Link Dimensioning and LSP Optimization for MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ EF and BE traffic classes

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Link Dimensioning and LSP Optimization for MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ EF and BE traffic classes"

Transcription

1 Link Dimensioning and LSP Optimization for MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ EF and BE traffic casses Kehang Wu and Dougas S. Reeves Departments of Eectrica and Computer Engineering and Computer Science North Caroina State University Capacity panning is indispensabe for future Internet providing QoS. Accurate dimensioning is especiay important when no per-fow signaing or contro exists. In this paper, we address the probem of ink dimensioning and Labe Switching Path (LSP) optimization for MPLS networks supporting DiffServ EF and BE traffic casses. The probem is formuated as an optimization probem, where the goa is to minimize the noninear tota ink cost, subject to the performance constraints of both expedited forward (EF) and best effort (BE) traffic casses. The variabes to be determined are the routing of LSPs carrying both EF and BE traffic, and the discrete capacities of the inks. We show that Lagrangean Reaxation and subgradient optimization methods can be used to effectivey sove this difficut probem. Computationa resuts show that the soution quaity is verifiaby good, whie the running time remains reasonabe on practica-sized networks. This is the first work on capacity panning for MPLS networks supporting mutipe DiffServ service casses. 1. Introduction Capacity panning is the process of designing and dimensioning networks to meet the expected demands on them. The nature of offering ony best effort (BE) service makes capacity panning a straightforward matter[1] in the current Internet. With the popuarization of e-commerce and new vaue-added services over IP, Quaity of service (QoS), the abiity of a network eement to have some eve of assurance that its traffic and service requirements can be satisfied, has become a must. Capacity panning wi be an imperative part of IP network management to support various quaities of service. Mutiprotoco abe switching (MPLS) [2] [3] and Differentiated services (DiffServ) [4] [5] are regarded as two key components for providing QoS in the Internet. MPLS uses a short, fixed-ength, ocay significant abe in the packet header to switch the packets. The initia abe is chosen and inserted by the ingress node of a MPLS domain, based on the information in the IP header, associated QoS, or any other poicies in effect. The intermediate nodes use the abe as an index to find the next hop and the corresponding new abe. A abe distribution protoco (LDP) propagates abe bindings among the nodes in order to estabish and tear down the abe switched path (LSP). The power of MPLS ies in the fact that the mappings between the packet fows and the LDPs are fexibe, which enabes IP network to be traffic engineered. Packets with the same source and destination addresses, which wi inevitaby foow the same path in the traditiona IP network, can be assigned different abes This work is supported by DARPA and AFOSR (under grants F and F ). The authors wish to thank Dr. Coe Smith and Dr. Micha Pioro for their hepfu comments and suggestions.

2 and subsequenty be sent to separate LSPs. LSPs can be setup expicity to optimize the resource utiization. The use of MPLS abes may aso provide faster switching than the norma IP forwarding agorithm. The essence of DiffServ is prioritization. In traditiona IP networks, the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) fied in the headers of IP packets is marked at the edge of the network. Routers within the core of the network forward packets using different predefined per-hop behaviors (PHBs), according to their DSCP fied. In MPLS networks, the DSCP fied is not visibe to the core LSRs. The abe vaue and EXP fied (3bit experimenta fied) are used instead to determine the PHB scheduing cass (PSC) associated with packets [6]. Note that even with MPLS, the signaing and traffic contro are sti at the eve of fow aggregation. Since there is no per-fow signaing or contro, accurate dimensioning of the network is particuary important for achieving performance guarantees. To prepare for the depoyment of DiffServ in MPLS network, it is necessary to study the capacity panning probem in the context of mutipe cass-of-service networks. The IETF DiffServ working group has standardized two PHBs: Expedited Forwarding (EF) and Assured Forwarding (AF). The EF PHB [7] is defined as being such that the EF packets are guaranteed to receive service at or above a configured rate. The EF PHB can be used to buid a ow oss, ow atency, ow jitter, assured bandwidth, end-to-end service, through a DiffServ Domain. As has been discussed in [8], three expected major initia appications of QoS in the IP network are: 1) to distinguish mission critica or preferred customers; 2) to provide voice over IP service; 3) to enabe services competitive with eased ines. It can be easiy seen that the services based on the EF PHB are idea for a three of these appications. Because of its great vaue, the EF PHB is very ikey to be the first PHB to be put into action. The priority queue is widey considered to be the canonica way to impement the EF PHB, due to its abiity to offer a tighter deay bound and smoother service over reativey short time scaes [7]. AF PHBs are designed to reaize different forwarding assurances, or dropping preferences, for IP packets. AF PHBs are considered usefu to differentiate TCP traffic, where the performance is sensitive to the packet oss rate. However, simuations showed that the standard traffic contro methods of routers, such as RED(Random Eary Detection), do not satisfactoriy differentiate between AF PHBs and best effort traffic [9]. Since our approach requires a precise performance mode for optimization, we do not incude the AF traffic casses in this paper, due to the ack of a consensus on the impementation of the AF PHB. In this paper we address the probem of ink dimensioning and path optimization for MPLS networks providing DiffServ EF and BE traffic casses. The probem is formuated as an optimization probem, where we jointy seect the routes for edge to edge EF and BE user demand pairs, and assign a discrete capacity vaue for each ink. The goa is to minimize the tota ink cost, subject to the performance constraints of both EF and BE casses. The non-bifurcated (i.e., singe-path) routing mode is used for the EF cass as required by [7], so that the traffic from a singe EF demand pair wi foow the same LSP between the origin and the destination. Traffic in the BE cass is aowed to be spit across mutipe LSPs. Whie the performance constraint of EF traffic is ony represented by a bandwidth requirement, the performance constraint of the BE cass is characterized by the average deay in each ink. Queueing is modeed as M/G/1 strict priority queues. Our intention is to not ony define the capacity panning probem for MPLS network supporting DiffServ and discose feasibe soutions, but aso provide hepfu insights for capacity panning of other QoS architectures. Athough there is no previous work specificay targeting the dimensioning and routing probems for MPLS networks supporting Diffserv, there are many papers addressing the issues of QoS routing in genera. An extensive survey can be found in [10]. But because the routing and ink dimensioning probems are cosey reated to each other, it is inappropriate to separate them. There are extensive works deaing with traffic engineering issues in MPLS network, such

