1 International Food and Agribusiness Management Review Vol 5 Iss Knowledge Management and Communities of Practice: an experience from Rabobank Australia and New Zealand Brad Hinton a i a Agribusiness Consulting & Research Services, Rabobank Australia Limited, GPO Box 4577, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia Abstract Knowledge and information transfer have become important ingredients for an organisation s competitive advantage. Knowledge management has emerged as an overarching strategy to enhance knowledge creation, information transfer, utilisation, and reticulation in order to generate innovation and improve organisational performance. Part of this strategy involves the creation of Communities of Practice. These are networks of individuals with a common, shared purpose grouped together to facilitate knowledge building, idea creation and information exchange. The experience establishing Communities of Practice at Rabobank Australia and New Zealand is examined International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA). All rights reserved. Introduction Knowledge and information transfer have become increasingly important to organisations throughout the world (Drucker, 1993; Davenport and Prusak, 1998). Knowledge is now recognised as a valuable intangible asset in its own right (Sveiby, 1997; Stewart, 2000). The challenge for business today is in using information and its intellectual assets the most productively. i Corresponding author: Tel: Fax: International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA). All rights reserved.
2 A key competitive advantage is the ability for firms to turn information into knowledge in order to improve efficiencies, drive innovation and respond rapidly to changing competitive conditions (Quinn 1992; Tidd, 1997; Tapscott, 1999). The building of knowledge generation capabilities within the firm creates an organisation with the flexibility to meet new challenges. A firm s adaptive flexibility its agility in this fast-paced, globalised world is a major success factor. People are working smarter across all sectors of the economy. It is clear that the increasing speed, volume and adaptive role knowledge and information play as an applied input into a myriad of industries is a feature of contemporary capitalism. In agriculture, biotechnology, traceability and identity preservation systems are obvious examples. High powered ultrasound technologies for the removal of contaminants from vegetables, high pressure processing of seafood (particularly oysters) to lengthen shelf life, and oxygen scavenging packaging that prevents oxidation contamination are knowledge-intensive technologies already being applied in the food industry 1. Given that information and knowledge have become key drivers for competitive advantage in many industries, how can organisations harness these drivers for operational efficiencies and innovation? Knowledge management is the overarching strategy that pulls it all together. This paper will examine come core concepts in knowledge management. The experience of Rabobank Australia and New Zealand in establishing an important component of knowledge management, Communities of Practice, illustrates one effective way of harnessing knowledge and sharing information in order to improve efficiencies, grow the knowledge base and help service client needs more effectively. Knowledge management Knowledge management over the past years has become a rather prodigious breeder in the literature of information management, organisational development, business strategy, human resources, education, communication, and information technology. It has created its own pedigree with a plethora of publications, articles, courses and consultancies. Like a stud bull, knowledge management has produced enormously but has sometimes fallen short of expectations when quality has been exhausted by over-proliferation. Knowledge management is a collective term for the facilitation of improvements to an organisation s capabilities, efficiencies and competitive advantage through the better use of its individual and collective knowledge and information resources. There are a number of knowledge management approaches (Alvesson and Karreman, 2001; Malhotra, 2000; Prusak, 2001) but, essentially, the aim is the 1 I am indebted to Mr Lyndon Kurth of Food Science Australia for alerting me to these food technology innovations.
