1 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR CHAPTER 3 ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE ett Learning, Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends Dianne Conrad and Karen Kesten Jones & Bart CHAPTER OVERVIEW CHAPTER OBJECTIVES lett Learning OR DISTRIB ones & Bartlett The purpose Learning, of this chapter is to define doctoral preparation Jones for & nursing Bartlett and Learning FOR SALE describe OR nursing DISTRIBUTION practice doctoral education and its NOT role in FOR transforming SALE health OR DISTRIB care. Current trends in doctor of nursing practice (DNP) education will be explored on how the practice doctorate is evolving to meet the competencies as outlined in The Essentials for Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). ett Learning, After completing the chapter, the learner will be able to: Jones 1. Define & Bartlett doctor of Learning, nursing practice NOT 2. FOR Describe SALE the state OR of DISTRIBUTION DNP education 3. Differentiate between the research and practice doctorate degrees 4. Discuss how the practice-based doctorate and the research-based doctorate will collaborate to impact nursing and health care nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning FOR SALE OR DISTRIB 35
2 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 36 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends DEFINING NOT FOR THE SALE PRACTICE DOCTORATE IN NURSING The time is now for the practice doctorate in nursing. Nursing education has evolved to meet the needs of society in preparing nurses throughout history. The emergence and dramatic growth of DNP programs in the United States reflect this country s ones & Bartlett demand for Learning, highly competent providers to improve the health Jones care of its & people. Bartlett Learning T FOR SALE In 2001, OR the DISTRIBUTION Institute of Medicine (IOM) outlined aims NOT for healthcare FOR SALE improvement in Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, which OR DISTRIB included care that is safe, effective, patient centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. To provide that care, the IOM (2003), in Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality, ett Learning, called for a change in how healthcare providers Jones are prepared & Bartlett to meet Learning, these challenges. Healthcare providers in all professions are NOT to attain FOR the following SALE OR core competencies: DISTRIBUTION Provide patient-centered care Work in interdisciplinary teams Employ evidence-based practice Apply quality improvement Utilize informatics By 2010, the IOM s report The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health responded with these key messages: ones & Bartlett Nurses Learning, should practice to the full extent of their education Jones and & training. Bartlett Learning FOR SALE Nurses should achieve higher levels of education NOT and training FOR through SALE an OR DISTRIB improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression. Nurses should be full partners with physicians and other healthcare professionals in redesigning health care in the United States. ett Learning, Effective workforce planning and policy Jones making & Bartlett require better Learning, data collection and information infrastructure. OR DISTRIBUTION These important documents reflect the changing societal needs for a highly educated workforce prepared to meet the complex challenges of health care in the 21st century and beyond. In response to these challenges, nursing as a profession has developed an educational program at the doctoral level to prepare individuals NOT for advanced FOR SALE nursing practice. The purpose of practice-focused doctoral NOT programs is to prepare experts in specialized advanced nursing practice, as defined by FOR SALE the AACN (2006). The programs are to focus heavily on innovative and evidencebased practice, reflecting the application of credible research findings. nes & Bartlett See Table Learning, 3-1 for a comparison of IOM recommendations Jones healthcare & Bartlett improvement, the competencies of healthcare professionals, NOT and FOR clinical SALE nursing OR DISTRIB Learning FOR SALE doctoral preparation Essentials.
3 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR Defining the Practice Doctorate in Nursing 37 NOT Table FOR 3-1 Comparison SALE OR of Institute DISTRIBUTION of Medicine Recommendations on Healthcare Improvement, Competencies of Healthcare Professionals, and Clinical Nursing Doctoral Preparation Six Aims for Healthcare Core Competencies Improvement of Healthcare (IOM, 2001) Professionals (IOM, 2003) ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice (AACN, 2006) lett Learning OR DISTRIB Safe: Avoiding injuries to patients from the care that is intended to help them ett Learning, Effective: Providing services based on scientific knowledge to all who could benefit and refraining from providing services to those not likely to benefit DNP Essential VIII Advanced Nursing Practice * Apply quality improvement * Work in interdisciplinary teams ones & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE * Employ evidencebased practice * Utilize informatics Patient-centered: Providing care that is respect- care * Patient-centered ful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions ett Learning, Timely: Reducing waits and sometimes harmful delays for both those who receive and those who give care nes & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE * Work in interdisciplinary teams * Apply quality improvement * Employ evidencebased practice I. Scientific underpinnings for practice II. Organizational and systems leadership for quality improvement and systems thinking VI. Interprofessional collaboration for improving patient and population health outcomes I. Scientific underpinnings for practice II. Organizational and systems leadership for quality improvement and systems thinking III. Clinical scholarship and analytical methods for evidence-based practice IV. Information systems/technology and patient care technology for the improvement and transformation of health care V. Health care policy for advocacy in health care V. Health care policy for advocacy in health care VII. Clinical prevention and population health for improving the nation s health II. Organizational and systems leadership for quality improvement and systems thinking VI. Interprofessional collaboration for improving patient and population health outcomes (Continued) lett Learning OR DISTRIB lett Learning OR DISTRIB
