Legislative backgraound of Turkey related to wilderness and oppurtunities for the future. European Wilderness Academy Days, 1-4 October 2014, Austria

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1 Legislative backgraound of Turkey related to wilderness and oppurtunities for the future European Wilderness Academy Days, 1-4 October 2014, Austria

2 Context 1-About Turkish Biodiversity and Wildlife 2-Threads on natural resources 3-Legislative Background 4-Case Studies (Implemented projects) in the Northestern Anatolia 5-Oppurtinities for the Future

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4 Geography Seas Coastlines Mountains Watersheds Valleys Rivers Plains 1

5 Climate The highly varied climate can be harsh (dry or cold), as in central, east and southeast Anatolia. Average annual precipitation is 770 mm, and may rise to 2300mm in Rize and drop to 250 mm in Kırsehir Being in the temperate climatic belt, Turkey is very rich in habitat diversity due to the diversity in its geology, geomorphology, topography, soil structure and climate, which have created a varied vegetative cover, both spatially (horizontally) and by elevation (vertically) in terms of species composition and characteristics 1

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7 Plant Diversity As a result, Turkey is very rich in plant species. Studies conducted to date have shown that there are species of vascular plants in Turkey and 2650 of them are endemic species. Turkey also includes gene centers of some forest trees and wild relatives of cultivated plants 1

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9 Turkey contains a great variety of natural habitats, ranging from Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Sea beaches to towering coastal and interior mountains, from deeply valleys to expansive steppes, from fertile alluvial plains to arid, rocky hillslopes. A myriad of community types and habitat mosaics occurs, containing a rich mixture of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic 1

10 Biodiversity and Wildlife Turkey, located to the east of the Mediterranian region, is one of the two important biodiversity centers in this region. The other biodiversity center is the Iberian Peninsula in the Western Mediterranean Region. 1

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13 Biodiversity and Wildlife The country has several distinct phytogeographical regions and natural plant communities, each with its own endemic species and natural ecosystems. In addition, one of the three major flyways for millions of migratory birds, which move between the western Palearctic and Africa each year, passes through Turkey. Since the country is redominantly semi-arid, Turkish wetlands are of vital importance for many of these migrants, and also for many breeding species of water birds 1

14 Biodiversity and Wildlife Turkish biodiversity is of major international importance but is under threat from a variety of unsustainable land and natural resource use pressures,. These include: overgrazing and other unsustainable agricultural practices; unsustainable use of forests; conversion of wetlands and other critical natural habitats to agriculture or other land development; interference with the hydrological regime of wetlands for agriculture, municipal and industrial use of water; pollution, hunting and unsustainable harvesting of wild plants and wildlife. 1

15 Biodiversity and Wildlife However, many animal species and their generations are under threat. There is no certain and continuous knowledge related to fauna diversity of Turkey as a basic and very important problem. Here, we merely want to transfer a striking specimen. For example, the latest individual of the Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tuliana) had been found hunting near the Ankara district in 1974 (TTKD Foundation) for Turkish Nature Conservation) 1974). After nearly 20 years, this species was considered extinct in Anatolia Atakol (2002) reported that this species reappeared in Termossos National Park in Antalya in

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30 Threads on natural resources Over many millennia, civilizations have exploited the natural resources including plant and animal species of Turkey. The country shows a rapid human population growth and associated intensive or unwise utilization of natural resources. 2

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32 Threads on natural resources Scientific data indicate that years ago, 70% of the area of Turkey was covered by forest. Unfortunately, this number decreased to 22% today The changes in Turkey s nature including forests, wetlands, and shores have become faster in the last century 2

33 Threads on natural resources (1) agricultural activities (e.g. Ploughing pastures for cultivation, overgrazing in pastures, burning the stubble, excessive use of fertilizer and chemicals, extension of high yielding cultivars, utilization of agricultural lands for different purposes); (2) damaging the fauna due to legal or illegal hunting; (3) dehumidification of wetlands; (4) forestry activities and fires; 2

34 Threads on natural resources (5) habitat fragmentation and habitat loss by industrialization, urbanization and construction of highways and dams; (6) introduction of exotic species; (7) over-exploitation of plants from nature; (8) pollution of soil, water and atmosphere; (9) soil erosion and floods; (10) tourism activities 2

35 Historical developments in nature conservation in Turkey In Turkey, nature conservation issues have been tried to be held on the agenda since 1970 with activities such as a nature conservation week, community conferences, specially published brochures, media campaigns, posters, and exhibits. Also on local scales, nature conservation issues are tried to be explained to people through school activities, extension services for farmers, meetings at schools and community education centers and sermons at mosques. During these years, it was tried to point out the importance of formation of a legal basis and organizations to preserve the nature of Turkey and to control the visual and hidden natural values, flora and plant formations like 3 forest, maquis, alpine, and steppe, mountains, volcanic areas, glaciers, valleys, highlands, pastures, seas, rivers, lakes, wetlands, hunting and recreation areas, birds, other wild animals, fish, and aqua culture