3 effective utilisation of information and knowledge within organisations, particularly the intellectual assets of individuals, leading to improved performance. Examples of successful knowledge management applications for corporations include several insightful examples: Buckman Laboratories (Pan and Scarborough, 1999), Unilever (Von Krogh, Ichijo and Nonaka, 2000: pp:60-61), Warner-Lambert (Goodes, 2002), Heinekin USA (Chase, 2002) and Clarica Insurance (Saint-Onge and Wallace, 2003). Knowledge, Information and Innovation Knowledge management, not surprisingly, is particularly interested in knowledge how it is created, absorbed, transferred and utilised. It is therefore necessary to explore the meaning of some key concepts. Knowledge is an active human process that involves the understanding and processing of information (thinking) in order to internalise or generate more knowledge. Davenport and Prusak (1998: p.5) contend that: "Knowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. Knowledge, then, is intrinsically linked to human thought and experience. Knowledge is characterised as being tacit or explicit, notwithstanding some issues over the exactness of definitions 2. Tacit knowledge is generally regarded as referring to the internal information, thought processes, experiences and accumulated knowledge (know-how) that is held within the minds of individuals. Explicit knowledge covers codified information such as books, journals, documents, legislation, visual and audio recordings, digitised text, and the world wide web. Tacit knowledge has also been termed soft knowledge and explicit knowledge as being hard (Hildreth and Kimble, 2002). In simple terms, we [can] consider the stuff that is stored in books and on computer systems [explicit] as information and that in peoples heads [tacit] as knowledge (Pierce, n.d.. p.1), my italics. This is a simple, yet under-utilised definition. Knowledge management is especially interested in turning tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge and back into tacit knowledge in an expanding cycle of growth and regeneration. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) call this the knowledge spiral. 2 The debate revolves around whether tacit knowledge can be made explicit, based on Polanyi s (1967) working definition that tacit knowledge is not conscious to an individual and therefore could never be made explicit. The definition of tacit knowledge has been broadened in knowledge management, enabling it to become explicit in some way (Smith, 2001; Cavusgil, Calantone and Zhao, 2003).
4 This knowledge-information-knowledge cycle is what drives innovation, especially if networked and leveraged across a number of individuals. Ancient civilisations have used knowledge for innovation throughout time. The application of such cognitive skills is not new 3. However, today, in an environment of shortened business cycles and rapid technological change, the intellectual capital framework represents the primary value-creation dynamics of the firm (Saint- Onge, 1996: p.10). Innovating faster and more efficiently while driving revenues are the hallmarks of this changing competitive environment. Agriculture and agribusiness (the agrosector) is not immune from this environment (National Council for Agricultural Research, 1998a and 1998b). Information is ubiquitous and therefore not always unique. Prusak (2001: p.1002) explains: As access to information dramatically expands, so that people increasingly have access to almost all the information they might need at any time and in any place (and, surprisingly, at low or no cost), the value of the cognitive skills still unreplicable by silicon becomes greater. These cognitive skills reside in the minds of individuals within the firm. Nurturing the human dimension (Gratton, 2001) of these knowledge assets is an important part of organisational management. Information transfer Information transfer is the necessary link in communicating knowledge and information. Information availability is high for those with the capacity to access it. In addition to the traditional information resources, digital information mediums allow for greater volumes, faster transfer speeds and more widespread dissemination, certainly in the developed economies of the world. Networking information leverages content over a wider audience with the opportunity to generate new thinking and ideas, much the same way industrial clusters operate. Management guru, Michael Porter (1998: p.80), elaborates: a cluster allows each member to benefit as if it had a greater scale or as if it had joined with others formally without requiring it to sacrifice its flexibility. Sporleder and Moss (2002) make the observation that knowledge benefits can accrue by networking information vertically through the agricultural supply chain. Collaboration is the key. Networking can be internal, external or a combination of both. Innovations in information and communication technologies have the capacity to generate further productivity gains for business in the future (Gulati, Sawhney, and Paoni, 2003). In the fast moving consumer goods market, sophisticated applications 3 In the 1940 s the Lockheed Corporation created special, informal think tanks (called skunkworks ) operating outside normal organisational parameters to create innovative ideas for the company s aircraft manufacturing business, part of which involved working in secret with the US Defence Department.