3 as [11] [12], or LSP setup and dimensioning probem [13]. However, in those works the ink capacity is fixed and not subject to be optimized. Papers where the routing and capacity assignment probems are treated simutaneousy incude [14] [15] [16][17] [18] [19] [20] [21]. Gera and Keinrock [14] presented heuristic methods based on the fow deviation agorithm [22]. Gavish and Neuman [15] formuated the probem as a non-inear integer programming probem, and proposed a Lagrangean reaxation based approach. [21] studied the network with eastic traffic and approximated the non-inear cost function to a piece-wise inear function. The networks studied in [14] [15] [21] ony incude one traffic cass, though. Medhi and Tipper [19] proposed four approaches for reconfigurabe ATM networks based on the Virtua Path concept. Even though ATM networks incude mutipe traffic casses, Medhi proposed a mode that assumes the deterministic mutipexing of different virtua paths, which resuts in inear performance constraints. We studied the probem of capacity panning for DiffServ networks in a previous work [23], where the MPLS protoco is not supported. Because of the absence of MPLS in [23], traffic demands with the same origin and destination wi be constrained to foow the same path. [23] ony considers the routing of EF demand pairs, whie the routing of both EF and BE casses are optimized in this paper. A noninear cost function is assumed in this paper, whie [23] uses a inear cost function. The nove aspect of our capacity panning probem is the fact that two traffic casses, EF and BE, with independent behaviors and performance requirements, share the same capacity resource, which resuts in a compex non-inear performance constraint. In addition to the noninear performance constraint, non-bifurcated routing and discrete ink capacity constraints dramaticay increase the degree of difficuty, and significanty imit the viabe soution approaches. The remainder of this paper is organized as foows. In Section 2, notation and detaied assumptions and modes are presented. The probem definition is given in Section 3. Section 4 shows a Lagrangean reaxation of the origina probem, and describes the subgradient procedure to sove the resuting dua probem. Section 5 presents some numerica resuts on the use of the method. The paper is concuded in Section Notation and Modes The foowing notation wi be used throughout the paper. K set of (both EF and BE) Origin-Destination (O-D) pairs 3 M k set of EF demands for O-D pair k, k K L set of inks in the network J k set of possibe candidate LSP paths for the O-D pair k, k K δj ink-path indicator; 1 if path j uses ink, j J k,k K, L, 0 otherwise α ef average arriva rate of an EF traffic demand m, m M k, k K ρ ef requested bandwidth of an EF traffic demand m, m M k, k K j EF path routing variabe; 1 if EF demand m, m M k, k K uses path j J k,0 otherwise. η tota requested bandwidth of EF demand on ink L average arriva rate of tota EF traffic demand on ink L kj BE path routing variabe: the portion of BE demand k uses candidate path j, j J k. kj can be any rea vaue between 0 and 1 αk be average arriva rate of a BE traffic demand, k K γ average arriva rate of extra BE traffic demand on ink, L average arriva rate of tota BE traffic demand on ink L β be

4 d d max g T u t ψ t average deay experienced by BE traffic on ink L maximum vaue of d aowed for ink L BE deay bound factor index of avaiabe ink types for ink L ink type decision variabe; 1 if ink type t is used for ink L, 0 other wise. size of the capacity of ink type t, t T ψ tota capacity of ink, L C t cost of the ink type t, t T, in ink C tota cost of ink, L ỹ,ỹ2 the first and second moment of packet size, (units: bits & bits 2 ) Link based formuation is used in this paper. The network is defined by (L,K,J k ). For an EF demand m, m M k, we differentiate between the average arriva rate, α ef, and the requested bandwidth, ρ ef. ρef is usuay a vaue between the average arriva rate and the peak rate. It is noted in [7] that the packets of the EF traffic cass beonging to the same fow shoud not be reordered. Consequenty, traffic from the same EF demand can not be separated into different LSPs. = α ef j δ j (1) k K m M k η = Γ({ρ ef }, {δ j}, { j }) ρ ef k K m M k j δ j (2) where Γ() is the EF demand mutipexing function (discussed further beow). The inequaity becomes equaity ony when there is no mutipexing gain. For each O-D pair k, ony one BE demand pair is defined. We aow an arbitrary portion of the BE demand to route through any candidate LSP. Therefore the aggregation of BE traffic woud potentiay improve the effectiveness of traffic engineering. Because of the connectioness nature of IP traffic, it is unikey that a the BE demand can be ceary mapped to specific O-D pairs. We introduce another variabe γ, which is the average arriva rate of extra BE traffic in ink besides that from the BE demand pairs {k : k K}. Thus the tota BE oad (average arriva rate) on ink is: β be = γ + k K α be k kj δj The capacity and the cost of ink, ψ and C respectivey, are: (3) ψ = t T u t ψ t, C = t T u t C t (4) There is no inear reationship assumed between C t and ψ t, therefore C is not necessariy a inear function of ψ. There are many discussions about the origina EF PHB [24] concerning the imits on EF utiization. Charny reported in [25] that the worst case deay jitter can be made arbitrariy arge using a FIFO queue uness the utiization of EF traffic was imited to a factor smaer than 1/(H 1), where H is the number of hops in the ongest path of the network. Other

5 impementations of packet scheduing may improve the upper bound on the EF utiization. The revised EF PHB [7], RFC 3246, introduces an error term E a for the treatment of the EF aggregate, which represents the aowed worst case deviation between the actua EF packet departure time and the idea departure time of the same packet. It is not immediatey cear whether this revision totay eiminates the constraint on the EF utiization, or simpy aows a trade-off between the EF utiization and the deay jitter. In this paper, we assume that the projected EF user demand η is much ess than the capacity of the ink, so there is no concern about this imit on the EF utiization, and the exact form of the mutipexing function Γ() does not have any impact on the fina soutions. How to specify the performance of BE traffic in the service eve agreement (SLA) is sti an active research topic. [26] suggests using the atency averaged over a arge time scae as the primary criteria for the performance of BE traffic in IP network service eve agreements (SLAs). We pick the average deay as the soe performance measurement for BE traffic in this paper. We evauate the performance of BE traffic on a per-ink basis (i.e., not end-to-end). The vaue ỹ ψ stands for the average transmission deay of packets. We use ỹ ψ as the basis for the ỹ deay bound. Let d max = g, where g ψ is a parameter defined by the network designer. The arger the vaue of g, the more bandwidth is required for ink, therefore the ower the ink utiization. We assume that the performance of BE traffic is satisfactory if d d max. Every router is modeed as a M/G/1 system with Poisson packet arrivas and an arbitrary packet ength distribution. Whie it has been suggested that the Internet traffic is ong-range dependent [27] and thus bursty, a recent work [28] shows that the network traffic can be smooth and Poisson-ike. [29] concudes, through both simuation and anaytic study, that even though the traffic exhibits bursty behavior at certain time scaes, the variance-mean reation is approximatey inear over arger time scaes, where the traffic can be treated as if it were smooth. Our choice of the Poisson arriva mode is justified because we are more concerned about the average BE performance over a arge time scae for capacity panning purposes. From the average queueing deay formua of the priority queue [30], we obtain the performance constraint for BE traffic: ỹ ψ + ỹ2 2ỹ ( ψ + β be )( ψ β be ) g ỹ (5) ψ In order to have a meaningfu soution for constraint (5), ψ > With some rearrangement, (5) yieds ψ f( ), where f( ) = + βbe 3. Probem Formuation 2 + ỹ2 ( + β be ) 4(ỹ) 2 (g 1) (2 + β be + + β be is required. ỹ 2 ( + β be ) 2(ỹ) 2 (g 1) )2 4β be (β be + ) The forma probem definition is presented beow. Given: K, M k,l,j k,α ef,ρef,αbe k,γ,δj,t,ψ t,c t Variabe: j,xbe kj,u t Goa: min C L Subject to: ψ f(βef) j =0/1, j =1 (6) (7)

6 kj =1 u t =0/1, t T u t =1 (8) (9) Constraint (6) ensures the performance of BE traffic. (9) imposes a discrete constraint on the ink capacities. (7) ensures that a traffic from one EF O-D pair wi foow one singe path. Because C is a non-decreasing function of and β be, this probem can be reformuated as: min C (10) L Subject to (6) (7) (8) (9) and: k K β be γ + k K αbe k m M k α ef j δ j (11) kj δ j (12) We refer to the probem defined by (10, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12) as probem (P) in the rest of this paper. As can be seen from the above probem formuation, probem (P) is a non-inear integer programming probem, which is very difficut to optimize in genera. 4. Soution Method 4.1. Lagrangean Reaxation Lagrangean Reaxation is a common technique for muticommodity fow probems [31]. It has been successfuy appied to the capacity panning and routing probems [32] [15] [20] [18] [19]. We describe its use for our probem in this section. Using Lagrangean Reaxation, reax (11) and (12), and we have the Lagrangean as: L( j,xbe kj,u t,,λ be ) = C The Lagrangean dua probem (D) is then: max h(,λ be ),λ be 0 where: h(,λ be ) = min j,xbe kj,u t L( j,xbe ( k K λ be (β be γ k K kj,u t, Since,β be and j,xbe kj are independent variabes, min L = min = + min k K + k K α be k [ C λ be (β be γ )] + min k K α be k α ef j δ j) m M k kj δ j) (13) (14),λ be ) (15) α ef m M k j δ j λ be kjδ j (16) min[ C λ be (β be γ )] + k K min(α be k m M k min(α ef j δ j) λ be kjδ j) (17)

