1 EMPATHIC UNDERSTANDING (From C. H. Patterson. The Therapeutic Relationship, pp Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1985.) In English, the word understanding has come to mean knowledge of, or understanding about, something. One of the goals of science is understanding--understanding of objects and the results of their manipulation. This is not the kind of understanding we refer to when we use the word in counseling or psychotherapy. Here we are concerned not with knowing about clients but knowing how they feel and think and perceive things-- themselves and the world about them. it is understanding from the internal frame of reference, rather than from the external or so-called objective frame of reference. Some languages, for example French and German, have two verbs for to know, one meaning to know from the external frame of reference and the other simply to know, subjectively. Because English does not make this distinction, we need a modifier for the word understanding; empathic is used for this purpose. Empathic understanding has long been recognized as an important element in psychotherapy. In this section we discuss its nature, how it can be measured, and what it looks like in action. The Nature of Empathy Empathy should not be confused with sympathy. It does not involve identification with the client. This is clear in Rogers's definition: "[Empathy is] an accurate, empathic understanding of the client's world as seen from the inside. To sense the client's private world as if it were your own, but without losing the 'as if' quality--this is empathy." (4) Colloquially, it is expressed, at least in part, by the phrase "I know where you're coming from." A phrase in the language of some American Indians expresses it: "to walk in his moccasins." Great novelists are experts in empathic understanding, leading their readers to empathize with their characters. The theme of one novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, is dependent on the concept of empathy. At one point in the story Atticus Finch, the lawyer, trying to help his two young children to understand people's behavior toward him, says: "If... you can learn a simple trick... you'll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of viewuntil you climb into his skin and walk around in it." (5) Empathy, of course, is not a trick, nor is it simple. Our society is externally oriented; we do not normally or easily see things from another person's point of view. We are too preoccupied with our own frame of reference. On the other hand, once we know what it means, most of us can relatively easily assume temporarily another's point of view. Students in counseling or psychotherapy seem to have relatively little difficulty in understanding the nature of empathy and putting themselves in the place of another
2 person-at least momentarily. It seems that the capacity for empathy is present, to some extent at least, in many people in our society, certainly in most of those who are seriously interested in becoming counselors or psychotherapists. But it is difficult to persist in this frame of reference, since it is not our usual behavior in everyday human relationships. Students easily pop out of the internal into the external frame of reference, and it takes considerable time to overcome the habits of everyday interactions with others. Students are also often bothered by the apparent subjectivity of empathic understanding. They are obsessed with the need to obtain "objective facts." But the so-called facts are nothing more than the subjective perceptions and impressions of other observers, usually with added evaluative or judgmental aspects. The real "facts" in counseling or psychotherapy are the perceptions, ideas, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings of the client; he or she is the expert on these facts, and the counselor must attempt to see and understand them. The question is sometimes raised regarding discrepancies between the client's perceptions and those of others--shouldn't the counselor check the client's perceptions against those of his or her associates, family, or teachers? If the client's perceptions are greatly out of line with others', this will usually be apparent; often it will be brought to the counselor's attention by those in the client's environment. In cases where the discrepancies are less evident, the counselor will usually become aware of them as counseling continues. The real question is what counselors should or can do about such discrepancies. Usually they should do nothing about them immediately, since there is nothing effective they can do until a relationship is established. When this is achieved, it is likely that the client will recognize, or admit, discrepancies that he or she has been aware of, or will become aware of them, and then therapy can deal with them. Or, if they are apparent, and the client does not seem to be progressing toward awareness of them, the counselor can respond to them through confrontation. (See Chapter 5.) Empathy involves at least three aspects or stages. Assuming that the client is willing to allow the counselor to enter his or her private world and attempts to communicate perceptions and feelings to the counselor, the counselor must be receptive to the communication. Second, counselors must understand the communication of the client. To do this they must be able to put themselves in the place of the client, to take the role of the client. Third, the counselor must be able to communicate his or her understanding to the client. Since, we cannot actually be another person, we are inevitably outside, in an "as if" situation. This is not necessarily a negative situation, but can be positive if we responsively engage in an exploration with the client of his or her perceptions, emotions, and experiences. It is also a protection against too close an identification and against empathy becoming sympathy. "Being empathic, we assume the role of the other person, and in that role initiate in ourselves the process of self-exploration as if we were the other person himself. (6) In trying to understand clients and in feeling and experiencing with them, we help them in the process of expressing, exploring, and understanding themselves.