36 Historical developments in nature conservation in Turkey Although the articles in the Turkish Constitution do not directly address the conservation of biological resources including plant diversity and animal populations, article 63 of the Constitution approved by Turkey in 1982 states that the government should protect its historical, cultural and natural values and resources as well as support and promote conservation efforts. Article 169 provides that any activity or action that might give harm to forests shall not be allowed. Article 44 aims at prevention of land loss due to erosion; Article 56 is on the right to living in a healthy and balanced environment, protection of environmental health and 3 prevention of environmental pollution.

37 Historical developments in nature conservation in Turkey In addition to the articles present in the Constitution, Forestry Law (Codes: 3116, 1937; 4767, 1945; 4914, 1946; 5653, 1950; 6831, 1956 ; 1744, 1973; 2896, 1983; 3302, 1986; 3402, 1987), The Terrestial Hunting Law (Code No: 3167, 1937), The Law for Protection of Cultural and Natural Values (Code No: 2863, 1983), Environmental Law (Code No: 2872, 1983), Law for Specially Protected Regions (Code No: 88/13019, 1988) and National Parks Laws (Code No: 2873, 1983) provide the opportunity 3 for the protection of nature and biological diversity

38 Development Plans Environment as a sector was emphasized first in the Third Five Years Development Plan during Only environmental pollution was discussed, however, biological sources and biological diversity were no topics in this plan. During the fourth period ( ), an undersecretaryship for the environment was established and laws related to environment were accepted. Conservation and development of natural sources found a place for the first time in the Fifth Five Years Development Plan ( ). Management and improvement of sustainable 3 resources by giving opportunity to economical development and protecting human health and natural balance were stipulated in the Sixth Five Years Development Plan

39 Historical developments in nature conservation in Turkey In the same period, Turkish governmental officials and scientists have developed a Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan for Turkey (BSAP). The plan identifies the unique biodiversity resources of the nation and proposes specific objectives to protect them. 3

40 Participation of Turkey in international agreements (1) Agreement on Establishment of European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (Paris, 1951); (2) the Paris Convention for the Protection of Birds; (3) Agreement on Conservation of the World Cultural and Natural Inheritances (Paris, 1972); (4) Convention on Conservation of European Wildlife and Habitats (Bern, 1979; Turkey became a party in 1984); (5) the Protocol concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Regions; 3

41 Participation of Turkey in international agreements (6) Biological Diversity Agreement (Rio, 1992; Turkey signed this through legislation article No. 4177); (7) Convention on Protection of Internationally Important Wetlands providing Habitats for Birds (Ramsar, 1975; Turkey signed this in 1994); (8) The Agreement on International Plant Genetic Resources (signed between Turkey and the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) on 3 January 1994); (9) Agreement on Trading of Wildlife and Plant Species (Washington, 1973; Turkey signed it in 1996); 3 (10) Action plan for maintenance and conservation of plant genetic resources for agriculture and food

42 The Electricity Market Regulatory Body (EMRB) In 2001, The Electricity Market Regulatory Body (EMRB) was established with the Legislation on Electricity Market no: It was thus started that any transaction concerning electricity generation was conducted in line with the market conditions. With the Directive on procedures and principles about concluding a water-utilization rights agreement to conduct generation activities in electricity market adapted in 2003 and the Legislation on utilization of renewable energy resources to generate electricity no: 5346 adapted in 2005, hydroelectric energy production was completely opened to the private sector. 3

43 Threads on Nature Conservation Regulations Draft for Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Law There will be any kind of constructions if public benefit in the natural habitat without determining values of habitats, plants and 3 wildlife

44 Implemented projects in the Northestern Anatolia UNDP Projects EU Projects Development Agency Projects Ministry Projects 3

45 UNDP Projects-Eastern Anatolia Tourism Development Project - Inventory of natural and cultural of Choruh valley - Human Resources Development - Foundational Capacity Development - Promoting the Region - Link to new project oppurtunities more information:www.choruh.com 3

46 UNDP Granted Project: Small Grant Fund Project - Supporting the nature conservation - Women enterprenereship - novation and discovering the region richness 3

47 EU Granted Projects:The closet plants to the sky: alpine flowers - Inventory of Erzurum region alpine biodiversity - 25 series alpine flowers photo exhibitions - 20 days flora tourism education programme - Promoting materials such as booklet and poscards 3

48 EU Granted Projects: Understanding EU experiences and using on succulent plants - Developing relations between TR and UK NGOs - Exhibitions in UK - Link to new projects in the future 3