7 4.2. Soving the Subprobems Equation (17) shows that the probem (15) can be separated into the foowing three subprobems: Subprobem (i): min[ C λ be (β be Subject to: f(,β be γ )] (18), ψ ) d max (19) Subprobem (i) can be soved by the gradient projection method [33]. Subprobem (ii): min(α ef j δ j) (20) This is simpy a shortest path probem where the cost of ink is set to. The soution is to et j =1for j satisfying: where P (j) = P (j ) = min j (P (j)) (21) j δ j Subprobem (iii): min(α be k λ be kjδ j) (22) Simiar to Subprobem (ii), the soution is to set kj to 1 for j satisfying: Q(j ) = min(q(j)) j where Q(j) = λ be kjδ j (23) 4.3. Subgradient Method The subgradient method is used to update and λ be. Due to space imitations, the reader is referred to the standard reference [31], or to our earier work [23], for a detaied description of the procedure and the choices of parameters. At each iteration, the soution of j and kj for the prima probem (P) can be obtained from the soution of subprobem (ii) and(iii). The ink capacity ψ can be computed according to (6). Consequenty, the primary objective function can be derived. As the iteration proceeds, we store the best soution found so far for the prima probem (P). In this way, we are aways abe to obtain a feasibe soution. The maximum number of iterations is set to 400 in the impementation [23][31]s. The soution of the dua probem provides a ower bound for the prima probem. Therefore, the soution quaity can be assessed by the duaity gap, which is the difference between the soutions of probem (P) and probem (D). Note that because the duaity gap is aways no smaer than the actua difference between the obtained feasibe soution and the optima soution, it is a conservative estimate of the soution quaity.

8 5. Computationa Resuts In this section, we present numerica resuts based on experimentation. The objective of our experiment is to evauate the soution quaity and running time of the agorithm. The program is impemented in C and the computation is performed on a Pentium IV 2.4GHz PC with 512M memory, running Redhat Linux 7.2. The network topoogies are generated using the Georgia Tech Internetwork Topoogy Modes (GT-ITM) [34]. The ocations of origins and destinations are randomy seected. For each O-D pair, 10 candidate paths are cacuated using Yen s K-shortest path agorithm [35]. If not specified, EF and BE demand pairs are randomy generated with a uniform distribution from 0 Mbps to 10 Mbps, whie the average BE traffic oad of each ink is aso uniformy distributed from 30 Mbps to 100 Mbps. The number of EF demands for the same O-D pair is uniformy distributed from 1 to 10. The number of candidate ink types for ink is uniformy distributed from 5 to 10. The capacities of ink types are set to be mutipes of 45Mbps, whie the costs of the ink types for ink are randomy generated in such a way that the cost goes higher and the unit cost per Mbps goes down as the ink capacity increases. We use average packet size ỹ = 4396 bits and second moment of packet size ỹ2 = bits 2 for a the test cases. They are cacuated based on a traffic trace (AIX ) from the NLANR Passive Measurement and Anaysis project [36]. In practice, the BE deay bound factor, g, shoud be carefuy chosen to refect the actua traffic pattern, the desired BE performance, and the expected ink utiization. g is set to 2 for a inks in our experiments. The average ink utiization is about 60% when g equas 2. The agorithm was tested on 8 different sizes of networks, ranging from 10 nodes to 1000 nodes. Some detais of the network topoogies are isted in Tabe 1. Note that the O-D demand number shown in Tabe 1 incudes both EF and BE demands. To obtain confidence intervas, we generate 30 different topoogies for each network size, with the same number of nodes, inks, and O-D pairs. Duaity Gap = s p s d s d (24) The soution quaity is represented by the duaity gap, which is the percentage difference between the soution of the prima probem and the dua probem. s p and s d are the soutions of prima probem and dua probem respectivey. A vaue cose to zero means the soution is very cose to optima. Tabe 1 shows the running time and Duaity Gap (where a vaue of 0 means optima quaity) of various network sizes, expressed in terms of the 95% confidence intervas. In a 240 test cases, the agorithm converges without difficuty. It is easy to see from the tabe that the Lagrangean Tabe 1 Network topoogy information and experimenta resuts Node Number Link Number O-D Demand Number Duaity Gap (%) Running Time (sec) (0.15, 2.24) (3.79, 5.20) (0.01, 3.96) (15.84, 22.68) (0, 2.78) (75.40, 98.38) (0.16, 3.51) (207.55, ) (0, 2.15) ( , ) (0, 3.02) ( , ) (0, 2.41) ( , ) (0, 2.93) ( , )

9 Reaxation together with the subgradient method produces reasonabe resuts as the duaity gap is bounded by no more than 4%. Note the prima probem itsef is approximated when reducing the size of candidate path set for a possibe path set. But according to our experimenta resuts, more than 99% of the time, the fina soution is chosen among the 5 shortest candidate paths. Therefore, 10 candidate paths are considered adequate. Having more than 10 candidate paths wi have minima impact on the soution quaity, whie significanty increasing the running time. Given the arge number of networks being tested, we are confident that the soution shoud have good quaity for other sizes of networks. Because capacity panning is usuay performed on the time scae of weeks to months, the running time of the agorithm is not the most critica factor. But it is sti desirabe to know how the running time scaes up with respect to the network size. The size of the argest network evauated in this paper is representative of a arge network, and is much arger than the test cases used in most work on capacity panning. It is fair to predict that the running time of the agorithm wi stay reasonabe for practica sized networks. The other observation is that over 93% of the time, demands with the same O-D use ony singe candidate path. It means that when designing a east cost network, traffic engineering capabiity enabed by the MPLS protoco does not have a significant impact on the optima resut at the stage of network panning. This is understandabe, since traffic engineering is most usefu when the rea traffic fuctuates in an operationa network. Further investigation is required to have a better understanding of the effect. 6. Concusions and Future Directions In this paper, we addressed the probem of ink dimensioning and routing for MPLS networks supporting DiffServ EF and BE traffic. We formuate the probem as an optimization probem, where the tota ink cost is minimized, subject to the performance constraints of both EF and BE casses. The performance guarantee of BE traffic resuts in noninear constraints. The variabe here is the non-bifurcated (singe-path) routing of EF demands, mutipath routing of BE demands, and the discrete ink capacities. We presented a Lagrangean Reaxation-based method to effectivey decompose the origina probem. A subgradient method is used to find the optima Lagrangean mutipier. We investigated experimentay the soution quaity and running time of this approach. The resuts from our experiments indicate that our method produces soutions that are within a few percent of the optima soution, whie the running time stays reasonabe for practica sized networks. This paper presents a preiminary investigation of the capacity panning issue for MPLS networks supporting DiffServ. The novety of the probem presented in this paper is that it invoves two traffic casses, EF and BE, which have totay different forms of performance requirements. The probem formuation and soution approaches may be appied to other traffic casses and simiar network architectures. There are opportunities to extend this work in severa directions. We are working on a method where an empirica performance mode may be used, and thus AF traffic casses can be incorporated into the probem. We are aso investigating the adaptation of this technique to other type of networks, when there are mutipe casses of service. REFERENCES 1. S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, Addison-Wesey, D. A. et a., Requirement for traffic engineering over MPLS, IETF RFC E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Caon, Mutiprotoco abe switching architecture, IETF RFC S. Bake, et a., An Architecture for Differentiated Service, IETF RFC 2475.