3 Differences between counselors and their clients are barriers to empathy. Differences in sex, age, religion, socioeconomic status, education, and culture impede the development of empathic understanding. Of course, no one can completely understand another person. Everyone is unique, a product of a unique series of experiences. The wider a person's background, the more varied his or her experiences, the greater the understanding of a wider variety of other people. Yet it is impossible for any one individual to have the variety of experiences necessary for understanding all other persons, if identical or similar experiences were necessary for empathy. No male can really experience what it is like to be a female; no White can really experience what it is like to be Black. But it is not necessary for one to be exactly like another or to have had similar experiences to understand another. It may help in understanding a psychotic to have been psychotic oneself, but it is not necessary. We can empathize to some extent at least, and sometimes to a great extent, with any other person on the basis of our commonalities as human beings. As Sullivan put it, "We are all much more simply human than otherwise." (7) Fortunately, it is not necessary that we understand or empathize completely with another to be able to help the other person through relationship therapy. If we are really trying to understand, with at least occasional success in the beginning of therapy, therapy has a chance of continuing and of being successful. Indeed, clients will try to help the therapist understand them and sometimes will show remarkable persistence with an obtuse therapist. It is certainly desirable that counselors should prepare themselves in any way they can to understand potential clients. A counselor who wants to work with a particular age, sex, social, or ethnic group should make some effort to gain an understanding of the particular group. It is frequently recommended that such persons take a course in the social and behavioral sciences, particularly anthropology, for this purpose. However, such courses are not particularly helpful, and they may be harmful. Anthropology is, or strives to be, a science. It is the hallmark of science that it is objective--that is, it studies objects or makes objects out of what it studies. Thus, the approach of anthropology, as it is usually taught, does not lead to a human understanding but to the viewing of other peoples as curious objects, sometimes barely human. To be sure, some anthropologists do develop a deep understanding of the peoples they study, but this is not usually conveyed in an anthropology course. In addition, anthropology is concerned with commonalities of cultures, with groups, rather than with individuals. It thus is in danger of fostering stereotypes, particularly in the minds of students, who are taking only a course or two. Stereotypes are harmful rather than helpful in dealing with or understanding individuals. A counselor who has had a course on the poor Whites of Appalachia or the Blacks in the deep rural South is likely to be hindered rather than helped when he encounters a poor Appalachian White or a southern rural Black as a client. There are two useful ways in which counselors can prepare themselves, to some extent at least, to work with clients from other groups than their own. One is to acquire as much
4 vicarious experience as possible. People who really know the other group can be of help. One widely available source is literature. Students should steep themselves in the literature--poetry, novels, biographies, and autobiographies--of the group. The second way in which the serious student can develop understanding of another group is to live with them--not as a visitor or as a professional person but as a person without any special identity except perhaps as a worker of some kind with them. Perhaps it is not too much to require that prospective counselors have some such experience for from six months to a year. Measuring Empathic Understanding In 1961, Truax developed a Tentative Scale for the Measurement of Accurate Empathy. This is a nine-point scale with definitions of each point and examples. (8) Carkhuff revised the scale and converted it into a five-level system for measuring empathic understanding in interpersonal processes. (9) Carkhuff's scale is as follows. Level 1 The verbal and behavioral expressions of the first person either do not attend to or detract significantly from the verbal and behavioral expressions of the second person(s) in that they communicate significantly less of the second person's feelings than the second person has communicated himself. EXAMPLES: The first person communicates no awareness of even the most obvious, expressed surface feelings of the second person. The first person may be bored or uninterested or simply operating from a preconceived frame of reference which totally excludes that of the other person(s). In summary, the first person does everything but express that he is listening, understanding, or being sensitive to even the feelings of the other person in such a way as to detract significantly from the communications of the second person. Level 2 While the first person responds to the expressed feelings of the second person(s), he does so in such a way that he subtracts noticeable affect from the communications of the second person. EXAMPLES: The first person may communicate some awareness of obvious surface feelings of the second person, but his communications drain off a level of the affect and distort the level of meaning. The first person may communicate his own ideas of what may be going on, but these are not congruent with the expressions of the second person. In summary, the first person tends to respond to other than what the second person is expressing or indicating.