49 Development Agency Projects: Strategic Development and Tourism Master Plan for the Uzundere - Strategic Plan - Tourism Strategy for the Sample Rural Hotels Architectural Projects - Action Plan for 14 years untill

50 Development Agency Projects: Life with Cycling in the Choruh Valley - Link to Eurovelo project - Link to national NGOs and interest groups on cycling - Link to BYPAD project - Cycling tours in Choruh valley 3

51 Development Agency Projects: Tortum Waterfall Landscape Design Project - Architectural and Landscape Designs - Visiting Centre Strategy Plan - Promoting the Tortum waterfall such as booklet - Link to other local projects in the future 3

52 Ministry Projects: nternational Youth Festival Project (DAPGenç-DAPFest) - Motivating young people for organizations - National and international participating - Volunteering - Mobility for the recreational and natural areas 3 - Nature based sport activities

53 TUBITAK Projects: Kaçkar Mountains Traininng Programmes - Multi-sided approach by many experts - Together with academicians and students with different levels 3

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59 Drama tekni i, ilk gün tanıșmaları,katılımcıların dinleme ve konușma becerilerini geliștirmeleri ve onları ișbirli i içinde çalıșmaya sevketmesi için kullanılmaktadır. Kiși bașkalarıyla çalıșarak ișbirli inin önemini ö renir. Kișisel yeterlilik ve yetersizliklerin farkına varır Drama derslerinden sonra ö rencilerin kendi duygu ve düșüncelerini daha rahat ifade etme imkânı bulabildikleri görülmektedir.

60 E itim-ö retimde gözlem; varlık ve olayların kendi tabiî ortamlarında plânlı ve amaçlı olarak incelenmesi demektir.

61 Öğrenciler, doğal yaşlı ormanlara götürüldüklerinde, görme, duyma, koklama, dokunma gibi birçok duyu organı devreye girdiği için daha sağlam ve kalıcı bilgiler oluşturulabilmekte ve doğayı tanıyabilmekte; doğayı okuyabilmekte ve doğadaki farklılıkları keşfedebilmektedir.

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71 DAPGenç-DAPFest Projesi

72 Alytus Litvanya Burgas, Bulgaristan Erzurum

73 Festival Alanı: Uzundere

74 Çoruh Vadisi: Uzundere Yıkıklar Bölümü Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

75 Çoruh Vadisi: Tortum Gölü ve elalesi Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

76 Çoruh Vadisi: jeolojik Formasyonlar Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

77 Çoruh Vadisi: Yıkıklar Kanyonu Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

78 Çoruh Vadisi: Engüzek Kapı Kalesi Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

79 Çoruh Vadisi: Haho Manastırı Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

80 Çoruh Vadisi: Ö ki Manastırı Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

81 Çoruh Vadisi: Tortum Gölü Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

82 Tortum elalesi Foto: Cüneyt O uztüzün

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85 23 Nisan 2013 Anısına Bisiklet Turu

86 Festival Filmi Çekimleri

87 Proje Döngü Yönetimi E itimi

88 Proje Döngü Yönetimi E itimi

89 Gönüllü Çalı ma Kampı Katılımcıları: Güney Kore ve Taiwan

90 Gönüllü Çalı ma Kampı Katılımcıları Köy Okullarında

91 Festival Kamp Alanı: Engüzek Kapı

92 Kaya Tırmanı ı:uzundere

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98 Tortum Gölü Su Sporları Etkinlikleri: Göl Kanosu

99 Ebru Sanatı

100 Erzurum Bar Ekibi

101 Karakucak Güre leri Ödül Töreni

102 Müzik Topluluklarının Performasları

103 Teknoloji Do ada

104 Kamp Ate i

105 Litvanya da Bölge Tanıtımı

106 Litvanya da Erzurum Çiçekleri Sergisi

107 Litvanya:Kırsal Ya am Müzesi Gezisi

108 Litvanya: Ortaça Dönemi Meydan

109 Litvanya:Kaunas Botanik Bahçesi

110 Litvanya: Japon Bahçesi

111 Bulgaristan: Milli Park Gezisi

112 Bulgaristan:Çamur Banyosu

113 Bulgaristan: Ku Gözlemcili i

114 Bulgaristan: UNESCO Sitesi

115 Bulgaristan: Erzurum Çiçekleri Sergisi

116 Çoruh Vadisinde Bisikletli Ya am Turu ve Çalı tayı

117 Ekoköy Sapaca Bisiklet Turu

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121 Oppurtinities for the Future 5 National and International Funds Erasmus+ IPA II Programme LIFE Programme? WWF Turkey UNDP Regional Development Agency Grants University Scientific Pojects

122 Thank you for your attention! European Wilderness Academy Days, 1-4 October 2014, Austria

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