10 5. K. Nichos, V. Jacobson, L. Zhang, A Two-bit Differentiated Services Architecture for the Internet, IETF RFC L. Wu, B. David, etc, Muti-Protoco abe switching MPLS support of differentiated services, IETF RFC B. David, A. Charny, et A., An Expedited Forwarding PHB, IETF RFC B. E. Carpenter, K. Nichos, Differentiated services in the internet, Proceedings of the IEEE 90 (9) (2002) S. Ano, T. Hasegawa, N. Decre, Experimenta TCP performance evauation on diffserv AF PHBs over ATM SBR service, Teecommunication Systems 19 (3-4) (2002) S. Chen, K. Nahrstedt, An overview of quaity-of-service routing for the next generation high-speed networks: Probems and soutions, IEEE Network Magazine 12 (1998) A. Ewaid, C. Jin, S. Low, I. Widjaja, MATE: MPLS adaptive traffic engineering (2001), in: IEEE Infocom 01, Vo. 3, IEEE, Anchorage, Aaska, 2001, pp M. Kodiaam, T. Lakshman, Minimum interference routing with appications to MPLS traffic engineering, in: IEEE Infocom 00, Vo. 2, IEEE, Te Aviv, Israe, 2000, pp I. Akyidiz, T. Anjai, L. Chen, J. de Oiveira, C. Scogio, A. Sciuto, J. Smith, G. Uh, A new traffic engineering manager for DiffServ/MPLS networks: Design and impementation on an IP QoS testbed, Computer Communications 26 (2003) M. Gera, L. Keinrock, On the topoogica design of distributed computer networks, IEEE Transactions on Communications COM-25 (1) (1977) B. Gavish, I. Neuman, A System for Routing and Capacity Assignment in Computer Networks, IEEE Transaction on Communications 37 (4) (1989) H. Gersht, R. Weihmayer, Joint Optimization of Data Network Design and Faciity Location, IEEE Journa on Seected Areas in Communications 8 (9) (1990) T. Ng, D. Hoang, Joint Optimization of Capacity and Fow Assignment in a Packet-switched Communication Network, IEEE Transaction on Communications COM-35 (2) (1987) D. Medhi, Muti-Hour, Muti-Traffic Cass Network Design for Virtua Path-based Dynamicay Reconfigurabe Wide-Area ATM Networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 3 (6) (1995) D. Medhi, D. Tipper, Some Approaches to Soving a Mutihour Broadband Network Capacity Design Probem with Singe-path Routing, Teecommunication Systems 13 (2-4) (2000) A. Amiri, A System for the Design of Packet-Switched Communication Networks with Economic Tradeoffs, Computer Communications 21 (18) (1998) G. Maicsko, G. Fodor, M. Pioro, Link capacity dimensioning and path optimization for networks supporting eastic services, in: IEEE ICC 2002, Vo. 4, 2002, pp L. Fratta, M. Gera, L. Keinrock, The Fow Deviation Method: An Approach to Store-and-Forward Communication Network Design, Networks 3 (2) (1973) K. Wu, D. S. Reeves, Capacity panning of DiffServ networks with Best-Effort and Expedited Forwarding traffic, in: To appear in IEEE 2003 Internationa Conference on Communications, Anchorage, Aaska, V.Jacobson, K.Nichos, K.Poduri, An Expedited Forwarding PHB, IETF RFC A. Charny, J.-Y. L. Boudec, Deay Bounds in Network with Aggregate Scheduing, in: First Internationa Workshop on Quaity of Future Internet Service, Berin, Germany, 2000, pp J. Martin, A. Nisson, On service eve agree ments for IP networks, in: IEEE Infocom 02, IEEE, New York, V. Paxson, S. Foyd, Wide-area traffic: The faiure of poisson modeing, in: ACM SIGCOMM 94, London, R. Morris, D. Lin, Variance of aggregated web traffic, in: IEEE Infocom 00, IEEE, Te Aviv, Israe, 2000, pp X. Tian, J. Wu, C. Ji, A unified framework for understanding network traffic using independent waveet modes, in: IEEE Infocom 02, Vo. 1, IEEE, 2002, pp L. Keinrock, Queueing Systems, Voume II: Computer Appication, Wiey Interscience, R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, J. Orin, Network Fows, Theory, Agorithms and Appications, Prentice Ha, New Jersey, B. Gavish, I. Neuman, Capacity and Fow Assignment in Large Computer Networks, in: IEEE Infocom 86, IEEE, 1986, pp D. Bertsekas, R. Gaager, Data Networks, Prentice Ha, Engewood Ciffs, NJ, E. Zegura, K. Cavert, M. J. Donahoo, A Quantitative Comparison of Graph-based Modes for Internet Topoogy, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networks 5 (6) (1997) J. Yen, Finding the K Shortest Loopess Paths in a Network, Management Science 17 (11) (1971) NLANR passive measurement and anaysis project, (2001).

Capacity Planning of Survivable MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ

Capacity Planning of Survivable MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ Capacity Panning of Survivabe MPLS Networks Supporting DiffServ Kehang Wu and Dougas S. Reeves Departments of Eectrica and Computer Engineering and Computer Science North Caroina State University kwu@unity.ncsu.edu,

More information

Pricing Internet Services With Multiple Providers

Pricing Internet Services With Multiple Providers Pricing Internet Services With Mutipe Providers Linhai He and Jean Warand Dept. of Eectrica Engineering and Computer Science University of Caifornia at Berkeey Berkeey, CA 94709 inhai, wr@eecs.berkeey.edu

More information

Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion

Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion Jianong Tan, Murie Médard Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technoogy Cambridge, MA 0239, USA E-mai: {jianong, medard}@mit.edu

More information

Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks

Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks Simutaneous Routing and Power Aocation in CDMA Wireess Data Networks Mikae Johansson *,LinXiao and Stephen Boyd * Department of Signas, Sensors and Systems Roya Institute of Technoogy, SE 00 Stockhom,

More information

GREEN: An Active Queue Management Algorithm for a Self Managed Internet

GREEN: An Active Queue Management Algorithm for a Self Managed Internet : An Active Queue Management Agorithm for a Sef Managed Internet Bartek Wydrowski and Moshe Zukerman ARC Specia Research Centre for Utra-Broadband Information Networks, EEE Department, The University of

More information

Math: Fundamentals 100

Math: Fundamentals 100 Math: Fundamentas 100 Wecome to the Tooing University. This course is designed to be used in conjunction with the onine version of this cass. The onine version can be found at http://www.tooingu.com. We

More information

IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 31, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2013 1

IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 31, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2013 1 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 31, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2013 1 Scaabe Muti-Cass Traffic Management in Data Center Backbone Networks Amitabha Ghosh, Sangtae Ha, Edward Crabbe, and Jennifer

More information

Experiment #11 BJT filtering

Experiment #11 BJT filtering Jonathan Roderick Hakan Durmus Experiment #11 BJT fitering Introduction: Now that the BJT has bn expored in static and dynamic operation, the BJT, combined with what has bn aready presented, may be used

More information

Systems. Abstract. 2. Communication Architectures for VOD Services. 1. Introduction

Systems. Abstract. 2. Communication Architectures for VOD Services. 1. Introduction Techniques for Improving Hari Kava Center for Teecommunications Research Coumbia University New York, NY 10027 the Capacity of Video-on-Demand Systems Borko Furht Mutimedia Laboratory Forida Atantic University

More information

Virtual trunk simulation

Virtual trunk simulation Virtua trunk simuation Samui Aato * Laboratory of Teecommunications Technoogy Hesinki University of Technoogy Sivia Giordano Laboratoire de Reseaux de Communication Ecoe Poytechnique Federae de Lausanne