4 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 38 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends Table NOT 3-1 FOR Comparison SALE of OR Institute DISTRIBUTION of Medicine Recommendations on Healthcare Improvement, Competencies of Healthcare Professionals, and Clinical Nursing Doctoral Preparation (Continued ) Six Aims for Healthcare Core Competencies Improvement of Healthcare (IOM, 2001) Professionals (IOM, 2003) ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE Efficient: Avoiding waste, including waste of equipment, supplies, ideas, and energy ett Learning, Equitable: Providing care that does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and socioeconomic status The Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice (AACN, 2006) DNP Essential VIII Advanced Nursing Practice * Work in interdisciplinary teams * Utilize informatics * Apply quality improvement * Patient-centered care * Apply quality improvement * Utilize informatics ones & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE ett Learning, lett Learning OR DISTRIB I. Scientific underpinnings for practice III. Clinical scholarship and analytical methods for evidence-based practice IV. Information systems/ technology and patient care technology for the improvement and transformation of health care V. Healthcare policy for advocacy in health care VI. Interprofessional collaboration for improving patient and population health outcomes II. Organizational and systems leadership for quality improvement and systems thinking VII. Clinical prevention and population health for improving the nation s health IV. Information systems/technology and patient care technology for the improvement and transformation of health care Reprinted with permission from American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006). The essentials for doctoral education for advanced nursing practice. Washington, DC: Author; Institute of Medicine. (2003). Health professions education: A bridge to quality. Retrieved from lett Learning OR DISTRIB The clinical doctorate for nurses, the The NOT DNP FOR is a SALE degree, not OR a role. DISTRIBUTION DNP, is a degree, not a role. There are many roles in advanced practice nursing. The AACN (2004) defined advanced practice nursing as any form of nursing intervention that influences healthcare outcomes for individuals or populations, nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning including the direct care of individual patients, management of care for individuals and populations, administration of nursing and healthcare organizations, FOR SALE OR DISTRIB and the development and implementation of health policy (p. 2).
5 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR Defining the Practice Doctorate in Nursing 39 Therefore, advanced nursing practice encompasses such roles as nurse practitioner (NP), clinical nurse specialist (CNS), certified nurse-midwife (CNM), nurse anesthetist, nurse administrator, nurse informaticist, and nurse health policy specialist. This list of roles is not inclusive because nursing entrepreneurs continue to pioneer advanced practice roles to meet patient needs in a variety of settings. ones & Bartlett There Learning, is a special definition of the roles of the advanced Jones practice & Bartlett registered Learning T FOR SALE nurse OR (APRN). DISTRIBUTION In 2008, a report titled Consensus Model NOT for FOR APRN SALE Regulation: OR DISTRIB Licensure, Accreditation, Certification & Education was completed through the work of the APRN Consensus Work Group and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing APRN Advisory Committee (APRN Joint Dialogue Group, ett Learning, 2008). This group defined four specific Jones APRN & roles certified Bartlett Learning, registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA), CNM, CNS, NOT and certified FOR nurse SALE practitioner for the purpose of standardizing licensure language across the country. However, the group acknowledged that many nurses with advanced graduate nursing preparation practice in roles and specialties (e.g., informatics, public health, education or administration) Jones & Bartlett that are essential Learning, to advance the health of the public but Jones do not & Bart NOT focus on FOR direct SALE care to OR individuals DISTRIBUTION and, therefore, their practice does not NOT require FOR SALE regulatory recognition beyond the Registered Nurse license granted by state boards of nursing. Like the four current APRN roles, practice in these other advanced specialty nursing roles requires specialized knowledge and skills acquired ones & Bartlett through Learning, graduate-level education (p. 5). lett Learning FOR SALE Though the APRN consensus document did not NOT specify FOR the SALE practice OR doctorate as the education level for these advanced practice roles, graduate-level DISTRIB education was a requirement. Any of these roles benefit from education at the doctoral level to prepare nurses for the challenges of today s healthcare arena. ett Learning, These advanced practice roles are oriented Jones toward & Bartlett providing Learning, quality care and improving patient outcomes. The Essentials of DNP Education (AACN, 2006) give these doctorally prepared nurses the tools and competencies they need to carry out their role at the highest level (see Figure 3-1). The AACN (2004) further delineates the benefits of a practice-focused doctorate to: develop the needed advanced competencies for increasingly complex practice, faculty, and leadership roles; enhance knowledge to improve nursing practice and patient outcomes; and nes & Bartlett enhance Learning, leadership skills to strengthen practice and Jones healthcare & delivery Bartlett (p. 4). Learning FOR SALE OR DISTRIB Most important, the DNP prepared nurse is able to translate scientific evidence into practice in a timely fashion.