5 are being found for neuronal networks, fuzzy logic and other intelligent systems for inspection, control, design and marketing functions (Corney, 2002). Electronic commerce and B2B (business to business) relationships have emerged in the digital age and are likely to become more widespread. Data mining, using information from existing client relationships or through permission marketing (Godin, 1999), is also important for client driven outcomes. Supermarkets want to track in-store purchasing information while scanner technologies help food and produce companies gather quantitative sales information. Permission marketing is quite common on the World Wide Web where firms provide free offers after obtaining requested information given voluntarily by an internet user. Information flows need to be analysed and knowledge mapping (Wexler, 2001) and social network analysis (Parker 2002) are two useful processes for visualising information networks across both knowledge and information domains. The Knowledge Organisation A feature of successful knowledge companies 4 is an organisation s willingness to embrace knowledge as a critical workplace condition. Knowledge leadership is vital. Learning organisations (Senge, 1992) look at enabling and encouraging knowledge and its use throughout the organisation. As part of such a strategy, Communities of Practice are practical applications. Communities of Practice Communities of Practice are collaborative, interactive networks of individuals within a generally defined topic of knowledge. Communities of Practice arose as a tool to facilitate knowledge sharing in a learning environment (Lave and Wenger, 1991). Communities of Practice have become a feature of the knowledge management literature in recent years as their applications to business have received greater attention (Lesser, Fontaine and Slusher, 2000). Initially, they tended to emerge from voluntary, informal personal workgroups with a specific knowledge. An existing workplace and/or social relationship was often necessary to create the sense of community purpose. The oft cited example (Brown and Duguid, 2000) of Xerox photocopier technicians discussing problems with colleagues ( war stories 5 ) in the warehouse or over a coffee and receiving 4 Selected winners of the 5 th annual global Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises (MAKE) for 2002 included Accenture, BP, Buckman Laboratories, Clarica, Ernst & Young, Hewlett Packard, IBM, KPMG, Microsoft, Nokia, Siemens, Skandia, Unilever, World Bank and Xerox. 5 War stories was the term cited by Brown and Duguid (2000) to describe the Xerox technicians conversations. Denning (2001) applies a similar notion in his exposition of storytelling as a communication style for knowledge generation. In both cases, the communication style seeks to help make knowledge sharing easier and more in keeping with the daily work habits of members.
6 information for effective solutions is a classic case of informal, social networking. In some workplaces, these informal meetings are encouraged with the provision of kitchen dining areas, coffee machines and work-space architectures. Communities of Practice can exist wherever there is a will to share information and experiences in a helpful, like-minded community. Participation in the network is essential. Whilst personal interactions can help foster relationships and trust within a group (and thereby giving it a community feel), Communities of Practice can in fact be virtual in the sense that members may not physically work in the same location. Members do not even have to be part of the one firm and can be established by individuals, like farmers, outside any institutional framework. It is interesting to note the nature and pervasiveness of existing informal, network opportunities. The benefits of attending conferences, business-breakfasts and farmer or agribusiness association meetings all have at their heart the exchange of information with peers, possible allies and competitors. Farmers chatting over a beer at the local pub about new crop varieties is an informal, social network. Personal networking is a key function of these types of gatherings. Conversing and learning from each other through informal channels can be a highly effective mode of knowledge generation. Communities of Practice can yield positive outcomes. According to Wenger and Snyder (2000: p. 140), people in communities of practice share their experiences and knowledge in free-flowing, creative ways that foster new approaches to problems. These new approaches can yield positive tangible benefits. Communities of Practice offer a vehicle for knowledge diffusion (Storck and Hill, 2000) and enable the leveraging of intellectual assets across the firm. Lesser and Storck (2001: p. 836) identify a number of tangible benefits: Decreasing the learning curve of new employees Responding more rapidly to customer needs and inquiries Reducing rework and preventing reinvention of the wheel Spawning new ideas for products and services. Communities of Practice offer a valuable tool for organisations wishing to take advantage of their knowledge and information assets. The Experience of Rabobank Australia and New Zealand Rabobank Australia and New Zealand are part of the Dutch-based Rabobank Group. Rabobank provides financial products and services to clients in agriculture and agribusiness sectors. In Australia and New Zealand, this involves lending finance to farmers and on throughout the agribusiness value chain.