5 Level 3 The expressions of the first person in response to the expressed feelings of the second person(s) are essentially interchangeable with those of the second person in that they express essentially the same affect and meaning. EXAMPLE: The first person responds with accurate understanding of the surface feelings of the second person but may not respond to or may misinterpret the deeper feelings. In summary, the first person is responding so as to neither subtract from nor add to the expressions of the second person; but he does not respond accurately to how that person really feels beneath the surface feelings. Level 3 constitutes the minimal level of facilitative interpersonal functioning. Level 4 The responses of the first person add noticeably to the expressions of the second person(s) in such a way as to express feelings a level deeper than the second person was able to express himself. EXAMPLE: The facilitator communicates his understanding of the expressions of the second person at a level deeper than they were expressed, and thus enables the second person to experience and/or express feelings he was unable to express previously. In summary, the facilitator's responses add deeper feeling and meaning to the expressions of the second person. Level 5 The first person's responses add significantly to the feeling and meaning of the expressions of the second person(s) in such a way as to (1) accurately express feelings levels below what the person himself was able to express or (2) in the event of ongoing deep self-exploration on the second person's part, to be fully with him in his deepest moments. EXAMPLE: The facilitator responds with accuracy to all of the person's deeper as well as surface feelings. He is "together" with the second person or "tuned in" on his wave length. The facilitator and the other person might proceed together to explore previously unexplored areas of human existence. In summary, the facilitator is responding with a full awareness of who the other person is and a comprehensive and accurate empathic understanding of his deepest feelings.
6 Examples of Empathy Carkhuff and Berenson describe the movement from low to high empathy: The emphasis, then, is upon movement to levels of feeling and experience deeper than those communicated by the client, yet within the range of expression which the client can constructively employ for his own purposes. The therapist's ability to communicate at high levels of empathic understanding appears to involve the therapist's ability to allow himself to experience or merge in the experience of the client, reflect upon this experience while suspending his own judgments, tolerating his own anxiety, and communicating this understanding to the client. (10) At low levels of empathy counselors are obtuse to the client's expressions, and are responding to, or with, their own feelings and perceptions. They are not in the client's frame of reference, but may be evaluating and judging the client and his or her behavior, reacting with suggestions, advice, moralizations, and so on. Their responses are irrelevant to the feelings and perceptions of the client. CLIENT: Sometimes I get so depressed I don't know where I'm going. THERAPIST: Well, you know, it's around exam time and lots of kids get feeling a little down at this time of year. CLIENT: Yes, but this has nothing to do with exams. That's not even bothering me. THERAPIST: You mean none of the exams is bothering you? Surely one of them must be bothering you! (11) At a minimally facilitative level the counselor is with the client and the client feels this. CLIENT: Sometimes I get so depressed I just don't know what to do. THERAPIST: Sometimes you feel like you're never going to get up again. CLIENT: Right. I just don't know what to do with myself. What am I going to do? (12) At a highly facilitative level, therapists go beyond the words or even expressed feelings of the client to the implications of his or her statements. The therapist is still responding to the client and not intruding feelings or perceptions. The client's feelings may be blurred and confused so that he or she does not recognize all their meanings or implications, which are clarified by the therapist. CLIENT: Gee, those people! Who do they think they are? I just can't stand interacting with them any more, just a bunch of phonies. They leave me so frustrated. They make me so anxious. I get angry at myself. I don't even want to be bothered with them anymore. I just wish I could be honest with them and tell them all to go to hell! But I just can't do it. THERAPIST: Damn, they make you furious! But it's not just them. It's with yourself too, because you don't act on how you feel. (13) It is impossible for a therapist to maintain the highest level of empathy continuously. And it is unnecessary. In fact, it is probably undesirable. At the beginning of therapy an