6 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 40 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends Essentials of Doctoral Education for Advanced Nursing Practice I. Scientific Underpinnings for Practice ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE ett Learning, II. Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Improvement and Systems Thinking III. Clinical Scholarship and Analytical Methods for Evidence-Based Practice IV. Information Systems/Technology and Patient Care Technology for the Improvement and Transformation of Health Care V. Health Care Policy for Advocacy in Health Care VI. Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and Population Health Outcomes lett Learning OR DISTRIB VII. Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving the Nation s Health VIII. Advanced Nursing Practice (AACN, 2006) FIGURE 3-1 Essentials of doctoral education for advanced practice nursing. ones & Bartlett Data from American Learning, Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2006). The Jones essentials & for Bartlett doctoral Learning FOR SALE education OR for advanced DISTRIBUTION nursing practice. Washington, DC: Author. OR DISTRIB COMPARISON OF THE DNP AND PHD IN NURSING ett Learning, Doctoral preparation in nursing currently has two paths: the research-based doc- torate that began in 1934 at New York University and flourished in the 1970s (Chism, 2016), and the current practice doctorate, the DNP, that has been defined and developed by the AACN since See Chapter 4, Scholarship in Practice, for a discussion of the evolution of the practice doctorate. The two doctoral programs according to the AACN (2006) are different in their goals and in the competencies of their graduates. The practice doctorate (DNP) and the research doctorates (PhD and Doctor of Nursing Science [DNS]) offer complementary, alternative approaches to attaining the highest level of educational preparation in nursing with rigorous and demanding programs of study. nes & Bartlett The profession Learning, of nursing benefits from scholar leaders who Jones are committed & Bartlett to the Learning FOR SALE advancement of the science and practice of nursing. OR DISTRIB A comparison of nursing doctoral programs is outlined in Table 3-2.
7 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR Comparison of the DNP and PHD in Nursing 41 NOT Table FOR 3-2 Comparison SALE OR of Doctoral DISTRIBUTION Nursing Programs Common Characteristics Program of Study Students Program Faculty Resources Practice Doctorate DNP Rigorous Scholarly ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE ett Learning, Research Doctorate PhD/DNS and demanding expectations approach to the discipline Commitment to the advancement of the profession Prepares leaders at highest level of nursing practice to improve patient outcomes and translate research into nursing practice Commitment to practice career Oriented toward improving outcomes for patient care and population health Practice or research doctorate in nursing, and expertise in area teaching Leadership experience in area of role and population practice High level of expertise in practice congruent with focus of academic program Mentors and/or preceptors in leadership positions across practice settings Access to diverse practice settings with appropriate resources for areas of practice ones & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE ett Learning, Access Access to financial aid to information and patient-care technology resources congruent with areas of study nes & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE Prepares nurses at the highest level of nursing science to conduct research to advance the science of Commitment Oriented to research career toward developing new nursing knowledge and scientific inquiry Research Leadership High High doctorate in nursing or related field experience in area of sustained research funding level of expertise in research congruent with focus of academic funding level of expertise in research congruent with focus of academic program Mentors Access Access Access lett Learning OR DISTRIB and/or preceptors in research settings to research settings with appropriate resources to dissertation support dollars and financial aid to information and research technology resources congruent with program of research lett Learning OR DISTRIB (Continued) lett Learning OR DISTRIB
8 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 42 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends Table NOT 3-2 FOR Comparison SALE of OR Doctoral DISTRIBUTION Nursing Programs (Continued) Program Assessment and Evaluation Practice Doctorate DNP Program outcomes: Healthcare improvements and contributions via practice, policy change, and practice scholarship Receives accreditation by nursing accreditor ones & Bartlett Learning, T FOR SALE ett Learning, Research Doctorate PhD/DNS Program outcomes: Contributes to healthcare improvements via the development of new knowledge and scholarly products that provide the foundation for the advancement of nursing science Oversight by the institution s authorized bodies (i.e., graduate school) and regional accreditors Modified from American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2014). Key differences between DNP and PhD/DNS programs. Retrieved from: ContrastGrid.pdf lett Learning OR DISTRIB The challenges of healthcare delivery in the 21st century will necessitate the collaboration of interdisciplinary teams (IOM, 2003). Partnering of the research ones & Bartlett doctorate with Learning, the practice doctorate will demonstrate cooperation Jones within & Bartlett nursing that OR can DISTRIBUTION advance the profession. Lamb (2012) described NOT building FOR SALE collabora- OR DISTRIB Learning FOR SALE tion readiness with the combination of the PhD in nursing and DNP. She stated that the PhD in nursing brings: more minds, more tools, more innovation ett Learning, a broader range of theories and more Jones explanatory & Bartlett theoretical Learning, models an expanded toolkit for research NOT design FOR and methods SALE the opportunity for more competitive grants The DNP brings the following to the team: Jones better teamwork, & Bartlett leading Learning, to better outcomes NOT the FOR contribution SALE of OR a broader DISTRIBUTION range of evidence greater opportunities to accelerate nurse-led and interprofessional practice models The benefits of interprofessional and intraprofessional collaboration will be nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning discussed further in Chapter 7, Interprofessional and Intraprofessional Collaboration in the Scholarly FOR SALE OR DISTRIB Project.