7 Over the past ten years staff numbers in the bank in Australia and New Zealand have tripled to 760. The bank has offices in the major Australian and New Zealand cities plus over 50 decentralised branch offices. The rural account (relationship) managers and financial officers in these offices have considerable and widespread agricultural knowledge and experience. Leveraging this knowledge was a major focus of the Communities of Practice project. Whilst the primary focus of the project was the rural-based staff, the benefit to the corporate and middle-market divisions of the business, servicing post-farm agribusiness, would also be enhanced by the sharing and exchange of information throughout the whole network. This would foster stronger relationships between all parts of the business. The desired outcome would be in providing better information and business solutions to clients. A traditional library and information service had already been established (after an initial information audit) prior to the Communities of Practice project. This included intranet access for electronic documentation and links to relevant internet sites based on commodity specific topics, acting like mini-portals. Pubs 6 There are eleven Pubs aquaculture and fisheries; beef and sheepmeat; cotton; dairy; grains and oilseeds; pork; poultry; sugar; water; wine, and wool. They were selected as being areas of most interest to the bank and correspond to existing commodity categories on the library intranet page. Pubs compliment the existing knowledge management platforms. The very first Pub was created, rather opportunistically, after a Beef Roundtable. This is part of a series of group meetings organised by the Agribusiness Consulting and Research Services (ACRS) division of Rabobank in Sydney. Roundtables bring together the rural, corporate and middle-market divisions of the bank to discuss issues in a particular commodity. Invited speakers, including clients and individuals from the global Rabobank network, open the proceedings. Unfortunately, this Pub was not successful because there was insufficient input into its development, a mistake that was not repeated with the second and more comprehensive launch of the groups. In order to make the Pubs an effective medium, extensive external and intraorganisational research was undertaken. The external research included a comprehensive review of the knowledge management and Communities of Practice 6 Pubs was the name created by the author for the commodity Communities of Practice at Rabobank Australia and New Zealand. The name was deliberately chosen because pubs (drinking establishments) are an important social focal point. Having a yarn (conversation) over a few beers is a great Australian and New Zealand social tradition. This concept of social interaction and conversation was to be translated to a virtual pub environment (without the beers).
8 literature, discussion with academics and practitioners in the field, and looking at examples in other organisations. Some adult education sources were also used. More importantly, the intra-organisational research involved talking with the relationship managers in the decentralised offices and finding out how they used information and how they communicated information as part of their daily routines. Workplace context is vital in establishing the social habits of information collection and dissemination within the main target group. The main information transfer conduits were interpersonal, usually on-farm or at selected events, and via the telephone. was also used. Other information was accessed from publications, the company library service, ACRS, and via the internet. However, the preferred communication methods were interpersonal, and to a lesser extent, . Pubs and Information Transfer A group system 7 was chosen over more sophisticated Communities of Practice technological options because of the following reasons:- 1. was easy to use. Most of the target individuals were familiar with and were confident in being able to use it. 2. was already a part of the daily work routines in the office. 3. was something that could be pushed out to the desktop alerting a person to an incoming posting rather than having to go to a special location to follow discussions. This was considered important since it made it easier to access and facilitate interaction. 4. The opportunity to provide training for all potential members was not possible so that an existing technology solution would obviate the need to learn new systems. 5. was to be used as a testing vehicle to see how the Community of Practice idea took off before more sophisticated options could be looked at. The critical considerations were ease of use and familiarity in order to facilitate early adoption and activity. The people defined the technology, not the other way around. This was an important factor given the pervasiveness of information technology solutions (Thomas, Kellogg and Erickson, 2001). was therefore a suitable medium. was regarded as a good approximator for normal speech, given the strong interpersonal communication preferences of the rural staff. is generally written in a conversation style using informal text. This has proved to be the case. 7 is relevant as a Community of Practice forum across both small and large organisations. Small businesses will find it cheap, easy to facilitate and use. At the other scale, the World Bank s Global Knowledge for Development uses as the key communication networking tool because it best suited the needs of participants.