7 extremely high level of empathy can be threatening and inhibit the communications of clients. Clients may well feel that the counselor understands them better than they do themselves and that it is unnecessary for them to continue to express themselves. Carkhuff suggests that in the early stage the therapist is most effective if he or she focuses on level 3 (the minimal level) of the facilitative conditions. (14) Discrimination versus Communication Carkhuff makes an important distinction between the ability to discriminate an accurate empathic response and the ability to communicate empathically. If one is presented with a number of responses at various levels of empathy, one is able relatively easily,, or with relatively little training, to recognize or identify the better or best responses. It is much more difficult to construct or compose a good response. Discrimination is a necessary but not sufficient condition for communication. Individuals who are able to make accurate discriminations are not necessarily able to communicate accurately. Those who can communicate accurately can also discriminate accurately, however. (15) NOTES 4. C. R. Rogers. On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961, p H. Lee. To kill a mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1960, p C. B. Truax and K. M. Mitchell. Research on certain therapist interpersonal skills in relation to process and outcome. In A. E. Bergin and S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change: An empirical analysis. New York: Wiley, 1971, pp H. S. Sullivan. Conceptions of modern psychiatry. Washington, DC: William Allanson White Psychiatric Foundation, 1947, p C. B Truax and R. R. Carkhuff. Toward effective counseling and psychotherapy. Aldine, 1967 Pp Carkhuff, R. R. Helping and human relations. Vol. II. Practice and research. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, pp Carkhuff, R. R. & Berenson. B. G. Beyond counseling and therapy. New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1967, p Ibid, p.32. This and following illustrations from this source are excerpts from actual initial interviews. 12. Ibid, p Carkhuff, Helping. Vol. I, p Ibid, pp. 202, Ibid, pp
RESPECT (UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD) C. H. PATTERSON From The Therapeutic Relationship, Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. 1985. pp. 59-63. RESPECT In his 1957 article, Rogers included unconditional positive
Code of conduct for Healthcare Support Workers Working to standard: a code of conduct for support workers in health care 1. Introduction 1.1 Welcome to this code of conduct for support workers in health
Person-centred Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 All Case Histories in this text are presented as examples only and any comparison which
Psychology 460 Counseling & Interviewing Sheila. K. Grant, Ph.D. Overview Intro: The Effective Counselor Intro: Counseling for the Counselor Intro: The Counselor s Values Intro: Multicultural Counseling
LaGuardia Community College Department of Human Resources CUSTOMER SERVICE COMMUNICATION SKILLS INTERPERSONAL SKILLS E-MAIL & TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES 1 This Workshop Provides Strategies to: Deliver quality
Stigmatization of eating disorders Gina Dimitropoulos; M.S.W., Ph.D., R.S.W Anna is a twenty-one year old woman who has struggled with anorexia nervosa for several years. She blames herself for developing
THE PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE OF CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY WITH OLDER PERSONS: AN INTERVIEW WITH C. H. PATTERSON Jane E. Myers & Darryl A. Hyers The Person-Centered Journal, 1994, 12 (2), 49-53. Jane E. Myers
Guide To Patient Counselling page - 1 - GUIDE TO PATIENT COUNSELLING Communication is the transfer of information meaningful to those involved. It is the process in which messages are generated and sent
Examining Stereotypes Through Self-Awareness: Materials: Ground Rules Ice Breakers TV Characters handout National Social Studies Standards: Culture and cultural diversity: 1. Guide learners as they predict
NEGOTIATION SKILLS SELF ASSESSMENT P. Jean Baker, Esq. Instructions: This is a self scoring assessment. It is designed to test your knowledge of negotiation theory and best practices. Select the answer
Spinal Cord Injury and Returning to Your Life A spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating and traumatic events. You have a loss of all or some of your movement and it is common to have health problems
COMMON TERMS: Denial: The "hallmark" of the disease. All family members and close friends are affected by the actions of the Chemically Dependent Person. The refusal to admit the truth is a part of the
MEDICAL ASSISTANT : COMMUNICATION WITH PATIENTS. The most important abilities of a CMA are: the ability to Communicate effectively, with professionalism and diplomacy to all types of patients. Recognize
Janet E. Helms, Ph.D. Augustus Long Professor, Department of Counseling, Boston College Interviewed by Carlos P. Zalaquett, Ph.D., L.M.H.C Department of Psychological & Social Foundations University of
Course: Instructor: Prerequisites: Number of Credits: Choice Theory in the Classroom: Where Every Student Can Succeed William Glasser, M.D. None 3 Semester credits, 4 quarter credits, 45 hours This course
PSYCHOTHERAPY IN THE SCHOOLS C. H. Patterson (From Journal of School Psychology, 1966, 4, 15-29) During the period of the development of counseling in our schools, education has progressed from the essentialist
Running head: THEORETICAL ORIENTATION 1 Why I am a Reality Feminist: A Reflection on My Theoretical Orientation Christa Steiner University of Southern California BEHAVIORAL THERAPY 2 Why I am a Reality
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Part 1 An Overview Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a general classification of psycho therapy, based on social learning theory, which emphasizes how our thinking interacts
Objectives of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health I) To help establish an atmosphere conductive to recovery (containing minimal anxiety & maximum support) by utilizing individual & group activity program.
