ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONS

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1 TECHNICAL FILE Graphic design: Marzena Stempień-Sałek, Andrzej Łaptaś Edition: Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) Date: September 2010 Number of copies: 70 ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONS The Committee on Geological Sciences PAS Institute of Geological Sciences PAS Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Institute of Geological Sciences Wrocław University SPONSORS Ministry of Science and Higher Education CIMP - Commission Internationale de Microflore du Paléozoique Carl Zeiss Sp. z o. o. Precoptic Co. INFOMAX Kielce

2 Authors: Anna Fijałkowska-Mader, Maria Kuleta, Jan Malec, Zbigniew Szczepanik, Wiesław Trela, Stanisława Zbroja (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute, Holy Cross Mts. Branch, Zgoda 21 Street, Kielce, Poland) Grzegorz Pieńkowski (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute, Rakowiecka 4 Street, Warsaw, Poland) Monika Jachowicz-Zdanowska (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute, Upper Silesian Branch, Królowej Jadwigi 1 Street, Sosnowiec, Poland) Monika Masiak, Marzena Stempień-Sałek (Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55 Street, Warsaw, Poland) CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 2

3 Index Wiesław Trela - Outline of Geology of the Holy Cross Mountains page 4 Zbigniew Szczepanik - Stop 1. Wiśniówka quarry Furongian siliciclastic succession page 9 Anna Fijałkowska-Mader - Stop 2. Kajetanów The Lower Zechstein black limestones page 13 Jan Malec - Stop 3. Bukowa Góra quarry - Lower Devonian siliciclastic succession page 15 Wiesław Trela, Jan Malec - Stop 4. Kowala Devonian/Carboniferous boundary page 18 Monika Jachowicz-Zdanowska - Stop 5. Kielce archive of drill cores; Lithostratigraphy and palynostratigraphy of the Proterozoic-Lower Palaeozoic basement of the Polish Carpathians presentation of core samples from the selected deep boreholes from southern Poland - page 20 Zbigniew Szczepanik, Wiesław Trela - Stop 5. Kielce archive of drill cores; Lithostratigraphy and palynostratigraphy of the Furongian Silurian succession in the Holy Cross Mountains - page 31 Zbigniew Szczepanik - Stop 6. Zbelutka Lower Cambrian sandstones and mudstones page 37 Monika Masiak - Silurian of the Bardo Syncline - page 38 Monika Masiak, Wiesław Trela - Stop 7. Zalesie near Łagów Ordovician and Silurian succession page 41 Monika Masiak, Wiesław Trela - Stop 8. Bardo Stawy Ordovician/Silurian boundary, Rhuddanian black cherts and shales page 46 Monika Masiak - Stop 9. Bardo Prągowiec Wenlock-Lower Ludlow shales page 51 Wiesław Trela - Stop 10. Łysa Góra (Bald Mount) - Pleistocene peri-glacial boulder cover page 54 Anna Fijałkowska-Mader - Stop 11. Czerwona Góra Upper Permian conglomerates page 55 Wiesław Trela, Maria Kuleta, Stanisława Zbroja - Stop 12. Zachełmie Middle Devonian carbonates and Permian/Triassic continental terrigenous deposits page 57 Grzegorz Pieńkowski, Marzena Stempień-Sałek - Stop 13. Krzemionki Archeological Museum and Reserve page 60 References page 63 3 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