9 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR Current Trends in Doctoral Education 43 NOT CURRENT FOR SALE TRENDS IN DOCTORAL EDUCATION One of the concerns about beginning a practice doctorate for nursing was the ability of the profession to produce doctoral-level graduates. The Future of Nursing report (IOM, 2010) called ones & Bartlett for the doubling Learning, of doctorally prepared OR nurses DISTRIBUTION a doubling IOM Future of Nursing Jones report & Bartlett calls for Learning T FOR SALE by Rapid growth NOT of doctorally FOR SALE prepared OR DISTRIB nurses by of DNP programs has occurred since the AACN s work on defining and developing the practice doctorate Essentials in The number of DNP programs has increased from 20 in 2006 to 268 in 2015, ett Learning, with many more programs in development Jones (AACN, & Bartlett 2015a). The Learning, concern that the practice doctorate would decrease the NOT number FOR of nurses SALE pursuing a research doctorate in nursing appears to be unfounded. The AACN tracks the number of nursing education programs as well as graduates of those programs. The data show that since 2003, the number of PhD students enrolled in the United States has increased from 3,229 Jones to 5,290 & Bartlett in During Learning, the same period, the enrollment in DNP programs Jones & Bart NOT increased FOR dramatically, SALE OR from DISTRIBUTION 70 in 2003 to 18,352 in 2014 in 264 DNP NOT programs FOR SALE across the country (AACN, 2015b). The number of PhD programs in nursing has also increased, from 106 in 2006 to 134 in 2014 (AACN, 2015a) (see Figure 3-2). ones & Bartlett Learning, 20,000 FOR SALE 18,000 Doctoral Program Enrollments, lett Learning OR DISTRIB 18,352 16,000 14,000 14,688 12,000 11,575 10,000 OR 9,094 DISTRIBUTION 8,000 7,034 6,000 5,165 3,098 3,229 3,439 3,718 3,927 3,982 3,976 4,177 4,611 4,907 5,110 5,145 5,290 4,000 3,415 2,000 1,874 lett Learning, NOT FOR 2002SALE OR 2005 DISTRIBUTION ett Learning, Research-Focused Doctoral DNP FIGURE 3-2 Doctoral program enrollments Reprinted with permission from American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015b). Custom report on doctoral Program Enrollments, Washington, DC: AACN Research and Data Services. nes & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE lett Learning OR DISTRIB
10 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 44 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends REPORTS NOT FOR AFFECTING SALE DNP EDUCATION The Rand Corporation Report: The DNP by 2015: A Study of the Institutional, Political, and Professional Issues ones & Bartlett that Facilitate Learning, or Impede Establishing a Post-Baccalaureate lett Learning Doctor of Nursing Practice Program. T FOR SALE OR DISTRIB In 2004, member schools of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) voted to endorse the Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing, which called for moving the level of preparation necessary for advanced ett Learning, nursing practice from the master s degree Jones to the doctorate & Bartlett by the Learning, target year of 2015 (AACN, 2004). Over the past 10 years, colleges of nursing have made great strides in moving toward this target. Currently, the majority of schools with APRN programs, the largest subset of all advanced nursing practice programs, either offer or are planning to offer a DNP at the post-baccalaureate and/or postmaster s level. While the number of DNP programs for APRNs has grown significantly and steadily over this period, not all colleges of nursing have been able to fully transition their master s-level APRN programs to the practice doctorate by 2015 and many are electing to maintain both master s and DNP options to prepare APRNs. To better understand the issues facing colleges of nursing moving to ones & Bartlett the DNP, the Learning, AACN board of directors commissioned the Jones RAND Corporation & Bartlett Learning FOR SALE to conduct OR a DISTRIBUTION national survey of nursing schools with APRN NOT programs FOR SALE to identify the barriers and facilitators to offering a post-baccalaureate DNP (Auerbach OR DISTRIB et al., 2014). The report includes recommendations for next steps that AACN can take to help schools accelerate programmatic change and overcome challenges. ett Learning, For the purposes of this study, the RAND Jones Corporation & Bartlett was commissioned Learning, by AACN to focus on only the APRN master s NOT degree FOR program SALE transition to the DNP. This study was undertaken between October 2013 and April 2014 to investigate schools progress toward transitioning to the DNP for APRN programs as well as the barriers and/or facilitators to nursing schools full adoption of the DNP. The RAND Jones Corporation & Bartlett used a mixed-method Learning, approach, which included surveys and Jones & Bart qualitative NOT FOR interviews SALE to investigate schools progress toward the adoption NOT of the FOR SALE DNP. Data were analyzed from an online survey developed specifically for this project, as well as qualitative interviews with deans and directors of 29 nursing schools. A summary of the report findings (Auerbach et al., 2014) showed: nes & Bartlett The number Learning, of schools with a DNP program has grown Jones 10-fold & in Bartlett the past Learning FOR SALE 7 OR years. DISTRIBUTION Schools of nursing have made great progress NOT in FOR transitioning SALE to OR DISTRIB the DNP by the target date of Currently, DNP programs, at either
11 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR reports Affecting DNP Education 45 the post-baccalaureate (BSN-DNP) or post-master s (MSN-DNP) level, are offered at more than 250 schools nationwide. Approximately 30% of nursing schools with APRN programs now offer the BSN-DNP, and this proportion is anticipated to climb to greater than 50% in the foreseeable future. ones & Bartlett Schools Learning, in the West and Midwest and schools in states Jones with & a high Bartlett density Learning T FOR SALE OR of existing DISTRIBUTION nurse practitioners (NPs) were considerably NOT FOR more likely SALE to offer OR DISTRIB BSN-to-DNP programs. Faculty enthusiasm and administrative support within the university are strong facilitators toward offering the BSN-to-DNP. ett Learning, The value of the added content of Jones the DNP & education Bartlett is Learning, almost universally agreed on. Fully 93% of survey NOT respondents FOR SALE offering OR or planning DISTRIBUTION on offering the BSN-to-DNP cited the value of the DNP education in preparing for future healthcare needs as very important or critical to their decision. AACN endorsement and recommendation of the DNP also factored Jones strongly & Bartlett in many schools Learning, decisions to offer the BSN-to-DNP, as Jones did a & Bart NOT desire FOR to SALE expand OR into DISTRIBUTION doctoral-level education. Schools continue to adopt the DNP, both as an option to be completed for practicing master s-level APRNs (the MSN-to-DNP) and as an entry-level APRN option for those with a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) degree ones & Bartlett (the Learning, BSN-to-DNP). lett Learning FOR SALE OR The DISTRIBUTION schools interviewed perceived that employers NOT are FOR unclear SALE about OR the DISTRIB differences between master s-prepared and DNP-prepared APRNs and could benefit from information on outcomes connected to DNP practice as well as exemplars from practice settings that capitalize on the capabilities ett Learning, of DNP-prepared nurses. Student demand for the DNP NOT on the FOR part SALE of currently OR practicing DISTRIBUTION APRNs appears robust, given the proliferation of MSN-to-DNP programs. Student demand for the BSN-to-DNP is growing. Schools cited faculty resources as constraints to the development of DNP programs. Costs and budgetary concerns are a key barrier to many schools, particularly those that are not freestanding or autonomous schools. Securing clinical sites and preceptors, similar to MSN APRN programs are cited as a restraining factor. Faculty resources for managing DNP projects were cited by schools as a nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning potential barrier. FOR SALE OR DISTRIB Requirement of the DNP for certification and accreditation would accelerate the transition to BSN to DNP programs.
12 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 46 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends The Rand Corporation Report (Auerbach et al., 2014) recommended that the AACN should: 1. Conduct, and collaborate with others to conduct, outcome studies of DNP practice to better understand the impact of DNP graduates on ones & Bartlett patient Learning, care. lett Learning T FOR SALE 2. Provide outreach data to help employers and healthcare NOT FOR organizations SALE OR DISTRIB understand the comprehensive competencies and capabilities of DNPeducated APRNs. 3. Focus on understanding and documenting successful strategies in overcoming barriers to offering BSN-to-DNP Jones & programs Bartlett of Learning, departments or ett Learning, divisions within larger universities, NOT since FOR they SALE may face OR greater DISTRIBUTION hurdles to offering BSN-to-DNP programs. 4. Document and showcase examples of collaborative partnerships between schools and hospitals or other healthcare organizations for the purpose of providing clinical practice sites. 5. Provide greater clarity and guidance related to requirements for the DNP project. 6. Continue with ongoing efforts to assist schools in overcoming challenges to offering the BSN to DNP. ones & Bartlett As a response Learning, to these recommendations, follow-up and Jones active steps & Bartlett taken by Learning FOR SALE AACN OR include DISTRIBUTION the formation of two task forces to further NOT improve FOR DNP SALE education: the Implementation of the DNP Task Force and the APRN Clinical Train- OR DISTRIB ing Task Force. Each task force has produced white papers that address some of the barriers identified in the RAND Corporation study. ett Learning, To find out more about these task forces Jones and & their Bartlett charges, Learning, see AACN Report on APRN Education: The APRN Clinical Training Task Force Report Much attention has been paid to the Institute of Medicine s (IOM) 2010 The Future of Nursing report that APRNs be allowed to practice to the full extent of their education and training (p. 29). APRNs have a potential opportunity to contribute to the delivery of care to the additional 16.4 million newly insured patients due to healthcare reform (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning and Evaluation (ASPE), 2015). Nationwide, APRN education programs are experiencing increased demand for APRN enrollment and many programs FOR SALE OR DISTRIB report
13 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR reports Affecting DNP Education 47 challenges in expanding enrollment to meet this demand. Colleges of nursing cite inadequate numbers and quality of clinical training sites and preceptors for APRN students. In May 2013, AACN convened the APRN Clinical Training Task Force to develop a white paper that would re-envision clinical education and training for ones & Bartlett Learning, APRNs. Limited resources, including sufficient Jones and diverse & Bartlett clinical Learning T FOR SALE sites, OR patients, DISTRIBUTION and preceptors to prepare APRNs NOT for contemporary FOR SALE practice OR DISTRIB is a frequently cited challenge. New regulatory requirements and changes in healthcare environments present increasing challenges for practitioners who serve as preceptors and for colleges of nursing preparing the next generation ett Learning, of providers. Following nearly two years of consulting NOT FOR with SALE experts within and outside the discipline of nursing, reviewing the literature, exploring new models of clinical education and competency development, reflection and discussion by the APRN Clinical Training Task Force, a report brief and a white paper were released in March, Jones 2015 &(AACN, Bartlett 2015c). Learning, NOT The FOR AACN SALE Task Force (AACN, 2015c) concluded that the current NOT methods of providing clinical education for APRNs needs to be re-envisioned FOR SALE in order to expand the pool of opportunities available to contemporary students and to reduce strictures in the pipeline to educating the APRN ones & Bartlett workforce Learning, sufficient numbers to meet societal demand Jones for & these Bartlett valuable Learning FOR SALE services. Variability among APRN programs, particularly NOT FOR for SALE Nurse Practitioners and Clinical Nurse Specialists, exists in the clinical competencies OR DISTRIB expected at various points throughout the curriculum and evaluation processes and tools. Increasingly, new models of care are emerging with a greater ett Learning, emphasis on interprofessional practice Jones and education. & Bartlett Advances Learning, technology both within healthcare delivery NOT and education FOR SALE have OR created DISTRIBUTION opportunities for APRNs to lead the effective integration of technologies into healthcare delivery. Academic practice partnerships are important to all APRN clinical education to ensure that students have access to patients, healthcare professional teams, and current data and experiences. Partnerships are increasingly important when considering interprofessional education, transition to practice for new graduates, implementation of new clinical education models, and the rapid changes that are occurring in healthcare systems. Across higher education, there is an increased interest and emphasis on examination and implementation of competency-based education and assessment models nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning in a variety of disciplines and more specifically in the health professions FOR SALE OR DISTRIB (Carraccio et al., 2002; Carraccio & Englander, 2013).