Counseling Psychology Program MA Degree FIRST YEAR FIELDWORK PACKET (CNP 4743) Counselor Development: What Can You Expect? The process of entering a graduate program is often a very difficult and trying
A Sample Radio Interview By Erik R, 7/5/00 The following is a sample interview that has been put together to help show how to provide a positive approach to answering questions about Narcotics Anonymous.
International Journal of Innovative Education Research 4 (2):46-50, April-June, 2016 SEAHI PUBLICATIONS, 2016 www.seahipaj.org ISSN: 2354-2942 Review of Person Centered Counselling Theory Dr. Maxwell D.
1 An Analysis of Carl Rogers work with Gloria: An article review by XXXXX XXXXX MSC-502: Counseling Theories and Techniques Instructor: Dr. Michael Bundy 2 An Analysis of How Carl Rogers Enacted Client-centered
Caring For The Person Who Is Suicidal For further information see also the following MIND Essentials resource Conducting a suicide risk assessment. Suicidal thoughts and behaviours are not unique to mental
Providing Quality Customer Service What is Customer Service? For all school district employees to provide the best customer service possible, we must first understand customer service. There are many acceptable
! Their stories are tragic. A new chapter starts now. now.! Bully is a movie that tells powerful stories about children and their families dealing with extreme pain and tragic consequences related to bullying.
Assertiveness and Self-Confidence Student Manual Corporate Training Materials TABLE OF CONTENTS Module One: Getting Started...4 Workshop Objectives... 5 Module Two: What Does Self-Confidence Mean To You?...6
Information for Clients Welcome to Sterman Counseling and Assessment. We appreciate the opportunity to be of assistance to you. This packet answers some questions about therapy services. It is important
South Dade Area H&I Subcommittee Orientation Package INTRODUCTION It is in the best interest of Narcotics Anonymous that we provide an Orientation. An Orientation will allow Narcotics Anonymous members
Page 1 of 13 Sales Aptitude Assessment Questions The following questions are to determine what type of sales person you are and where you fit in our sales organization. We want to make the right decision
TELL Lifeline Telephone Counselor Training Program Application Process Selection Criteria: We are seeking people 21 years or older of any nationality with fluent English-speaking ability. It is important
INTRODUCTION The Seven Rules of Highly Worried People WORRYING IS SECOND NATURE to you, but imagine that someone who has been raised in the jungle and knows nothing about conventional modern life approached
How to Protect Students from Sexual Harassment: A Primer for Schools This fact sheet is part of a series of tools designed by the National Women s Law Center to help schools address the dropout crisis.