4 Outline of Geology of the Holy Cross Mountains Wiesław Trela The Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) are unique area located within a major tectonic zone of Europe, i.e., the Trans-European Suture Zone (Fig. 1; Berthelsen, 1992). Geological maps clearly display that the HCM are composed of the Palaeozoic core surrounded by the Permian-Mesozoic cover. The Palaeozoic core is divided into two structurally different units, i.e., the Łysogóry and Kielce Regions, separated by the Holy Cross Fault. The Łysogóry Region (northern unit) is supposed to be a passive margin of Baltica (East European Craton), whereas the Kielce Region (southern unit) belongs to the Małopolska Block, which is considered to be a proximal terrane relocated dextrally along the present SW margin of Baltica (Nawrocki et al., 2007). The deep seismic sounding experiments display a crustal structure of the Małopolska Block identical with that of the East European Craton (Malinowski et al., 2005). Paleomagnetic reconstructions and palaeontological data indicate that at least since Mid-Ordovician the relative location of the Małopolska Block with respect to Baltica was similar to the present day (Cocks, 2002; Schätz et al., 2006; Nawrocki et al., 2007). The Cambrian system in the HCM is represented by a thick (up to 3000 m) siliciclastic succession dated by trilobite fauna and acritarch microphytoplankton (Żylińska, 2001, 2002; Szczepanik, 2009; Żylińska and Szczepanik, 2009). The shallow water sandstone facies prevail mostly in the western part of the HCM (e.g. the Series 2/3 Ociesęki Formation and the Furongian Wiśniówka Formation), whereas shales and mudstones predominate in the eastern localities. The Cambrian rocks of the older age were deformed prior to the Furongian-Tremadocian time interval as can be inferred from the angular unconformity between the Furongian sandstones/mudstones and underlying folded mudstones/shales corresponding to the Cambrian Series 2/3, detected in the eastern part of the Kielce Region (Szczepanik et al., 2004). The topmost part of the Cambrian section in the Łysogóry Region is made up of the upper Furongian/lower Tremadocian? black shales (up to 150 m thick) corresponding to the Scandinavian alum shales, which relate to transgression commenced the HCM in the late Furongian. The Cambrian acritarch specimens in the Łysogóry Region display dark brown to black colors and refer to the indexes 5+ to 6 (condensate to gas window) in the Amoco Standard Thermal Alteration Index (Szczepanik, oral information). On the contrary, the color of forms from the Kielce Region is much more lighter (mostly yellow) and corresponds to the indexes 3+ to 4+ in the Amoco TAI scale. There is a conspicuous angular unconformity at the Cambrian/Ordovician boundary recognized in the Kielce Region and documented by the upper Tremadocian glauconite-bearing sandstones and mudstones resting on the folded sandstones and mudstones of the Cambrian Series 2/3. However, in the eastern part of this area the stratigraphic gap related to the Cambrian/Ordovician boundary narrows and includes the lower Tremadocian strata (Szczepanik et al., 2004). The bulk of the Ordovician succession in the Kielce Region is represented by the Lower to Upper Ordovician sandstones and CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 4

5 condensed limestones/dolostones (up to 50 m thick section) interrupted by discontinuity surfaces of various stratigraphic range, developed on a central submarine elevation (Dzik and Pisera, 1994; Trela, 2005). These facies are surrounded by the Middle/Upper Ordovician black and green/grey shales (up to 200 m thick) occurring in the Łysogóry Region and SW margin of the Kielce Region, interpreted as deposits of a deeper intra-shelf basins developed under intermittent dysoxic conditions (Trela, 2007). Mudstones and sandstones (~6 m thick) delineating the topmost part of the Ordovician system in the HCM correspond to the global regressive event. Likewise the Cambrian forms, the Ordovician acritrach specimens reveal conspicuously different color signature between both regions; i.e., dark forms in the Łysogóry Region and much lighter in the southern area (Szczepanik, oral information). In Silurian both regions of the HCM displayed a similar evolution. The sedimentary record is represented by the Rhuddanian Gorstian mudrock facies (up to 300 m thick) passing gradually into a thick succession of greywacke sandstones (~500 m thick). The base of the Silurian succession consists of the Rhuddanian black shales and radiolarian cherts that represent only a small fraction of the mudrock facies. The Rhuddanian black shales in the Łysogóry Regions were a part of the facies pattern developed along the present SW margin of Baltica, which was positioned at the northern margin of the Rheic Ocean (Podhalańska and Trela, 2007). At the opposing margin of this ocean the organic-rich black shales were deposited along the Gondwana shelf forming the most important petroleum source rocks in N African and Arabian Peninsula (Lüning et al., 2000). Moreover, in the case of the HCM, the sedimentary environment was controlled by the upwelling system generated along a submarine elevation by the SE trade winds, which is supported by black radiolarian cherts in the Kielce Region (Kremer, 2005; Trela and Salwa 2007; Trela 2009). The black shale deposition returned close to the Llanvirn/Wenlock boundary after the Aeronian and Telychian period of seasonal water column stratification and mixing. The deposition of greywackes was initiated in Mid-Ludlow and resulted in filling up of the foredeep basin that extended from the Łysogóry Region to the present SW margin of Baltica (Poprawa et al., 1999; Narkiewicz, 2002). Kozłowski et al. (2004) postulate that the source area for greywackes was an arc-continent orogen located westward of the HCM (the Łysogóry Region was in a more distal position towards this orogen than the Kielce Region). In the Kielce Region the greywacke succession is unconformably overlain by the Lower Devonian siliciclastic deposits, which resulted from the Late Caledonian orogeny. However, in the Łysogóry Region shallow water greywacke facies continue across the Silurian/Devonian boundary (Kozłowski, 2008). The Lower Devonian siliciclastics (~550 m thick) display evolution of the sedimentary environment from continental to marginal marine settings including deposition in storm- and wavedominated nearshore zone (Szulczewski, 1995a; Kowalczewski et al., 1998; Szulczewski and Porębski, 2008). Close to the Lower/Middle Devonian boundary the siliciclastic deposition was replaced by carbonates forming the carbonate platform that reveal three-phased evolution: peritidal to bank and reef deposition followed by the post-reef phase (Szulczewski, 1995a, 2006). The stepwise drowning of the carbonate platform initiated in Late Devonian was controlled by eustatic sea-level rise 5 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