14 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 48 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends The AACN Task Force made the following recommendations: I. Simulation should be used to enhance APRN clinical education, and the use of simulation to replace more traditional clinical experiences should be explored. ones & Bartlett Seek Learning, funding for five demonstration projects that Jones are designed & Bartlett to study Learning T FOR SALE OR the DISTRIBUTION impact of various methods along the continuum NOT FOR of simulation SALE OR DISTRIB learning approaches as one component of APRN clinical education and assessment. Funding and other resources should be provided at both the national ett Learning, and local levels for the development Jones and & use Bartlett of simulation Learning, for learning and assessment, including NOT funding FOR for SALE a national OR center DISTRIBUTION of faculty innovation and faculty preparation and certification. A national repository should be created and maintained for reliable/ valid APRN simulation education materials. Simulations should be developed and tested for assessment of the APRN common competencies. II. AACN-American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) principles for academic-practice partnerships should be adopted by all APRN programs. APRN programs, including face-to-face and distance education programs, should implement expectations described in Section II regard- ones & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning FOR SALE OR DISTRIB ing the development and maintenance of APRN clinical experiences and student oversight. Encourage and support the development of innovative partnerships for APRN clinical education as well as the use of a variety of incentives for ett Learning, practice sites and preceptors, e.g., Jones adjunct & faculty Bartlett status, Learning, joint appointments, participation on curricular NOT FOR committees, SALE research support, con- tinuing education credits, and academic credit toward graduate degrees. Support the development and testing of innovative APRN academic/ practice regional consortia that reflect geographic and institutional Jones diversity. & Bartlett Learning, NOT FOR Develop SALE and implement an accessible repository for APRN preceptor orientation materials. III. APRN clinical education and assessment should be competency based. Establish a common language or taxonomy by adopting definitions nes & Bartlett for Learning, competence, competencies, and competency Jones framework & Bartlett that are Learning FOR SALE OR recognized DISTRIBUTION by APRN organizations and other NOT health FOR professions. SALE OR DISTRIB
15 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR reports Affecting DNP Education 49 Identify common, measurable APRN competencies that cross all four roles and build on or reaffirm the APRN core competencies (AACN, 2006). Progression of competence or milestones should be identified and defined across each of the common competencies. ones & Bartlett Learning, Develop a standardized assessment tool to be Jones available & to Bartlett faculty and Learning T FOR SALE preceptors to use for formative and summative NOT evaluation FOR SALE of the common APRN competencies. OR DISTRIB IV. Support the development of alternative or innovative APRN clinical education models ett Learning, Encourage regulatory bodies Jones to support & or Bartlett allow APRN Learning, education programs to develop and test NOT innovative FOR or SALE less traditional clinical models. Encourage APRN programs to explore, implement, and test innovative or less traditional clinical models, including interprofessional learning experiences and use of technology. Jones Seek & Bartlett funding to Learning, support the development and evaluation of alternative NOT FOR or innovative SALE OR APRN DISTRIBUTION clinical training models. The Implementation of the DNP Task Force Report: Current Issues and Clarifying Recommendations ones & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning The AACN Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing (AACN, FOR SALE OR DISTRIB 2004) changed the course of nursing education by recommending that advanced nursing practice education be transitioned to the doctoral level. A decade later, the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is widely accepted as the preferred pathway for those seeking preparation at the highest level of nursing ett Learning, practice. Considering the changing landscape Jones in & health Bartlett care Learning, and higher education over the last ten years as well NOT as the FOR dramatic SALE growth OR of DISTRIBUTION DNP programs, the AACN Board of Directors convened the Implementation of the DNP Task Force to review the current state of DNP programs, and to provide recommendations to clarify curricular and practice expectations as outlined in the Essentials Jones of & Doctoral Bartlett Education Learning, for Advanced Nursing Practice [DNP Essentials], NOT AACN, FOR 2006). SALE Growing evidence exists regarding variability among program requirements for the DNP final scholarly products including the scope of project, level of implementation, impact on system and practice outcomes, extent of collaborative nes & Bartlett efforts, Learning, dissemination of findings, and degree of faculty Jones mentorship/ & Bartlett oversight. Learning FOR SALE Similar OR to DISTRIBUTION other healthcare professions, nursing is NOT faced with FOR competition SALE OR for DISTRIB