More information

HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER. Abstract

HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER. Abstract HYBRID FUZZY LOGIC PID CONTROLLER Thomas Brehm and Kudip S. Rattan Department of Eectrica Engineering Wright State University Dayton, OH 45435 Abstract This paper investigates two fuzzy ogic PID controers

More information

Multi-Robot Task Scheduling

Multi-Robot Task Scheduling Proc of IEEE Internationa Conference on Robotics and Automation, Karsruhe, Germany, 013 Muti-Robot Tas Scheduing Yu Zhang and Lynne E Parer Abstract The scheduing probem has been studied extensivey in

More information

Artificial neural networks and deep learning

Artificial neural networks and deep learning February 20, 2015 1 Introduction Artificia Neura Networks (ANNs) are a set of statistica modeing toos originay inspired by studies of bioogica neura networks in animas, for exampe the brain and the centra

More information

A Supplier Evaluation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements

A Supplier Evaluation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements A Suppier Evauation System for Automotive Industry According To Iso/Ts 16949 Requirements DILEK PINAR ÖZTOP 1, ASLI AKSOY 2,*, NURSEL ÖZTÜRK 2 1 HONDA TR Purchasing Department, 41480, Çayırova - Gebze,

More information

Lecture 7 Datalink Ethernet, Home. Datalink Layer Architectures

Lecture 7 Datalink Ethernet, Home. Datalink Layer Architectures Lecture 7 Dataink Ethernet, Home Peter Steenkiste Schoo of Computer Science Department of Eectrica and Computer Engineering Carnegie Meon University 15-441 Networking, Spring 2004 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/15-441

More information

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GANG SCHEDULING IN A PARTITIONABLE PARALLEL SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GANG SCHEDULING IN A PARTITIONABLE PARALLEL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GANG SCHEDULING IN A PARTITIONABLE PARALLEL SYSTEM Heen D. Karatza Department of Informatics Aristote University of Thessaoniki 54124 Thessaoniki, Greece E-mai: karatza@csd.auth.gr

More information

Cooperative Content Distribution and Traffic Engineering in an ISP Network

Cooperative Content Distribution and Traffic Engineering in an ISP Network Cooperative Content Distribution and Traffic Engineering in an ISP Network Wenjie Jiang, Rui Zhang-Shen, Jennifer Rexford, Mung Chiang Department of Computer Science, and Department of Eectrica Engineering

More information

Fast Robust Hashing. ) [7] will be re-mapped (and therefore discarded), due to the load-balancing property of hashing.

Fast Robust Hashing. ) [7] will be re-mapped (and therefore discarded), due to the load-balancing property of hashing. Fast Robust Hashing Manue Urueña, David Larrabeiti and Pabo Serrano Universidad Caros III de Madrid E-89 Leganés (Madrid), Spain Emai: {muruenya,darra,pabo}@it.uc3m.es Abstract As statefu fow-aware services

More information

The Radix-4 and the Class of Radix-2 s FFTs

The Radix-4 and the Class of Radix-2 s FFTs Chapter 11 The Radix- and the Cass of Radix- s FFTs The divide-and-conuer paradigm introduced in Chapter 3 is not restricted to dividing a probem into two subprobems. In fact, as expained in Section. and

More information

ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT

ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT Initiatives Strategic Mapping Success in The Food System: Discover. Anayze. Strategize. Impement. Measure. ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT Foodservice manufacturers aocate, in

More information

REAL TIME IMPLEMANTATION OF LMS BEAMFORMER FOR cdma2000 3G SYSTEM USING TI TMS320C6701 DSP

REAL TIME IMPLEMANTATION OF LMS BEAMFORMER FOR cdma2000 3G SYSTEM USING TI TMS320C6701 DSP REAL TIME IMPLEMANTATION OF LMS BEAMFORMER FOR cdma2000 3G SYSTEM USING TI TMS320C6701 DSP Kerem Küçük, Mustafa Karakoç, and Adnan Kavak + Kocaei University + Kocaei University Eectronics and Computer

More information

TOPOLOGICAL DESIGN OF MULTIPLE VPNS OVER MPLS NETWORK Anotai Srikitja David Tipper

TOPOLOGICAL DESIGN OF MULTIPLE VPNS OVER MPLS NETWORK Anotai Srikitja David Tipper TOPOLOGICAL DESIGN OF MULTIPLE VPNS OVER MPLS NETWORK Anotai Sriitja David Tier Det. of Information Science and Teecommunications University of Pittsburgh N. Beefied Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 60 ABSTRACT

More information

Response Time versus Utilization in Scheduler Overhead Accounting

Response Time versus Utilization in Scheduler Overhead Accounting Response Time versus Utiization in Scheduer Overhead Accounting Siviu S. Craciunas Christoph M. Kirsch Ana Sokoova Department of Computer Sciences University of Sazburg, Austria Emai: firstname.astname@cs.uni-sazburg.at

More information

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers Purpose Austraian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers 1 The principa objective of the Austraian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in respect of business providers is to impose the owest oad

More information

Background & Motivation. Layering as Optimization Decomposition: A Mathematical Theory of Network Architectures. Layered Architecture

Background & Motivation. Layering as Optimization Decomposition: A Mathematical Theory of Network Architectures. Layered Architecture Background & Motivation Layering as Optimization Decomposition: A Mathematica Theory o Network Architectures Network Architecture? Convex Optimization max U(x) Ax C x 0 Francesco Lo Presti Universita di

More information

Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers

Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers Pricing and Revenue Sharing Strategies for Internet Service Providers Linhai He and Jean Warand Department of Eectrica Engineering and Computer Sciences University of Caifornia at Berkeey {inhai,wr}@eecs.berkeey.edu

More information

Dynamic Pricing Trade Market for Shared Resources in IIU Federated Cloud

Dynamic Pricing Trade Market for Shared Resources in IIU Federated Cloud Dynamic Pricing Trade Market or Shared Resources in IIU Federated Coud Tongrang Fan 1, Jian Liu 1, Feng Gao 1 1Schoo o Inormation Science and Technoogy, Shiiazhuang Tiedao University, Shiiazhuang, 543,

More information

TCP/IP Gateways and Firewalls

TCP/IP Gateways and Firewalls Gateways and Firewas 1 Gateways and Firewas Prof. Jean-Yves Le Boudec Prof. Andrzej Duda ICA, EPFL CH-1015 Ecubens http://cawww.epf.ch Gateways and Firewas Firewas 2 o architecture separates hosts and

More information

Simulation-Based Booking Limits for Airline Revenue Management

Simulation-Based Booking Limits for Airline Revenue Management OPERATIONS RESEARCH Vo. 53, No. 1, January February 2005, pp. 90 106 issn 0030-364X eissn 1526-5463 05 5301 0090 informs doi 10.1287/opre.1040.0164 2005 INFORMS Simuation-Based Booking Limits for Airine

More information

Face Hallucination and Recognition

Face Hallucination and Recognition Face Haucination and Recognition Xiaogang Wang and Xiaoou Tang Department of Information Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong {xgwang1, xtang}@ie.cuhk.edu.hk http://mmab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract.