6 accompanied by syndepositional block-faulting driven in turn by the tectonic extension (Szulczewski et al., 1996). The worldwide biotic crises and anoxic related black shale (or limestone) horizons were also recognized within sections related to drowning of the carbonate platform (Racki, 2006; Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). The facies layout in Early Carboniferous was controlled by tectonic horsts and grabens inherited after the Late Devonian syndepositional block faulting (Szulczewski et al., 1996). The Carboniferous system in the HCM is represented by deposits of the lower Mississippian series detected only in the Kielce Region. Palaeohighs were sites of local non-deposition at the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. The alternating shales and lime mudstones were deposited on or close to the elevated blocks, whereas the adjacent basins were dominated by black shale deposition with some participation of phosphorite nodules (Żakowa, 1981; Skompski, 2006). The anoxic shale facies buried the elevated blocks in the late Tournaisian and prevailed in the Visean across the entire basin. The subordinate facies are lime breccias and resedimented limestones of sub-marine fans derived from a hypothetical carbonate platform placed to the south (Bełka et al., 1993). The deposition of shales with fine-grained greywackes finished the Carboniferous succession in the HCM. They are interbedded by a numerous tuffite beds recording the acid volcanic activity (Migaszewski, 1995). In Late Carboniferous, the Cambrian deposits of the Łysogóry Region were overthrusted on the Devonian strata of the Kielce Region along the Holy Cross Fault (Kowalczewski, 2004). Thus, it was time when the whole area was folded and lifted up, and tectonic framework for development of the Permo-Mesozoic cover was established. The Permian deposits in the HCM, referred to the upper Lopingian (Zechstein), rest on the folded Palaeozoic rocks along the angular Variscan unconformity. The coarse-grained breccias and conglomerates occur both at the base of the Upper Permian succession and as intervals of various thickness interrupting red mudstones with calcrete horizons. These deposits are associated with the alluvial fan or fan delta environments (Zbroja et al., 1998; Kuleta and Zbroja, 2006). Thick conglomerate sections occur close to the elevated blocks built of the Palaeozoic strata. The conspicuous lithologies within these continental deposits are black limestones/dolostones and evaporate deposits (anhydrite nodules) documenting the incursion of marginal marine settings. The Lower and Upper Triassic deposits are represented by red sandstones, mudstones and shales with subordinate carbonate interbeds. They document a wide spectrum of continental environments including: alluvial plain, eolian and lacustrine settings, accompanied however by subordinate shallow marine deposits (Senkowiczowa, 1970; Kopik, 1970; Kuleta and Zbroja, 2006). The Middle Triassic limestones and dolostones occurring in the south-western, south and north-eastern localities of the Mesozoic cover were deposited in marginal to open marine settings of the carbonate platform (Senkowiczowa, 1970; Trammer, 1975). The Jurassic deposits of the HCM were formed in the eastern arm of the Jurassic European epicontinental basin (Pieńkowski, 2008). The lower part of this system is dominated by the siliciclastic CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 6

7 succession of the continental (alluvial plain and lacustrine) and marginal to shallow marine environments (Pieńkowski, 2004). The overlying Middle Jurassic sandstones, mudstones and heteroliths were accumulated under influence of relative sea-level changes. Thick carbonate succession, deposited in the open to shallow and marginal carbonate ramp settings, dominates in the Upper Jurassic rock record of the HCM (Pieńkowski, 2008). In some places, the Cretaceous sandstones rest on the Upper Jurassic limestones along the erosive surface. In the post-cretaceous times the HCM was emerged due to tectonic inversion and uplifting, which resulted in partial removal of Mesozoic strata and exposure of Palaeozoic rocks (Kutek and Głazek, 1972). In Miocene, the south-eastern periphery of the HCM was located in the marginal part of the Carpathian Foredeep formed in response to the northward overthrust of the Alpine front. Fig. 1. (the next page) The simplified geological map of the Holy Cross Mountains (after Kowalczewski, Romanek and Studencki, 1990, unpublished map). USB Upper Silesian Block, MB Małopolska Block, LB Łysogóry Block, TTZ Teisser Tornquist Zone. 7 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