16 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 50 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends practice sites and preceptors, complex affiliation agreements, and regulatory issues for distance learning modalities when obtaining practice experiences for DNP students. These issues were documented in the RAND report (Auerbach et al., 2014) and thoroughly explored by the task force. The white paper presents clarification as well as new and innovative ways to meet the DNP practice ones & Bartlett requirements. Learning, lett Learning T FOR SALE The OR national DISTRIBUTION dialogue reflects an ongoing need for NOT clarification FOR and SALE restatement of the foundational concept of how advanced nursing practice is OR DISTRIB defined. Advanced nursing practice focuses on the provision of direct care to individual patients or populations, and Jones the provision & Bartlett of indirect Learning, care such as ett Learning, nursing administration, executive NOT leadership, FOR SALE health policy, informatics, and population health. The task force reaffirms that the discipline of education encompasses an entirely separate body of knowledge and competence (AACN, 2004, p. 13) Jones and is not & an Bartlett area of advanced Learning, nursing practice. NOT Also, FOR it is important SALE OR to remember DISTRIBUTION that the DNP is an academic degree NOT and FOR SALE not a role. Implementation of the DNP Task Force Recommendations: ones & Bartlett I. DNP Learning, Graduate Scholarship lett Learning FOR SALE OR Graduates DISTRIBUTION of both research- and practice-focused NOT doctoral FOR SALE programs OR DISTRIB are prepared to generate new knowledge. practice-focused graduates are prepared to generate new knowledge through ett Learning, 1. innovation of practice change Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2. the translation of evidence 3. implementation of quality improvement processes in specific practice settings, systems, or with specific populations to improve health or health outcomes. Organizational and systems leadership knowledge and skills are critical for DNP graduates to: develop and evaluate new models of care delivery create and sustain change at the organization and systems levels. The delineations in knowledge generation are not a hierarchical structure of importance; both are types of knowledge generating methods. nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning DNP and PhD graduates have the opportunity to improve health FOR SALE OR DISTRIB outcomes.
17 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR reports Affecting DNP Education 51 II. DNP Scholarly Project The title of the final product to be The DNP Project. DNP project elements include planning, implementation, and evaluation components. All DNP projects should: ones & Bartlett Learning, focus on a change that impacts healthcare outcomes Jones & either Bartlett through Learning T FOR SALE direct or indirect care OR DISTRIB have a systems or population focus demonstrate implementation in the appropriate area of practice include a plan for sustainability ett Learning, include an evaluation of Jones processes & and/or Bartlett outcomes Learning, provide a foundation NOT for future FOR practice SALE scholarship. As mentioned, the discipline of education encompasses an entirely separate body of knowledge and competence; therefore, the focus of a DNP program, including practicum and DNP project, should not be Jones on & the Bartlett educational Learning, process, the academic curriculum, or on educating NOT FOR nursing SALE students. Integrative and systematic reviews alone are not considered a DNP project and do not provide opportunities for students to develop and integrate scholarship into their practice. ones & Bartlett Learning, A student s portfolio is not considered a DNP Jones project but & Bartlett rather a tool Learning FOR SALE to document learning. OR DISTRIB Group/team projects are acceptable when the project aims are consistent with the focus of the program. Each member of the group must meet all expectations of planning, ett Learning, implementation, and evaluation Jones of & the Bartlett project, Learning, and be evaluated accordingly. Each student must have a leadership role in at least one component of the project and be held accountable for a deliverable. Dissemination of the DNP project should include a minimum of an executive summary or a written report that disseminates DNP project outcomes. Dissemination of the DNP project could take these forms: publishing in a peer reviewed print or on-line poster and podium presentations presentation of a written or verbal executive summary to stakeholders and/or the practice site/organization leadership nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning FOR SALE OR DISTRIB development of a webinar presentation or video
18 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 52 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends submission and publication to a non-refereed lay publication oral presentation to the public-at-large development and presentation of a digital poster, a grand rounds presentation, and/or a PowerPoint presentation. The DNP project team should consist of a student or a group of students ones & Bartlett Learning, with a minimum of a doctoral prepared faculty Jones member & Bartlett and a Learning T FOR SALE OR practice DISTRIBUTION mentor. OR DISTRIB The term DNP Project Team should be used to minimize confusion between the PhD dissertation committee and the faculty and mentors who oversee the DNP final project. ett Learning, Evaluation of the final DNP project Jones is the & responsibility Bartlett Learning, of the faculty. A digital repository for the NOT DNP final FOR projects SALE should OR be DISTRIBUTION used to advance nursing practice by archiving and sharing outcomes. III. DNP programs: Should provide evidence of meeting program outcomes delineated in Jones the DNP & Bartlett Essentials. Learning, NOT FOR Should SALE map student learning objectives to expected program NOT out-focomes and DNP Essentials. SALE A post-baccalaureate full-time program of study should be 3 years including summers or four years on a traditional academic calendar. ones & Bartlett A Learning, post-master s program of study should be a minimum Jones of & 12 Bartlett months Learning FOR SALE OR full-time DISTRIBUTION study to allow for acquisition of the NOT doctoral-level FOR SALE outcomes OR DISTRIB and completion of the DNP project. Should be designed with attention to program efficiency. Consider new models and processes for implementing DNP project teams that provide efficient Jones use of resources & Bartlett and support Learning, student ett Learning, learning. Adopt a process that allows for oversight and evaluation of DNP projects that ensures quality and equity of resources. Should provide faculty development to ensure quality student learning outcomes to include: curricular design of DNP programs development of new, innovative teaching strategies development of innovative, new practice opportunities to support achievement of the DNP Essentials learning outcomes strategies to support and evaluate the DNP project nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning implementation of quality improvement processes FOR SALE OR DISTRIB interprofessional education and practice experiences.