9 Senior management of the rural division, in which most of the target individuals worked, was very supportive of the concept. Membership was voluntary. The early take-up rate was high. A critical mass in each Pub was quickly established. Some key success factors for the early take-up of Pubs included a number of, although not extensive, personal visits to rural offices or to events where a combination of office staff could be targeted in order to explain the concept. The concept and goal were also explained on the intranet. A competition to encourage joining, in conjunction with a weekly general information alert service on the intranet, was another mechanism of informing staff about the Pubs. Information and questions were also pushed out by members of the ACRS team in order to generate responses. The Pub name also generated much internal discussion. There was considerable follow-up interest as word-of-mouth spread and some early positive postings helped demonstrate some of the benefits. As awareness grows, interaction will increase. Already, traffic on the pubs has improved markedly after the first six months of operation. Feedback from the relationship managers has generally been positive. A sample of responses include: information is real life information information you can work with up-to-date and relevant not really sure what I can contribute it s a time-saver I don t mind admitting I don t know something if it means getting the job done so the Pubs are great for asking questions and getting feedback helps update my knowledge don t have enough time after doing all this work in preparation for credit committee, I want to be sure I ve covered everything I like getting the information sent to me. It helps me and my clients puts me in touch with others in the network After making his first posting, one relationship manager said, it wasn t that hard after all I ll have to do it some more getting feedback on client situations helps me to help my client that s what it s all about, isn t it? It is clear that establishing personal contact with intended Pub members is positively related to membership and use. By explaining and demonstrating the concept of Communities of Practice, a greater understanding of the benefits is possible. One aspect to this is in overcoming the reluctance to make postings because of uncertainty or lack of confidence. On the other hand, responding to Pub postings allows an individual s commodity knowledge to become visible within the
10 organisation. Knowledge visibility is important to staff and peers. This offers opportunities for recognition and rewards. Timeliness is an issue, particularly with the relationship managers in the rural division. They are often in the car travelling hundreds of kilometres every day visiting clients and meeting potential clients. Being out of the office for much of the week is not unusual. This means responses are not always made on the same day as a posting and that other work pressures can delay responses even when back in the office. A weakness of using is that there is no central repository of threads. Pub members are encouraged to set up personal folders to store incoming s for each Pub. However, new members will have missed previous discussions. Currently, options to alleviate this repository problem are being investigated. Communities of Practice at Rabobank Australia and New Zealand have given individuals within the firm the opportunity to share knowledge and information across a wide internal network. It provides a vehicle for ideas and discussion that can lead to innovation and improved work performance. The benefits have been in helping staff to work smarter, encourage thought, and put that into action by helping clients. Conclusion Knowledge management and its component applications offer organisations the ability to use information and knowledge more effectively and productively. A key competitive advantage is in harnessing the unique intellectual assets of individuals in the organising and leveraging those assets in a continuous knowledge spiral leading to improved customer and organisational performance. The major consideration for establishing a Community of Practice must be how the individuals operate within their workplace contexts and the extent of helpfulness, networking and subject interest. Workplace context will reveal attitudes, work habits and preferred communication styles. This will have a major bearing on the appropriateness of communication channels. Management support is very important. Naturally, if resources and time permit, it may be possible to change existing workplace habits to take advantage of more sophisticated technological options, quicken adoption and benefits, and encourage workplace learning. Training will be critical in this situation. The use of as the communication tool has been successful in terms of gaining quick acceptance and ease of use. Despite its limitations, this system best suited the existing workplace habits of the major target group.
11 At an organisational level, the Pubs were established as part of an information management strategy in a staged process. The Pubs would benefit from being part of a formal company induction scheme and this is already in development. A comprehensive knowledge management strategy, under the direction of an independent team leader, would be advantageous from a strategic viewpoint and should include input from relevant departments. However, such an organisational strategy does not have to be a necessary precondition for the implementation of Communities of Practice so long as the conditions for establishing such groups exist among individuals within the firm, as was the case with Rabobank Australia and New Zealand.