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9 Stop 1. Wiśniówka quarry Furongian siliciclastic succession Zbigniew Szczepanik The Wiśniówka Duża quarry (10 km N of Kielce) is one of the largest quarries in the HCM, which together with two smaller quarries, is located near the Wiśniówka Mount in the western part of the Łysogóry Region close (about 1 km) to its southern boundary Holy Cross Fault (Fig. 1). In this quarry quartzite sandstones have been mined since eighty years. The sandstones contain nearly pure silica, so they are also excellent raw material for chemical and refractory industries. All three Wiśniówka quarries are located in the western part of the zone of the strongly deformed Lower Palaeozoic rocks that occurs along the northern side of Holy Cross Fault (Fig. 2). Fig. 2. The geological sketch map of vicinity of the Wiśniowka quarries with location of acritarch samples and occurrences of trilobites. The Wiśniówka Duża quarry is a type location for the Wiśniówka Sandstone Formation (Orłowski, 1975) (Fig. 3). The Furongian strata of the Wiśniówka Formation are sandwiched between two clayey-muddy complexes, i.e., the Middle Cambrian Furongian Pepper Mountain Formation in the south and the Upper Furongian Klonówka Formation in the north. Rocks of the Wiśniówka Formation are tectonically discordantly overlain by the Permian Triassic conglomerates (Kowalczewski at. al. 1986, Kowalczewski and Dadlez, 1996).

10 Fig. 3 Lithostratigraphic scheme of Cambrian in the Holy Cross Mts. with position of trilobite and acritarch assemblages. CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 10

11 Sandstones of variable thickness are predominating lithology in the Wiśniówka Formation, although not the only lithological component in this unit.. The lens-shaped packages of sandstones are separated by various types of quartz, quartz-ferruginous and mudstone interbeds of different thickness as well as black and green-grey to red shales (heterolithic facies). The tuffites and bentonites have been found among them (Kowalczewski at. al., 1986). The detailed observations revealed that the Wiśniówka sandstones were originally fine grained quartz arenites with massive structure and loosely packing. The quartz grains predominate in the rock framework (Morawiecki, 1928, Michniak, 1969, Czermiński, 1959) with slight admixtures of silica rocks and accessory minerals - zircon, rutile, anatase, tourmaline and apatite (Michniak, 1969; Łydka and Orłowski 1978). The oval shape of quartz grains and their good sorting as well as indifferent mineral composition indicate their high textural and mineral maturity (Sikorska 2000). In these rocks, very rich assemblage of sedimentary structures were recognized, such as: wave and current ripple marks, erosion channels and hummocky structures were observed (Radwański and Roniewicz 1960). One of the richest assemblages of the Cambrian trace fossils on the whole world was found in this quarry. It contains mainly very numerous trilobite trace fossils belonging to ichnospecies: Rusophycus, Cruziana, Planolites, and Phycodes (Dżułyński and Żak 1960; Orłowski et al., 1970, 1971; Orłowski and Żylińska, 1996; Studencki, 1994). In the light of these observations, almost all geologists believe that these rocks were deposited in shallow to very shallow marine setting within distal part of inner shelf zone (e.g. Studencki, 1994). It should be noted, however, that there are different opinions concerning the conditions of sedimentation postulating deposition of these rocks in the deep marine basin due to turbidity currents (Malec, 2009). Sandstones exposed in the Wiśniówka quarry were dated by Orłowski (1968) on basis of trilobite fauna but fossils were found not directly in the section but on rock heaps and it was impossible to link them to the section in the quarry. The trilobite assemblages from Wiśniówka and Wąworków located at the eastern margin of the HCM were objects of revision work carried by Żylińska (2001, 2002), who classified them as Aphelaspis rara (Orłowski), Protopeltura aciculata (Angelin). The former taxon is known from the lower part of Furongian, whereas P. aciculata pointed to the lower part of Parabolina spinulosa trilobite zone. A specimen of Protopeltura aciculata Angelin (Żylińska and Szczepanik, 2002) was the first in situ sampled trilobite, in the most northern part of the quarry, indicating that this part of the section represents the bottom part of the Parabolina spinulosa zone of the Scandinavian Furongian zonation. The acritarch studies of the Wiśnówka Formation were first time carried out by Moczydłowska in 1986 (Kowalczewski at al., 1986). She found acritarchs in the Wiśniówka Mała quarry, located southward from the Wiśniówka Duża quarry. The detected assemblage was dominated by Timofeevia lancarae and Timofeevia phosphoritica that in her opinion may represent a wide range of Cambrian (Middle Cambrian Tremadocian). Moczydłowska recognized a poor assemblage of the Tremadocian microflora in rocks outcropped in the northern transport way to the Wiśniówka Duża quarry. 11 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