More information

Constrained Optimization: Step by Step. Maximizing Subject to a set of constraints:

Constrained Optimization: Step by Step. Maximizing Subject to a set of constraints: Constrained Optimization: Step by Step Most (if not a) economic decisions are the resut of an optimization probem subject to one or a series of constraints: Consumers make decisions on what to buy constrained

More information

Maintenance activities planning and grouping for complex structure systems

Maintenance activities planning and grouping for complex structure systems Maintenance activities panning and grouping for compex structure systems Hai Canh u, Phuc Do an, Anne Barros, Christophe Berenguer To cite this version: Hai Canh u, Phuc Do an, Anne Barros, Christophe

More information

An FDD Wideband CDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless Multimedia Networks

An FDD Wideband CDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless Multimedia Networks An FDD ideband CDMA MAC Protoco for ireess Mutimedia Networks Xudong ang Broadband and ireess Networking (BN) Lab Schoo of Eectrica and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technoogy Atanta, GA 3332

More information

WIRELESS Mesh Networks (WMNs) have recently attracted

WIRELESS Mesh Networks (WMNs) have recently attracted 3968 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 2, NO. 8, AUGUST 23 A New MPLS-Based Forwarding Paradigm for Muti-Radio Wireess Mesh Networks Stefano Avaone and Giovanni Di Stasi Abstract Routing

More information

Perfect competition. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 7 Perfect competition. 1 Microeconomics. 1 Microeconomics

Perfect competition. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 7 Perfect competition. 1 Microeconomics. 1 Microeconomics erfect 7 12 By the end of this chapter, you shoud be abe to: HL expain the assumptions of perfect HL distinguish between the demand curve for the industry and for the firm in perfect HL expain how the

More information

GreenTE: Power-Aware Traffic Engineering

GreenTE: Power-Aware Traffic Engineering GreenTE: Power-Aware Traffic Engineering Mingui Zhang zmg6@mais.tsinghua.edu.cn Cheng Yi yic@emai.arizona.edu Bin Liu iub@tsinghua.edu.cn Beichuan Zhang bzhang@arizona.edu Abstract Current network infrastructures

More information

Learning framework for NNs. Introduction to Neural Networks. Learning goal: Inputs/outputs. x 1 x 2. y 1 y 2

Learning framework for NNs. Introduction to Neural Networks. Learning goal: Inputs/outputs. x 1 x 2. y 1 y 2 Introduction to Neura Networks Learning framework for NNs What are neura networks? Noninear function approimators How do they reate to pattern recognition/cassification? Noninear discriminant functions

More information

FRAME BASED TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION BY CONSIDERING VARIOUS SPATIAL NEIGHBORHOODS. Karl Skretting and John Håkon Husøy

FRAME BASED TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION BY CONSIDERING VARIOUS SPATIAL NEIGHBORHOODS. Karl Skretting and John Håkon Husøy FRAME BASED TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION BY CONSIDERING VARIOUS SPATIAL NEIGHBORHOODS Kar Skretting and John Håkon Husøy University of Stavanger, Department of Eectrica and Computer Engineering N-4036 Stavanger,

More information

Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique

Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique Inf2B gorithms and Data Structures Note 7 Sorting, Merge Sort and the Divide-and-Conquer Technique This and a subsequent next ecture wi mainy be concerned with sorting agorithms. Sorting is an extremey

More information

EE 178/278A Probabilistic Systems Analysis. Spring 2014 Tse/Hussami Lecture 11. A Brief Introduction to Continuous Probability

EE 178/278A Probabilistic Systems Analysis. Spring 2014 Tse/Hussami Lecture 11. A Brief Introduction to Continuous Probability EE 178/278A Probabiistic Systems Anaysis Spring 2014 Tse/Hussami Lecture 11 A Brief Introduction to Continuous Probabiity Up to now we have focused excusivey on discrete probabiity spaces Ω, where the

More information

An Interactive Fuzzy Satisficing Method for Multiobjective Stochastic Integer Programming Problems through a Probability Maximization Model

An Interactive Fuzzy Satisficing Method for Multiobjective Stochastic Integer Programming Problems through a Probability Maximization Model Cahit Perkgoz et a./asia Pacific Management Review (005) 10(1), 9-35 An Interactive Fuzzy Satisficing Method for Mutiobective Stochastic Integer Programming Probems through a Probabiity Maximization Mode

More information

The Computation of the Inverse of a Square Polynomial Matrix

The Computation of the Inverse of a Square Polynomial Matrix The Computation of the Inverse of a Square Poynomia Matrix Ky M. Vu, PhD. AuLac Technoogies Inc. c 2008 Emai: kymvu@auactechnoogies.com Abstract An approach to cacuate the inverse of a square poynomia

More information

Recognition of Prior Learning

Recognition of Prior Learning Recognition of Prior Learning Information Guideines for Students EXTENDED CAMPUS This subject materia is issued by Cork Institute of Technoogy on the understanding that: Cork Institute of Technoogy expressy

More information

Minimizing the Total Weighted Completion Time of Coflows in Datacenter Networks

Minimizing the Total Weighted Completion Time of Coflows in Datacenter Networks Minimizing the Tota Weighted Competion Time of Cofows in Datacenter Networks Zhen Qiu Ciff Stein and Yuan Zhong ABSTRACT Communications in datacenter jobs (such as the shuffe operations in MapReduce appications

More information

An Idiot s guide to Support vector machines (SVMs)

An Idiot s guide to Support vector machines (SVMs) An Idiot s guide to Support vector machines (SVMs) R. Berwick, Viage Idiot SVMs: A New Generation of Learning Agorithms Pre 1980: Amost a earning methods earned inear decision surfaces. Linear earning

More information

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partial Document Replication *

Load Balancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partial Document Replication * Load Baancing in Distributed Web Server Systems with Partia Document Repication * Ling Zhuo Cho-Li Wang Francis C. M. Lau Department of Computer Science and Information Systems The University of Hong Kong

More information

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Course Offered By: Indian Environmenta Society INTRODUCTION The Indian Environmenta Society (IES) a dynamic and fexibe organization with a goba vision

More information

Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time

Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time Journa of Heathcare Engineering Vo. 6 No. 3 Page 34 376 34 Comparison of Traditiona and Open-Access Appointment Scheduing for Exponentiay Distributed Service Chongjun Yan, PhD; Jiafu Tang *, PhD; Bowen

More information

A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for Parallel Machine Scheduling with Time Windows and Job Priorities

A Branch-and-Price Algorithm for Parallel Machine Scheduling with Time Windows and Job Priorities A Branch-and-Price Agorithm for Parae Machine Scheduing with Time Windows and Job Priorities Jonathan F. Bard, 1 Siwate Rojanasoonthon 2 1 Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industria Engineering,

More information

Online Supplement for The Robust Network Loading Problem under Hose Demand Uncertainty: Formulation, Polyhedral Analysis, and Computations

Online Supplement for The Robust Network Loading Problem under Hose Demand Uncertainty: Formulation, Polyhedral Analysis, and Computations Onine Suppement for The Robust Network Loading Probem under Hose Demand Uncertaint: Formuation, Pohedra Anasis, and Computations Aşegü Atın Department of Industria Engineering, TOBB Universit of Economics

More information

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview 2 Teamwork Abstract This chapter presents one of the basic eements of software projects teamwork. It addresses how to buid teams in a way that promotes team members accountabiity and responsibiity, and

More information

Chapter 2 Specifications and Deployment of SOA Business Applications Within a Configurable Framework Provided as a Service

Chapter 2 Specifications and Deployment of SOA Business Applications Within a Configurable Framework Provided as a Service Chapter 2 Specifications and Depoyment of SOA Business Appications Within a Configurabe Framework Provided as a Service Adam Grzech, Krzysztof Juszczyszyn, Grzegorz Kołaczek, Jan Kwiatkowski, Janusz Sobecki,

More information

Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aligned rectangles in parallel

Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aligned rectangles in parallel Computing the depth of an arrangement of axis-aigned rectanges in parae Hemut At Ludmia Scharf Abstract We consider the probem of computing the depth of the arrangement of n axis-aigned rectanges in the