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E-Learning at Kyongju University in Seoul, Korea: the Present and the Future Hyunju Jeung, Ph D Full-time lecturer Kyongju University email@example.com Abstract Internet is spreading fast in our lives.
Continuing Professional Development for Rural and Remote Health Care Practitioners Helen Geissinger, Peter Lloyd Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 4-7 March 2001 Continuing professional development
Knowledge Management in Public Health Nancy Dubois, NCCMT Consultant firstname.lastname@example.org 519.446.3636 CPHA Conference, June 2009 Overview The four essential elements of Knowledge Management: Culture, Content,
Modeling Dynamics of gaining expertise in a call center Abstract Knowledge and expertise are the most precious assets of a call canter, which enables the staff to serve the customers on high quality. As
CHANGING DIMENSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Kamal Kumar Chaurasia * Abstract Knowledge is the result of learning which provides the only sustainable competitive advantage to the organization.
Southern Company Electricity Generators uses Content Management System (CMS). Important dimensions of knowledge: Knowledge is a firm asset: Intangible. Creation of knowledge from data, information, requires
Blended Training Model with Knowledge Management and Action Learning Principles to Develop Training Program Design Competencies Pattama Chandavimol, Onjaree Natakuatoong, and Pornsook Tantrarungroj Abstract
By Bill Wilder, Director, Life Cycle Institute Life Cycle Engineering 2013 www.lce.com Success at last! The new employee self-service module has finally been implemented - on the third try. The promised
Plan 0 07 Mapping the Library for the Global Network University NYU DIVISION OF LIBRARIES Our Mission New York University Libraries is a global organization that advances learning, research, and scholarly
360 Digital Marketing Ever-evolving marketing variety. Trusted personalised service. 360 Digital Marketing INTRODUCTION 360 Digital Marketing Save time. Eliminate advertising. Reach your goals. Bring your
LEARNING IN SMALL BUSINESS Sue Kilpatrick and Suzanne Crowley Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia University of Tasmania ABSTRACT Small business is under represented in formal education
DEVELOPING WITHIN-COMPANY INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) INNOVATION DIFFUSION NETWORKS: A STUDY OF THREE AUSTRALIAN MAJOR CONTRACTORS Vachara Peansupap 1, Derek H. T. Walker, Peter W.
Diploma in Applied Business Diploma in Applied Business Business Development Services (Europe) Ltd. work in partnership with Putting education to work in your business... The Diploma is suitable for managers
Business Intelligence What is it? Why do you need it? This white paper at a glance This whitepaper discusses Professional Advantage s approach to Business Intelligence. It also looks at the business value
Managing educational change in the ICT discipline at the tertiary education level Project authors Project directors University partners Tony Koppi and Fazel Naghdy University of Wollongong Joe Chicharo
Leadership Development in a Learning 2.0 World Learn as you work. Work as you learn. Tom Gram Senior Director Leadership and Business Solutions Nexient Learning Agenda What are we talking about? Leadership
InImpact: The Journal of Innovation Impact: ISSN 2051-6002 : http://www.inimpact.org Vol. 7. No. 1 : pp.222-229 : inkt14-020 Realisation of the Knowledge-Based Organisation Rose Marie Mather 1 Owen David
Information professionals in the information age: Vital skills and competencies. Hawamdeh, S., & Foo, S. (2001). Proc. International Conference for Library and Information Science Educators in the Asia
A community of leading knowledge-based organizations dedicated to networking, benchmarking and sharing best knowledge practices. Wenger, Etienne C., McDermott, Richard, and Snyder, Williams C., Cultivating
Educational Action Research Vol. 18, No. 2, June 2010, 289 298 REVIEW ARTICLE Beyond locality: the creation of public practice-based knowledge through practitioner research in professional learning communities
Collaborative development of evaluation capacity and tools for natural resource management Helen Watts (Adaptive Environmental Management, formerly NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change) Sandra
WHITE PAPER The metrics that matter How actionable analytics can transform field service management performance. www. Introduction The top strategic action for two-thirds of service organisations is to