12 In the effect of modern investigations which have been carried out by Szczepanik (2007) new data concerning the Cambrian microflora was provided. He found two assemblages: the first one from the Wiśniówka Mała contains rich acritarch microflora with numerous T. phosphoritica, T. lancarae and Vulcanisphaera spinulifera. These forms occur together with abundant specimens of informal galeate group: Cymatiogalea velifera, Cymatiogalea cristata, accompanied by numerous and varied Multiplicisphaeridium and rare Pirea orbicularis (Szczepanik, 2002, 2009; Żylińska at al., 2006), the assemblage from the Wiśniówka Duża is less numerous and contains a slightly different acritarch species represented by numerous T. phosphoritica, rare T. pentagonalis, and lacks of T. lancarae. The association of galeate is more diversified and contains new species: Cymatiogalea bellicosa (Deunff), Stelliferidium aff. cornitulum (Deunff). Among forms which represented genus Vulcanisphaera specimens with long processes occur for the first time. They belong to the species of Vulcanisphaera turbata Martin and Vulcanisphaera africana Deunff. Such a sequence of the acritarch appearance is very similar to pattern noted in the East European Craton as well as Newfoundland (Canada) and pointed that the Wiśniówka Mała assemblage is slightly older than that from the Wiśniówka Duża (Żylińska at al., 2006). It is very important that palynological data has a very good coincidence with trilobite zonation. In New Caledonian sections the first occurrence of Vulcanisphaera africana Deunff is connected with the lower part of Parabolina spinulosa zone. The similar coincidence was noted in the Wiśniówka Duża quarry where the first occurrence of this acritarch taxa is very close to the north wall of quarry, where trilobite Protopeltura aciculata indexed for Parabolina spinulosa zone has been found (Żylińska at al., 2006). Moreover, it is noteworthy to focus on tectonics observations within this quarry. At first glance, it seems that layers dip mostly northward without any other tectonic deformations, but more detailed studies revealed a lot of interesting tectonic structures (Salwa, 2010). The co- occurrence of similar, vertical and plunging folds (with amplitudes reaching up-to 6 m) was reported from this quarry. They are accompanied by overthrust faults, that resulted from compression from NE-SW and NW- SE tectonic compression. In this quarry quartz, pyrite, barite and other minerals veins are common. The tectonic deformation of rocks in this quarry was multistage process. The first deformations occurred in loose sediments before its final consolidating. The traces of the Early Caledonian and Variscan tectonic processes were as well recorded in these rocks (Salwa, 2010). This quarry is very important for determining the style of tectonic construction and structural position of the Łysogóry Region. For many years, plenty of scientific discussions have been held in this area. Some geologists claimed that rocks in the quarry dip monoclinaly northward and only slightly deformated by Variscian faults (Mizerski, 1998) but others believed that these rocks were intensively folded and overthrusted (Kowalczewski at. al., 1986, Kowalczewski and Dadlez, 1996; Salwa, 2010; Znosko, 1996). The second conclusion is nowadays considered to be commonly accepted. CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 12

