or change of the terms and conditions of current loan 9 Satisfaction of applications for borrowing or changing the contractual terms and conditions of existing liabilities (27.9) 34.8 (22.2) 38.1 (37.7) 26.5 (36.4) 57.4 (32.6) 28.8 (39.8) 27.7 (25.2) 34.6 (31.7) sample 246 enterprises 8 sample 246 enterprises 9 sample 246 enterprises 10 sample 69 enterprises

15 Application was rejected Lent a smaller amount than was applied for Lent the entire amount applied for but under additional conditions Application was fully satisfied Table 10. Borrowing from credit institutions requirement in the first half of H2 H1 Net percentage between enterprises planning to increase and decrease borrowing 2014 H H There will be no need Will decrease considerably Will decrease Will remain unchanged Will increase Will increase considerably Unspecified Sample of respondents (number of enterprises, units) Table 11. Use of funds received from external financing sources (share of enterprises that reported a given purpose) Purpose H2 H1 H2 H1 Repair, purchase or rental of equipment, machinery, transport vehicles Purchase of raw materials, fuel, goods for resale Construction, reconstruction, purchase (renting) of engineering buildings, buildings Outsourcing Purchase or rent of land 9.9 Sample of respondents (number of enterprises, units) Table 12. Assessment of factors important in selecting a credit institution (share of enterprises that reported a given factor) Factors H2 H1 H2 H1 Credit terms of credit institution are favourable Fees for services offered by credit institution are low Credit institution quickly takes decisions Credit institution has a wide range of services Credit institution is knowledgeable of the activities of your enterprise Broad network of credit institution s branches Personal relations of owners (managers) of an enterprise with a credit institution Sample of respondents (number of enterprises, units)

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