WHITEPAPER Business Intelligence Solution for Clubs This whitepaper at a glance This whitepaper discusses the business value of implementing a business intelligence solution at clubs and provides a brief
Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS International Conference on Applications of Electrical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, May 27-29, 2007 115 Data Mining for Knowledge Management in Technology Enhanced Learning
How HR Software Can Help Deliver a Competitive Advantage whitepaper Content 3 4 6 9 12 Executive Summary What is competitive advantage? How can HR contribute to your competitive advantage? Key HR Software
Presented to the Interdisciplinary Studies Program: Applied Information Management and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master
1 Building leadership capability for a rapidly changing world What every business leader now needs to know about developing themselves and their people in a changed world Executive Summary Stories of innovation
How To Profit from Analytics and Big Data Insights By: James Ward Director, Strategic Analytics April 2013 Powerful Ideas Awaiting Your Implementation Strategic Metrics Pty. Ltd. trading as Insight Data
Catherine Truss, David Mankin & Clare Kelliher Oxford University Press (2012) ISBN: 978-0199583065 Theme of the Book What makes a good HR strategy and how does one develop it? These are just two of the
1. Programme Title MDes Design Management Innovation MDes Service Design Innovation MDes Luxury Brand Management Innovation 2. Unit Title Strategic Design and Innovation 3. HE Level Level 7 4. Unit Code
Focusing on you. Focusing on the future. Talk to JAM now on 0800 211 8877 www.jamrecruitment.co.uk Powerful RPO solutions from JAM Recruitment Future Great recruitment is incredibly powerful. It can change
Issue 6, Scientific Papers (www.scientificpapers.org) Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations Author: Madalina
1 The Success Profile for Shared Services and Centres of Expertise Contents Role and models 3 Great minds think alike 4 Five factors that make the difference 5 Five factors in action 7 What can we take
Integration of E-education and Knowledge Management Liyong Wan 1, Chengling Zhao 2, and Wei Guo 2 1 College of Humanity and Social Science, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering,Wuhan,China,email@example.com
Three Manufacturing Strategy Archetypes - A Framework for the UK Aerospace Industry T Greswell, S Childe, R Maull Manufacturing and Business Systems, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL48AA,
Development at the top: Who really cares? A survey of executive teams Erik de Haan Ashridge Business School Inge Wels Ashridge Business School Bill Lucas Talent Foundation Jonathan Winter Career Innovation
Understanding the impact of the connected revolution Vodafone Power to you 02 Introduction With competitive pressures intensifying and the pace of innovation accelerating, recognising key trends, understanding
IBM Software Thought Leadership White Paper July 2011 The case for Centralized Customer Decisioning A white paper written by James Taylor, Decision Management Solutions. This paper was produced in part
Knowledge Management in Software Companies An Appraisal B. Gopalkrishna, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues, P. K. Poornima, and Shivanshu Manchanda Abstract The present study involved evaluation of state of knowledge
MAKING YOUR ORGANISATION S INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL IMPLEMENTING THE GUIDELINES FOR ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION project has been funded with support from the European Union. publication reflects the views
Benchmarking Knowledge Management in U.S. and UK Law Firms By Stuart Kay Stuart Kay is Knowledge Manager, Gilbert + Tobin, 2 Park Street, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia. Tel: +61 2 9263 4393; Fax: +61 2 9263
Implementing the Balanced Scorecard Checklist 154 Introduction Traditionally, managers have used a series of indicators to measure how well their organisations are performing. These measures relate essentially
Issues of Knowledge Management in the Public Sector Xiaoming Cong and Kaushik V. Pandya* University of Luton, UK Xiaoming.firstname.lastname@example.org Kaushik.email@example.com *Author for Correspondence Abstract:
Knowledge Management in Post-Merger Integration 1 Chen Jian 2 Jia Jun 3 School of Management Xi an Jiaotong University, P. R. China, 710049 Abstract Nowadays, knowledge has become an important resource