13 Stop 2. Kajetanów The Lower Zechstein black limestones Anna Fijałkowska-Mader The abandoned quarry situated in Kajetanów village is located 11 kilometers northward of Kielce, within the eastern part of the Kajetanów embayment (Fig. 4). The western wall of the Kajetanów quarry displays rhythmically bedded dark and black limestones and marls (Fig. 4), dipping northward at the angle of 12-15º, and cut by minor faults. They are called the Kajetanów Limestones (Pawłowska, 1978), and nowadays up to 8 m thick succession is visible in this outcrop. The limestones are medium- and thin-bedded, and show discrete horizontal and wavy lamination. In thin section they reveal an admixture of quartz grains, mica flakes as well as scattered pyrite and small sandstone clasts accompanied by pyritized bioclasts and fragments of plants. The lower part of the considered succession - the Productus Limestones is made up of thick- and medium-bedded limestones intercalated by marls (~1.5 m thick), dated by brachiopod of Horridonia horrida Sowerby. They pass upwards into stratified medium- and thin-bedded limestones and marls (about 4 m thick, the Strophalosia Marls) with numerous macro- as well as microfossils, represented by: Horridonia horrida Sowerby, Strophalosia morrisiana King, Dielasma elongatum Schlotheim., Lingula credneri Geinitz, Bakewella ceratophaga Schlotheim, B. antiqua Verneull, Nucula beyrichi Schloth., Stenopora columnaria Schloth., Acanthocladia anceps Schlotheim, Agathamina pusilla Geinitz (Jurkiewicz, 1962; Kaźmierczak, 1967). The uppermost part of section is represented by shaly marls (~2 m thick, the Marls with Flora), yielding foraminifers of Geinitzina cuneiformis Jones and remains of coniferous and ferns, including: Voltzia liebeana Geinitz, V. hexagona Bischoff, Ullmania frumentaria Schoth., U. bronni Goeppert, Carpholites klockeanus Heer, C. eiselianus Geinitz and Sphenopteris sp. (Jurkiewicz, 1962). Intercalations of silty sandstones with calcareous/dolomitic matrix or black calcareous siltstones rich in carbonized matter can be found here as well. A few samples from the Marls with Flora deposits were investigated by S. Dybova Jachowicz (unpublished data) and author (Fijałkowska, 1991). They contain the rich spore-pollen assemblage dominated by Lueckisporites virkkiae, with the low Aa and Ab norms. The genus Lunatisporites, represented mainly by L. noviaulensis is the second under the consideration of frequency in this assemblage. The important elements of this spectrum are Klausipollenites schaubergeri, Limitisporites moersensis and Jugasporites delasaucei. The monosaccate pollens are dominated by Nuskoispoites dulhuntyi and N. klausi. The acritarch community is represented by rare specimens of Veryhachium and Baltisphaeridium. This spectrum represents the Subassemblage Ia: Lueckisporites virkkiae Ab and acritarchs of the Assemblage I: Lueckisporites Virkkiae Ab, distinguished by Fijałkowska (1991, 1994) in the lowermost Zechstein in the HCM. The deposition of the considered herein limestone succession took place in the lagoon basin that in Zechstein was part of the large Kajetanów bay occupying the western margin of the HCM. 13 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

14 Fig. 4. The Upper Permian limestones in Kajetanów and their correlation with nearby boreholes. CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 14

15 Stop 3. Bukowa Góra quarry - Lower Devonian siliciclastic succession Jan Malec Bukowa Góra quarry is situated in the western part of the Klonowskie Range, in the NW part of the Łysogóry Region of the HCM. The Lower Devonian (Upper Emsian) siliciclastic succession, up to 170 m thick, can be observed in the quarry (Fig. 5). Fig. 5. The Bukowa Góra section in relation to the Lower Devonian lithostratigraphy of the Łysogóry Region. 15 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

16 Beds dip at to N and belong to the southern limb of the Bodzentyn Syncline. The lower part of the Bukowa Góra section belongs to the middle and upper part of Zagórze Formation (~110 m thick) (Fig. 5). The upper part of the considered section comprises sediments of the Grzegorzowice Formation (according Malec, 2005) with three units: Bukowa Góra, Kapkazy and Zachełmie Members (Fig. 5). In the Łysogóry area, the Lower Devonian succession is up to m thick. Its lower part is represented by shallow marine sediments of the Bostów Formation consisting of claystons, siltstones with limestones intercalation (~300 m in thickness). The Silurian/Devonian boundary is located within lower part of this formation which yielded graptolite and trilobite faunas (Tomczyk et. al., 1977). The Bostów Formation overlies the uppermost Silurian (Pridolian) Klonów Formation composed of alternating siltstone and sandstone beds of various thickness representing the alluvial and shallowmarine environment, however, lacking of marine fossils (Kowalczewski et al., 1998; Kozłowski, 2008). The Klonów Formation and Bostów Formation belong structurally to the Caledonian complex (Malec, 1993,2001,2006; Kowalczewski et al., 1998). The Bostów Formation is overlain by the Old Red facies of the Variscan complex along the erosive and angular unconformity including the stratigraphic gap (upper Lochkovian lower and middle Pragian). The Old Red facies consists of the Barcza and Zagórze Formations. The former one is represented by quartzitic sanstones (~150 m) intercalated by siltstones and claystones with, casts of placoderm plates and detrital psilophyte flora. The Barcza Formation is interpreted as deposits of fluvial meandering channel (Czarnocki, 1936; Kowalczewski, 1971; Łobanowski, 1971, 1990). Zagórze Formation (~200 m thick) is built of a cyclic sandstones packets (some of them over a dozen metres) intercalated by grey-dark or cherry silstones (a few centimeters to some metres thick). They were deposited in a shallow-marine environments represented by a wide spectrum of settings from lagoonal through shoreface to offshore shelf areas (Szulczewski, 1993a,b). The lower part of this unit is composed of horyzontally laminated or cross-bedded and sometime massive quartzitic sandstones, pointing to deposition in a high-energy storm conditions. Beds consisting of sandstone clasts are interpreted as channel deposits. The upper part of this formation is made up of middlebedded, poorly sorted sandstones with silstone intercalations. Sandstones show horizontal lamination, cross-bedding and hummocky cross-stratification. The ripple cross-lamination occurs on the upper surface of siltstone beds. This part of the Zagórze Formation was deposited in the upper shoreface environment (Szulczewski, 1993a, b). In general, the Zagórze Formation was deposited in marginal setting under the storm activity (Szulczewski and Porębski, 2008). The sedimentary record of the Zagórze Formation reveals of numerous allochthonous shelly fossils and ichnofossil assemblages. The articulate brachiopod of Chonetes, Euryspirifer, Spinocyrtia and Strophodonta are predominating fossils in the heterolitic sandstone-siltstone packets. They form sheet-like discontinuous accumulations resulted from the deposition of the hurricane and storm generated currents (Łobanowski, 1971; Szulczewski, 1993a, b). The CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 16