Using Emotions as a Pathway for Change A review of the video Emotionally Focused Therapy With Couples (2007). with Leslie S. Greenberg Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2006. American
Counseling Center of New Smyrna Beach 265 N. Causeway New Smyrna Beach FL 32169 Ph: 386-423-9161 Fax: 386-423-3094 Addictions: Why Don t They Just Quit? By Shane Porter One of the most frustrating issues
Making sense of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) Making sense of cognitive behaviour therapy What is cognitive behaviour therapy? 4 How does negative thinking start? 6 What type of problems can CBT help
1 Tips for Effective Negotiating Nikisha Williams Virginia Valian Gender Equity Project, Hunter College CUNY Negotiation is a valuable skill in every part of your life. When carried out effectively negotiation
Best Practices Manual For Counseling Services A Guide for Faculty & Staff 7/2014 Table of Contents Purpose of the Best Practices Manual for Counseling Services.3 General Guidelines on Responding to Concerns
Lisa C. Tang, Ph.D. Licensed Clinical Psychologist 91 W Neal St. Pleasanton, CA 94566 (925) 963-8835 Professional Policies and Consent to Treatment Welcome to my practice. I appreciate your giving me the
Bip at W t What Is Bipolar Disorder? D DD Ds Dis DIDIsDsD D DJane F. Mountain, MD DWh Dha Dat Dt What Is Bipolar Disorder? Jane F. Mountain, MD PLEASE NOTE: This book is not meant to substitute for medical
Interpersonal Communication: Key Competencies for Enterprise Project Management Steven Flannes, Ph.D. Principal, Flannes Associates 2080 Mountain Blvd., Suite 205 Oakland, California 94611 USA Telephone:
BRIEFING PAPER 13 FINDINGS SERIES Perceived Barriers in Accessing Healthcare Services: Asylum Seekers and Refugee (ASRs) and Service Providers Perspectives May 2008 FINDINGS SERIES 13 BRIEFING PAPER INTRODUCTION
Relationship Counselling Neil Harris CCAA Seminar 2010 email@example.com Ju.firstname.lastname@example.org Lambert s (2009) research presentation at the PACFA conference confirmed that therapy is considered a legitimate
Counseling Antisocial Clients: A Microskills Approach By Norma Gluckstern-Packard and Ralph Packard Produced by Microtraining Associates, Inc. Introduction to the Video Purpose: The purpose of this video
Waldron 1 Leanna Waldron Rob Hale Writing About Literature Laboratory 19 August, 2011 Comment [L1]: Note the heading with my name, my professor s name, the class title and the date. Morality Overcoming
Sales Aptitude report for: Sally Sample Date taken: Thursday, December 20, 2012 11:42 PM For more information or help reading this report call: 555-234-5678 This report is a tool for the interview process
Using coping statements to avoid common thinking traps Did you know that your thoughts affect how you see yourself and the world around you? You may look at a situation one way, even though there are many
Sandtray in the Schools: A Developmentally Appropriate Intervention Stephen A. Armstrong, Ph.D, LPC-S, RPT-S, CSC Texas A&M University-Commerce TSCA Conference Galveston 2012 www.sandtraytherapyinstitute.com
TECHNIQUES OF THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION 1. Using Broad Opening Statements The use of a broad opening statement allows the patient to set the direction of the conversation. Such questions as Is there something
OUTSIDE AND INSIDE THE SCHOOL COUNSELOR JOB SEARCH Dr. Louis J. Bamonte Guidance Chairperson Walter G. O'Connell Copiague High School Outside: Before the Interview A. Some Random Thoughts 1. For everything
Developing a Therapeutic Relationship with Clients with Personality Disorders Jim Seckman, MAC, CACII, CCS The Therapeutic Relationship The therapeutic relationship, also called the therapeutic alliance,
Boonin on the Future-Like-Ours Argument against Abortion Pedro Galvão Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa David Boonin s recent book 1 is an impressively deep and detailed attempt to establish
Form 6.1: Self-Assessment of Counseling Performance Skills Purposes: To provide the trainee with an opportunity to review levels of competency in the performance skill areas of basic helping skills and
Values Go to School Booklet prepared by The Child Development Institute, Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY 10708 The Child Development Institute was established in 1987 to develop outreach programs
50 Character Traits Every Firefighter Candidate Should Possess Are You a Good Fit For The Department? There is no one-size fits all candidate that is a best fit for a fire department. However, there are
Dialog: VIP LESSON 049 - Future of Business A: We really embarrassed ourselves last night at that business function. B: What are you talking about? A: We didn't even have business cards to hand out. We
Views of Counseling 1 Running head: DEFINITION OF COUNSELING Views of Counseling: Applications of Various Counseling Techniques Melissa Singh Ball State University Views of Counseling 2 Abstract The purpose
BOB JASKIEWICZ, L.C.S.W. Psychotherapist MONTCLAIR HEALTH ASSOCIATES Client Information Sheet Name _ Age Gender M F Marital Status Name(s) and DOB for all other family members Home address (city, state,
12 Step Worksheet Questions STEP 1 We admitted we were powerless over alcohol that our lives had become unmanageable. The first time I took a drink I knew it wasn't for me. Every time I drank I got drunk