19 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR reports Affecting DNP Education 53 Preparation for the nurse educator role: Requires additional coursework in pedagogies Is not an area of advanced nursing practice. IV. DNP practice hours Practice experiences should prepare the post-baccalaureate and postmaster s DNP ones & Bartlett Learning, student with the outcomes delineated Jones in & all Bartlett of the DNP Learning T FOR SALE Essentials. OR DISTRIB Opportunities to integrate all of the Essentials into one s practice are imperative for both post-baccalaureate and post-master s students. Faculty are responsible for assessing students learning needs and de- practice experiences Jones that allow & students Bartlett to attain Learning, and demon- ett Learning, signing strate the DNP Essentials. Programs are expected to demonstrate the synthesis and application of all DNP Essentials. All DNP students, including those in post-master s programs, are expected & Bartlett to complete Learning, a minimum of 1,000 post-baccalaureate practice Jones & Bart Jones NOT FOR hours. SALE Practice immersion experiences afford the opportunity to apply, integrate and synthesize the DNP Essentials necessary to demonstrate achievement of desired outcomes in an area of advanced nursing ones & Bartlett Learning, practice. lett Learning FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Practice experiences for the DNP student are NOT not intended FOR SALE to be solely OR DISTRIB direct patient care focused but should include indirect care practices in healthcare related environments. Programs must demonstrate that graduates have attained all of the ett Learning, DNP Essential outcomes. Students who have completed NOT more FOR than SALE 1,000 OR practice DISTRIBUTION hours in their master s program will need to complete additional hours in the DNP program. Practice hours spent in master s nursing programs can be counted as post-baccalaureate practice hours, provided they can be verified. Practice experiences should have well defined learning objectives and provide experiences over and above the individual s job responsibilities or activities. Schools may credit practice hours to a post-master s DNP student who holds current national certification in an area of advanced nursing nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning practice, as defined in the AACN 2006 DNP Essentials, and requires a FOR SALE OR DISTRIB minimum of a graduate degree.
20 lett Learning, an Ascend Learning Company.. OR 54 Chapter 3 Defining the Doctor of Nursing Practice: Current Trends Post-master s students must have faculty supervised practice hours in the DNP program that provide the opportunity for the student to integrate all of the outcomes delineated in the DNP Essentials. DNP programs should not be preparing the nurse educator; therefore the focus of the practicum and DNP project should not be on the academic ones & Bartlett Learning, educational process, the academic curriculum, Jones or on & educating Bartlett Learning T FOR SALE OR nursing DISTRIBUTION students. Practice as a nurse educator NOT should FOR not be SALE included OR DISTRIB in the DNP practice hours. V. Collaborative Partnerships Programs should follow the Academic-Practice Partnership guiding ett Learning, principles developed by the AACN-AONE Jones & Bartlett Task Force Learning, on Academic- Practice Partnerships (2012). Programs are encouraged to consider a broad range of academicpractice partnerships, e.g. with school systems, prison systems, public health departments, that afford students opportunities to engage in Jones the full & Bartlett planning, Learning, implementation, and evaluation of a project that Jones & Bart NOT FOR impacts SALE healthcare OR outcomes. DISTRIBUTION Academic and practice partners are encouraged to collect outcome data to demonstrate the added value of DNP graduates. ones & Bartlett Learning, FOR SALE SUMMARY OF TRENDS lett Learning OR DISTRIB In summary, the trends identified confirm that DNP education is evolving, and change has occurred rapidly in recent years. The major trends relating to the practice doctorate identified are as follows: ett Learning, DNP programs are rapidly growing NOT and FOR changing. SALE However, DNP student enrollments are not negatively affecting enrollment in research-focused PhD programs in nursing. There is a shift from programs offering only a post-master s level to DNP option to more programs adding the BSN to DNP option. The roles identified by DNP students are not only the traditional APRN clinical roles; students are also choosing a focus on nonclinical (indirect care) advanced nursing practice roles, such as nurse executive, health policy specialist, and informaticist. Most DNP programs are becoming accredited by organizations such nes & Bartlett Learning, lett Learning as the CCNE, which ultimately should decrease variability in program FOR SALE OR DISTRIB standards.
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