17 accompanying fossils consist of bivalves, crinoids, trilobites, tentaculites, rugose corals and ostracodes. Up to 20 ichnogenera were identified in this formation. Ichnofossil assemblages belong to Skolithos, Cruziana and Zoophycos ichnofacies. They are the most abundant in sandstones of storm genesis. The most extensive burrowing occurs in cherry and black silstones representing lagoonal environment (Szulczewski, 1993a,b; Szulczewski and Porębski, 2008). Miospore assemblages from middle and upper part of the Zagórze Formation belong to foveolatusdubia miospore zone of the Middle and Upper Emsian, which corresponded to nothoperbonusserotinus conodont zones (Fijałkowska-Mader et. al., 1997). Grzegorzowice Formation Bukowa Góra Member (~13 m thick) consists of the black maddy claystons with single discontinuous layers of limestone and dolostone, to reach 10 cm. They overlie sandstone and siltstone of the Zagórze Formation. In claystones and carbonate beds there are abundant autochthonous micro- and macrofossils, including foraminifers, ostracodes - Kozlowskiella orbis (Dahmer), conodonts, brachiopods, crinoids, trilobites, bryozoans, tabulates - Favosites goldfussi eifeliensis (Penecke), rugosans - Calceola sandalina Lamarck and stromatoporoids. Black claystons contain the upper Emsian assemblages of conodonts indicative of the patulus zone. In this unit the different palynomorph assemblages have been recognized. They assigned the Bukowa Góra Member to the apiculatus-proteus miospore zone (Fijałkowska-Mader et. al., 1997; Filipiak, 2009). The claystones of the Bukowa Góra Member can be generally defined as the shallow shelf deposits accumulated during the late Emsian sea-level rise (Malec, 1990, 2001, 2005). Kapkazy Member (~34 m thick) overlie with a sedimentary continuity dark claystones of the Bukowa Góra Member. It is represented by fine-grained quartzitic sandstones with thin siltstone alternations. In its lower part, there are coarse-grained sandstones with crinoids and brachiopods. The upper part of the Kapkazy Member is composed of horizontally laminated and cross-stratified quartzitic sandstones with ripple cross-lamination. These sediments were deposited on the lower shoreface during the regressive event (Szulczewski, 1993a, b; Malec, 2001, 2005). Zachełmie Member (~50 m thick). The lower part of this member is composed of dark gray silstones and sandy claystones with agglutinated foraminifers, ostracods, tentaculites, crinoids and trilobites. The upper part of this unit contains silstones and sandstones with brachiopods Lingula sp., leperditiid ostracodes Herrmannina sp. and bivalves. Lower part of this unit relates to the shallow-sea environment, whereas the upper to the lagoonal and periodicall continental settings. The lower portion of this unit belongs to late Emsian while the upper to the early Eifelian (Malec, 2005). 17 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