More information

500 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 31, NO. 3, MARCH 2013

500 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 31, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 500 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 3, NO. 3, MARCH 203 Cognitive Radio Network Duaity Agorithms for Utiity Maximization Liang Zheng Chee Wei Tan, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract We

More information

SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH. Ufuk Cebeci

SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH. Ufuk Cebeci SELECTING THE SUITABLE ERP SYSTEM: A FUZZY AHP APPROACH Ufuk Cebeci Department of Industria Engineering, Istanbu Technica University, Macka, Istanbu, Turkey - ufuk_cebeci@yahoo.com Abstract An Enterprise

More information

A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays Journa of Industria Engineering and Management JIEM, 2013 6(1):320-335 Onine ISSN: 2013-0953 Print ISSN: 2013-8423 http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jiem.699 A train dispatching mode based on fuzzy passenger demand

More information

Order-to-Cash Processes

Order-to-Cash Processes TMI170 ING info pat 2:Info pat.qxt 01/12/2008 09:25 Page 1 Section Two: Order-to-Cash Processes Gregory Cronie, Head Saes, Payments and Cash Management, ING O rder-to-cash and purchase-topay processes

More information

Energy-efficient RF Source Power Control for Opportunistic Distributed Sensing in Wireless Passive Sensor Networks

Energy-efficient RF Source Power Control for Opportunistic Distributed Sensing in Wireless Passive Sensor Networks Energy-efficient Source Power Contro for Opportunistic Distributed Sensing in Wireess Passive Sensor Networks A. Ozan Bicen Ozgur B. Akan Next-generation and Wireess Communications Laboratory Department

More information

Fast Idea Generator. Copyright 2016 The Open University

Fast Idea Generator. Copyright 2016 The Open University Fast Idea Generator Copyright 2016 The Open University 2 of 15 Wednesday 16 November 2016 Contents Fast Idea Generator 4 1 When to use the fast idea generator 4 1.1 Using the Fast Idea Generator Too 5

More information

A Frame Synchronization Method with Robustness to the Effects of Initial SFO in DRM Systems

A Frame Synchronization Method with Robustness to the Effects of Initial SFO in DRM Systems Internationa Journa of Software Engineering and Its Appications Vo. 6, o. 3, Juy, 0 A Frame Synchronization Method with Robustness to the Effects of Initia SFO in DRM Systems Ki-Won Kwon, Seong-Jun Kim,Yong-Suk,

More information

Safety Manual VEGAPULS series 60

Safety Manual VEGAPULS series 60 Safety Manua VEGAPULS series 60 4 20 ma/hart Radar Contents Contents 1 Functiona safety 1.1 In genera............................ 3 1.2 Panning............................. 5 1.3 Instrument parameter adjustment...........

More information

History and Definition of CNC 100

History and Definition of CNC 100 History and Definition of CNC 100 Wecome to the Tooing University. This course is designed to be used in conjunction with the onine version of this cass. The onine version can be found at http://www.tooingu.com.

More information

Network/Communicational Vulnerability

Network/Communicational Vulnerability Automated teer machines (ATMs) are a part of most of our ives. The major appea of these machines is convenience The ATM environment is changing and that change has serious ramifications for the security

More information

Managing Costs through Partnerships

Managing Costs through Partnerships Safety Guideines for Excavation INTRODUCTION Excavation work can be a very hazardous exposure to empoyees and other contractors on construction job sites. Excavation is one of the most hazardous construction

More information

Lecture 5: Solution Method for Beam Deflections

Lecture 5: Solution Method for Beam Deflections Structura Mechanics.080 Lecture 5 Semester Yr Lecture 5: Soution Method for Beam Defections 5.1 Governing Equations So far we have estabished three groups of equations fuy characterizing the response of

More information

Decision support system for the batching problems of steelmaking and continuous-casting production

Decision support system for the batching problems of steelmaking and continuous-casting production Omega 36 (2008 976 991 www.esevier.com/ocate/omega Decision support system for the batching probems of steemaking and continuous-casting production Lixin Tang, Gongshu Wang The Logistics Institute, Northeastern

More information

Figure 1. A Simple Centrifugal Speed Governor.

Figure 1. A Simple Centrifugal Speed Governor. ENGINE SPEED CONTROL Peter Westead and Mark Readman, contro systems principes.co.uk ABSTRACT: This is one of a series of white papers on systems modeing, anaysis and contro, prepared by Contro Systems

More information

Probabilistic Systems Analysis Autumn 2016 Tse Lecture Note 12

Probabilistic Systems Analysis Autumn 2016 Tse Lecture Note 12 EE 178 Probabiistic Systems Anaysis Autumn 2016 Tse Lecture Note 12 Continuous random variabes Up to now we have focused excusivey on discrete random variabes, which take on ony a finite (or countaby infinite)

More information

APPENDIX 10.1: SUBSTANTIVE AUDIT PROGRAMME FOR PRODUCTION WAGES: TROSTON PLC

APPENDIX 10.1: SUBSTANTIVE AUDIT PROGRAMME FOR PRODUCTION WAGES: TROSTON PLC Appendix 10.1: substantive audit programme for production wages: Troston pc 389 APPENDIX 10.1: SUBSTANTIVE AUDIT PROGRAMME FOR PRODUCTION WAGES: TROSTON PLC The detaied audit programme production wages

More information

Ricoh Healthcare. Process Optimized. Healthcare Simplified.

Ricoh Healthcare. Process Optimized. Healthcare Simplified. Ricoh Heathcare Process Optimized. Heathcare Simpified. Rather than a destination that concudes with the eimination of a paper, the Paperess Maturity Roadmap is a continuous journey to strategicay remove

More information

Normalization of Database Tables. Functional Dependency. Examples of Functional Dependencies: So Now what is Normalization? Transitive Dependencies

Normalization of Database Tables. Functional Dependency. Examples of Functional Dependencies: So Now what is Normalization? Transitive Dependencies ISM 602 Dr. Hamid Nemati Objectives The idea Dependencies Attributes and Design Understand concepts normaization (Higher-Leve Norma Forms) Learn how to normaize tabes Understand normaization and database

More information

Scheduling in Multi-Channel Wireless Networks

Scheduling in Multi-Channel Wireless Networks Scheduing in Muti-Channe Wireess Networks Vartika Bhandari and Nitin H. Vaidya University of Iinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA vartikab@acm.org, nhv@iinois.edu Abstract. The avaiabiity of mutipe orthogona

More information

3.5 Pendulum period. 2009-02-10 19:40:05 UTC / rev 4d4a39156f1e. g = 4π2 l T 2. g = 4π2 x1 m 4 s 2 = π 2 m s 2. 3.5 Pendulum period 68

3.5 Pendulum period. 2009-02-10 19:40:05 UTC / rev 4d4a39156f1e. g = 4π2 l T 2. g = 4π2 x1 m 4 s 2 = π 2 m s 2. 3.5 Pendulum period 68 68 68 3.5 Penduum period 68 3.5 Penduum period Is it coincidence that g, in units of meters per second squared, is 9.8, very cose to 2 9.87? Their proximity suggests a connection. Indeed, they are connected

More information

Joint Optimal Power Allocation and Relay Selection with Spatial Diversity in Wireless Relay Networks

Joint Optimal Power Allocation and Relay Selection with Spatial Diversity in Wireless Relay Networks Joint Optima Power Aocation and Reay Seection with Spatia Diversity in Wireess Reay Networks Md Habibu Isam 1, Zbigniew Dziong 1, Kazem Sohraby 2, Mahmoud F Daneshmand 3, and Rittwik Jana 4 1 Écoe de Technoogie

More information

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS Dehi Business Review X Vo. 4, No. 2, Juy - December 2003 CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS John N.. Var arvatsouakis atsouakis DURING the present time,

More information

Effective Solutions for Real-World Stackelberg Games: When Agents Must Deal with Human Uncertainties

Effective Solutions for Real-World Stackelberg Games: When Agents Must Deal with Human Uncertainties Effective Soutions for Rea-Word Stackeberg Games: When Agents Must Dea with Human Uncertainties James Pita, Manish Jain, Fernando Ordóñez, Miind Tambe University of Southern Caifornia, Los Angees, CA 90089

More information

WINMAG Graphics Management System

WINMAG Graphics Management System SECTION 10: page 1 Section 10: by Honeywe WINMAG Graphics Management System Contents What is WINMAG? WINMAG Text and Graphics WINMAG Text Ony Scenarios Fire/Emergency Management of Fauts & Disabement Historic

More information

ENERGY AND BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTIONS

ENERGY AND BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTIONS MISN--159 NRGY AND BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTIONS NRGY AND BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTIONS by J. S. Kovacs and O. McHarris Michigan State University 1. Introduction.............................................. 1 2.