Running Head: PSYCHOLOGY 1 Types of Psychology Alex Thompson Psychology Class Professor Phelps March 4, 2014 PSYCHOLOGY 2 Types of Psychology Developmental psychology Developmental psychology entails the
Values Clarification & Options Counseling for Unintended Pregnancy Jennifer A. Hart, MPH Sandy Fulkerson Schaeffer Financial Disclosures Jennifer A. Hart, MPH, has no relevant financial relationships to
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT & CORRECTIVE ACTION GUIDELINES As a supervisor, one of your primary roles is to help employees succeed in their position and coaching them to high levels of performance. Whenever
KENTUCKY STARS FOR KIDS NOW PROCESS EVALUATION Evaluation Brief #5 Collaboration and Coordination in the Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW Technical Assistance System Authors: Sarah Daily Shannon Moodie Tabitha
Capstone Suggestions for Survey Development for Research Purposes 1. Begin by listing the questions you would like to answer with the survey. These questions will be relatively broad and should be based
Knowledge of Multicultural School Counseling 2 At my school about half the population is ELL students. I feel inadequate when it comes to working with ELL students due to language barriers. My school is
Difficult Tutoring Situations At some time or other, all tutors will find themselves faced with difficult situations in a tutoring session. The following information will provide you with some common categories
Are you feeling... Tired, Sad, Angry, Irritable, Hopeless? I feel tired and achy all the time. I can t concentrate and my body just doesn t feel right. Ray B. I don t want to get out of bed in the morning
ON APPLYING TO GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PSYCHOLOGY * Admission to a graduate program in psychology can be quite competitive. High quality programs are, of course, more competitive than lower quality programs.
Counseling Intake Form (Each person attending therapy should complete a form) Name Male Female Mailing Address Date of Birth Home Phone Work Email How would you like to be contacted? Home Work Email Okay
Homeopathic times - Irish Society of Homeopaths - July 2002 Magnificent Massimo Manglialavori plunges into the heady world of mystery, structure and the importance of establishing an epistomological case
Dual Diagnosis Dr. Ian Paylor Senior Lecturer in Applied Social Science Lancaster University Dual diagnosis has become a critical issue for both drug and mental health services. The complexity of problems
Handout 6.1 Summary of Session 6: Thoughts Are Not Facts Our thoughts can have very powerful effects on how we feel and what we do. Often those thoughts are triggered and run off quite automatically. By
Facilitating Behavior Change This section contains the following subjects: Readiness to Change Motivational Interviewing 57 ASSESSING AND INCREASING MOTIVATION Adherence and nonadherence are behaviors,
A Definition of Motivational Interviewing The definition of Motivational Interviewing (MI) has evolved and been refined since the original publications on its utility as an approach to behavior change.
Pre-school Learning Alliance Children s Centre Procedures CC8 CC8.1 Standard Practice - equality procedures Promoting inclusion, equality and valuing diversity The Pre-school Learning Alliance actively
Review of European Studies; Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015 ISSN 1918-7173 E-ISSN 1918-7181 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Psychodrama in the Training of Practical Psychologists Vera P. Zeleeva
Listening skills audit There are 30 statements to consider. Decide how much you agree or disagree with each statement, and circle the appropriate number. Once you re finished, count up your score and see
FAIRFIELD PUBLIC SCHOOLS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT STANDARDS OF EXCELLENCE Performance standards have been developed for all Fairfield Public Schools Technology Department team members to follow.
I M NOT AN ADDICT How could I be an addict? My life is great. I live in a very good area of Los Angeles, drive a nice sports car, have a good job, pay all my bills, and have a wonderful family. This is
The Emotional Bank Account We all know what a bank account is. It is where we put our money, make deposits, save for the future, and make withdrawals when we need to. An Emotional Bank Account is a metaphor
Communication Skills for Effective Laboratory Management RT Erasmus Stellenbosch University and NHLS Outline Learning Objectives Introduction Awareness of Your Personal Style Skillful Listening Expressing
Town Of Concord APP #45 Telephone Procedures, Policies & Guidelines The Caller's Bill of Rights It is the philosophy of the Town of Concord that every caller is entitled to: 1. a prompt response to his
Chapter 11 Dr. Sheila K. Grant... it is what you choose to do in a relationship, not what others choose to do, that is the heart of reality therapy. Biography of Born 1925 & educated at Case Western Reserve
TM Understanding Depression The Road to Feeling Better Helping Yourself Your Treatment Options A Note for Family Members Understanding Depression Depression is a biological illness. It affects more than