18 Stop 4. Kowala Devonian/Carboniferous boundary Wiesław Trela, Jan Malec More than 350 m thick section of the Upper Devonian succession is exposed in the active Kowala quarry located in the southern limb of the Gałęzice Syncline at the southern margin of the Kielce Region (Fig. 6). This succession provides inside into worldwide anoxic events associated with recurrent black shale horizons occurring in the Famennian part of the Kowala section and the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in the HCM (Fig. 6; Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). Two of black shale horizons appear close to the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary and refer to as: the Upper Famennian Annulata black shale (Bond and Zatoń, 2003), the Hangenberg black shale (Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). The Annulata black shale (the Kowala black shale in Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007) forms up to 25 cm thick bipartite horizon with thin nodular and black limestone interbed. The black shales reveal TOC content up to 23 wt. % (Marynowski and Racka, 2009). The lower black shale horizon developed under dysoxic bottom-water conditions, whereas the upper one relates to the euxinic environment (Marynowski and Racka, 2009). The Upper Famennian miospore zone LV (Retispora lepidophyta Apiculiretusispora verrucosa) was documented in this black shale horizon (Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). The Hangenberg black shale occurs as a 0.9 thick horizon (Fig. 6) showing TOC content up to 22.5 wt.% (Marynowski and Racka, 2009). They rest on a monotonous and fossiliferous nodular limestones interbedded with marly shales and grade upwards into brown-grey shales (up to 1.2 m thick). The shale unit passes sharply into thin- and medium-bedded limestones (wackestones) with thin shale interbeds (1.0 m thick). The overlying grey and cherry claystone succession with limestone nodules and thin tephra partings represents the Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian) part of the Kowala section. A palynological study of the Hangenberg black shale indicates that this horizon correspond to the uppermost Famennian miospore zone LN (Retispora lepidophyta Verrucosisporites nitidus) (Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). The Hangenberg shale horizon was exposed in the trench adjacent to the northern margin of the Kowala quarry (Malec, 1995; Dzik, 1997). A prominent positive δ 13 C excursion, up to 2.7 (trench) and 2,54 (quarry), was detected within the overlying limestones (Fig. 6; Trela and Malec, 2007) dated by conodonts of the middle/upper preasulcata zone (Malec, 1995; Dzik, 1997). This excursion was preceded by a mass extinction of ostracode, conodont and ammonite faunas recorded in the shale horizon and disappearance of Woclumeria fauna in the topmost part of the underlying nodular limestones (Malec, 1995; Dzik, 1997; Olempska, 1997). This faunal turnover was coeval with deposition of the Hangenberg black shale in the Kowala quarry, documenting water column euxinia and wildfires on land (Marynowski and Filipiak, 2007). The considered herein δ 13 C data are CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 18

19 comparable with a similar excursion interpreted by Buggish and Joachimski (2006) as a result of the Late Devonian relative sea-level fall. Fig. 6. The Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in the Kowala quarry and nearby trench. 19 CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK

20 Stop 5. Kielce archive of drill cores Lithostratigraphy and palynostratigraphy of the Proterozoic-Lower Palaeozoic basement of the Polish Carpathians presentation of core samples from the selected deep boreholes from southern Poland. Monika Jachowicz-Zdanowska Geological setting In southern Poland, in the basement of the Outer Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep two regional tectonic units considered as blocks occur the Upper Silesian Block and the Małopolska Block (Fig. 7). These blocks of different general character of Precambrian basement and the overlying Palaeozoic, show different palaeogeographical facial and palaeotectonic development (Fig. 8). The Upper Silesian and Małopolska blocks are separated from each other by a narrow Kraków-Lubliniec tectonic zone which is a part of much larger transcontinental Hamburg-Kraków dislocation zone (Fig. 7). In this area, Palaeozoic lithologies of Variscan and Caledonian structural stages are overlain by a hermetic cover of younger deposits, and they have been recognized on the basis of numerous drillings. In Upper Silesian and Małopolska regions, Precambrian and Palaeozoic deposits were penetrated by approximately 3000 boreholes, not evenly distributed over the area. The lithologies of five diastrophic-sedimentation cycles of different ages and of different geological developments are present there. Those cycles are as follows: Alpine molasse deposits and shifted units of Carpathians Mts.; Mesozoic platform deposits of Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous ages; Hercynian coal-bearing sediments of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the Upper and Lower Carboniferous terrigenic Culm deposits; sediments of the carbonate platform of Lower Carboniferous and of Upper and Middle Devonian ages; Lower Devonian clastic deposits; Caledonian carbonate and terrigenic sediments of Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian ages. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin of Hercynian stages is the best defined geological unit of the Upper Silesian region. This unit has been intensively studied during the past 200 years because of its economic importance. Fig. 7. (the next page) Tectonic regional subdivision of the Upper Silesian Block (Brunovistulicum) and Małopolska Block at the sub-permian-mesozoic paleosurface (according Buła et al., 2008). CIMP 2010 FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK 20

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