More information

The Use of Cooling-Factor Curves for Coordinating Fuses and Reclosers

The Use of Cooling-Factor Curves for Coordinating Fuses and Reclosers he Use of ooing-factor urves for oordinating Fuses and Recosers arey J. ook Senior Member, IEEE S& Eectric ompany hicago, Iinois bstract his paper describes how to precisey coordinate distribution feeder

More information

Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabilistic framework

Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabilistic framework Probabiistic Engineering Mechanics 18 (2003) 315 327 www.esevier.com/ocate/probengmech Leakage detection in water pipe networks using a Bayesian probabiistic framework Z. Pouakis, D. Vaougeorgis, C. Papadimitriou*

More information

LADDER SAFETY Table of Contents

LADDER SAFETY Table of Contents Tabe of Contents SECTION 1. TRAINING PROGRAM INTRODUCTION..................3 Training Objectives...........................................3 Rationae for Training.........................................3

More information

We investigate a two-stage serial supply chain with stationary stochastic demand and

We investigate a two-stage serial supply chain with stationary stochastic demand and Competitive and Cooperative Inventory Poicies in a Two-Stage Suppy Chain Gérard P Cachon Pau H Zipkin The Fuqua Schoo of Business Duke University Durham North Caroina 7708 gpc@maidukeedu zipkin@maidukeedu

More information

Vibration Reduction of Audio Visual Device Mounted on Automobile due to Gap Vibration

Vibration Reduction of Audio Visual Device Mounted on Automobile due to Gap Vibration Vibration Reduction of Audio Visua Device Mounted on Automobie due to Gap Vibration Nobuyuki OKUBO, Shinji KANADA, Takeshi TOI CAMAL, Department of Precision Mechanics, Chuo University 1-13-27 Kasuga,

More information

Load Balance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretical Perspective

Load Balance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretical Perspective Load Baance vs Energy Efficiency in Traffic Engineering: A Game Theoretica Perspective Yangming Zhao, Sheng Wang, Shizhong Xu and Xiong Wang Schoo of Communication and Information Engineering University

More information

SNMP Reference Guide for Avaya Communication Manager

SNMP Reference Guide for Avaya Communication Manager SNMP Reference Guide for Avaya Communication Manager 03-602013 Issue 1.0 Feburary 2007 2006 Avaya Inc. A Rights Reserved. Notice Whie reasonabe efforts were made to ensure that the information in this

More information

(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2006/0105797 A1 Marsan et al. (43) Pub. Date: May 18, 2006

(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2006/0105797 A1 Marsan et al. (43) Pub. Date: May 18, 2006 (19) United States US 20060105797A (12) Patent Appication Pubication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2006/0105797 A1 Marsan et a. (43) Pub. Date: (54) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR (52) US. C...... 455/522 ADJUSTING A MOBILE

More information

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s Shepherd and Wedderburn is one of the UK s eading aw firms. We have an uncompromising commitment to our cients, with quaity

More information

Inductance. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege

Inductance. Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Inductance Bởi: OpenStaxCoege Inductors Induction is the process in which an emf is induced by changing magnetic fux. Many exampes have been discussed so far, some more effective than others. Transformers,

More information

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - CH 3 - Server Custering Using Bri.. Page 1 of 7 [Figures are not incuded in this sampe chapter] Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - 3 - Server

More information

Strengthening Human Resources Information Systems: Experiences from Bihar and Jharkhand, India

Strengthening Human Resources Information Systems: Experiences from Bihar and Jharkhand, India Strengthening Human Resources Information Systems: Experiences from Bihar and Jharkhand, India Technica Brief October 2012 Context India faces critica human resources (HR) chaenges in the heath sector,

More information

Leadership & Management Certificate Programs

Leadership & Management Certificate Programs MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS Leadership & Management Certificate Programs Programs to deveop expertise in: Anaytics // Leadership // Professiona Skis // Supervision ENROLL TODAY! Contract oder Contract GS-02F-0010J

More information

Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns

Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns Page 1 of 9 Chapter 3: e-business Integration Patterns "Consistency is the ast refuge of the unimaginative." Oscar Wide In This Chapter What Are Integration Patterns?

More information

Determining the User Intent of Chinese-English Mixed Language Queries Based On Search Logs

Determining the User Intent of Chinese-English Mixed Language Queries Based On Search Logs Determining the User Intent of Chinese-Engish Mixed Language Queries Based On Search Logs Hengyi Fu, Forida State University, City University of New York Abstract With the increasing number of mutiingua

More information

Irish Life Tables No. 14

Irish Life Tables No. 14 3 June 004 Life epectancy at birth Irish Life Tabes No. 14 001-003 Life epectancy 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 Maes Femaes Life epectancy at birth Area Maes Femaes Ireand 75.1 80.3 EU 15 75.8 81.6 EU 5 74.8 81.1

More information

AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY

AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY Mr Gary Banks Chairman Productivity Commission PO Box 80 BELCONNEN ACT 2616 Dear Mr Banks AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY I refer to the Issues Paper issued September 1998 seeking submissions

More information

Fixed income managers: evolution or revolution

Fixed income managers: evolution or revolution Fixed income managers: evoution or revoution Traditiona approaches to managing fixed interest funds rey on benchmarks that may not represent optima risk and return outcomes. New techniques based on separate

More information

Application-Aware Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Application-Aware Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Appication-Aware Data Coection in Wireess Sensor Networks Xiaoin Fang *, Hong Gao *, Jianzhong Li *, and Yingshu Li +* * Schoo of Computer Science and Technoogy, Harbin Institute of Technoogy, Harbin,

More information

Experiences with Class of Service (CoS) Translations in IP/MPLS Networks

Experiences with Class of Service (CoS) Translations in IP/MPLS Networks Experiences with Class of Service (CoS) Translations in IP/MPLS Networks Rameshbabu Prabagaran & Joseph B. Evans Information and Telecommunications Technology Center Department of Electrical Engineering

More information

Betting on the Real Line

Betting on the Real Line Betting on the Rea Line Xi Gao 1, Yiing Chen 1,, and David M. Pennock 2 1 Harvard University, {xagao,yiing}@eecs.harvard.edu 2 Yahoo! Research, pennockd@yahoo-inc.com Abstract. We study the probem of designing

More information

Improving the error rates of the Begg and Mazumdar test for publication bias in fixed effects meta-analysis

Improving the error rates of the Begg and Mazumdar test for publication bias in fixed effects meta-analysis Gjerdevik and Heuch BMC Medica Research Methodoogy 2014, 14:109 http://www.biomedcentra.com/1471-2288/14/109 RESEARCH ARTICLE Improving the error rates of the Begg and Mazumdar test for pubication bias

More information