The Role of Knowledge Management in Banks Sector (Analytical Study- Jordan)

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1 The Role of Management in Banks Sector (Analytical Study- Jordan) Abstract Faisal Bourini Applied Science Private University Assistant Professor Khaldoon Khawaldeh, Applied Science Private University Assistant Professor Shaker Al-Qudah, Applied Science Private University Lecturer The aim of this study is to identify the extent of knowledge management activities that are practiced by Jordan banks in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, knowledge management is the ability to link structured and unstructured information with the changing rules by which people apply it. It is not a technology, but a strategic solution that applies information technologies. The present study concluded that: Banks sector was successful in establishing its own concept of knowledge management, the results shows that knowledge management activities practiced were mostly high. There was a positive statistical relationship between knowledge management strategy and practice degree of knowledge activities. There is no effect was reported for demographics (sex, age, qualification, experience years, and section) on practicing degree of knowledge management activities in Jordan banks. The results indicate that there is no statistical differences relate to education, experience, management level variables in the role of knowledge management at the level of significance α < 0.05 in all activities. Study recommended that Researchers recommend his colleagues that are necessary to expand in knowledge management concept study for its importance in organizations support advantage. Researcher recommends organizations to adapt Jordan banks approach in knowledge management concept, through practicing activities related to this concept. In the researcher's view, it is necessary to held training courses to the employees who are in Jordan banks to recognize the knowledge management concept and its principles, and its importance, to better understand their role in knowledge management in all activities. Keywords: Management, Management activities, Management process COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 53

2 1. Introduction management has become the most popular information management concept in corporate and academic circles. While it can be certified that knowledge management is a strategic solution that makes use of information technologies, the concept has not yet been given a clear definition because it is still new and thus continues to shift and evolve. (Dykman.1998). This study will highlight the nature of knowledge and knowledge management in Jordan banks that considered as one of the leading high- tech companies in Jordan. This research tries to adopt and validate knowledge management instrument which enables Jordan banks to characterize initiate knowledge management profile. It is not a new idea. It is not a single tool, but an overall discipline, a systemic strategy of how to create and deliver information and provide information processing tools to enable workers to accomplish work. The importance of this study is to show the effects of knowledge management in the management systems in the Jordan banks. The problem of this study is that to identify knowledge management concept in Jordan banks. This concept still has ambiguous. The purpose of this study is to measure and validate a knowledge management concept in Jordan banks. It should help managers to initiate a knowledge management portfolio for Jordan banks. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Concept Data, Information and : Data are a collection of facts, measurements, and statistics. Information is organized and processed data that are timely (i.e, inferences from the data are drawn within the time frame of applicability) and accurate. is information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable. (Holsapple-, 2003) (Warier, (2003) says that, knowledge is the full utilization of information and data, coupled with the potential of people's skills, competencies, ideas, intuitions, commitments and motivations. Indicates that knowledge means information and data that's help organization to solve their problems. is present in ideas, judgments, talents, root causes, relationships, perspectives and concepts of every individual. resides in an individual brain or is encoded in organizational processes, documents, products, services, COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 54

3 facilities and systems. is the result of learning which provides the only sustainable competitive advantage. is all about action. 2.2 Types of Polanyi (1966) divided knowledge as the following: 1- Tacit : Is the cumulative store of experiences, mental maps, insights, acumen, expertise, know-how, trade secrets, skills sets understanding and learning that an organization has as well as the organizational culture. It is usually in the domain of subjective, cognitive, and experimental learning. It's difficult to capture, codify, adopt and distribute, as (Polanyi, 1966) put it, "We can know more than we can tell". 2- Explicit : Is the policies, procedural guides, white papers, reports, designs, products, strategies, goals, missions and core competencies of the enterprise and the information technology infrastructure. It deals with more objective, rational, and technical knowledge and it's easy to articulate capture and distribute in different format. It is codified, transmittable, (Polanyi, 1966). 2.3 Management Concepts Management: is managing the corporation s knowledge through a systematically and organizationally specified process for acquiring, organizing, sustaining, applying, sharing and renewing both the tacit and explicit knowledge of employees to enhance organizational performance and create value. (Allee, 1997), (Davenport, 1998), (Alavi, et.al.2001). Management, is a process of knowledge creation, validation, presentation, distribution and application (Bhatt, 2001). Through previous definitions can say that knowledge management is a process that helps to improve organization through, find, select and transfer important information and expertise. 2.4 Management Dimensions Creation: Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) in their model distinguish between tacit and explicit knowledge and indicate that knowledge is created through continues conversion processes as a spiral. These processes are: COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 55

4 (1) Socialization: tacit to tacit. Tacit knowledge can be shared directly from one person to another through communication, observation, learning and imitation. (2) Externalization: tacit to explicit. The conversion process of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge is called externalization. It is not easy to convert tacit knowledge precisely into explicit knowledge, especially when experiences, belief and skills are involved. Besides ordinary presentation tools, effective externalization processes may need methods, such as metaphors and story-telling, to convert internal concepts and values into explicit knowledge. (3) Combination: explicit to explicit. Explicit knowledge such as documents, data, s can be reconfigured, combined and integrated to generate new explicit knowledge. This is the process of combination. This is a relatively easier process, as many tools are available. (4) Internalization: explicit to tacit. A person, after capturing explicit knowledge, must internalize it into his/her own tacit knowledge before it can be applied. It is a learning process Capture (Barchan, (1999) suggests that the organization loses the knowledge people, e.g. investment made for professional development and competence, when a member of staff leaves an organization. When employees leave the organization, the co- employees temporarily maintain the position until another person is recruited. Organizations attempts to transform tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge have, in the main, been unsuccessful. The ability to survive and thrive relies, to some extent, on an organization's ability to maintain and retain old and new knowledge in the face of complexity, uncertainty and rapid change Store Refers to organizational memory processes, where information and knowledge are formally stored in the knowledge management system physical memory systems, and informally retained in the values, norms, and beliefs associated with organizational culture and structure (Walsh and Ungston, 1991) Dissemination must be made available in a useful format to anyone in the organization who needs it, any where and any time. dissemination consists of knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing, and knowledge dissemination is a challenge. Lack of time, COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 56

5 lack of communication skills and rapid change in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are highlighted as some of the main concerns for knowledge dissemination. (Turban, et.al.2004) Acquisition Darroch (2003) suggests that knowledge acquisition is captured by six factors: Valuing employees attitudes and opinions and encouraging employees to up-skill, having a well-developed financial reporting system; being market focused by actively obtaining customer and industry information, being sensitive to information about changes in the marketplace, employing and retaining a large number of people trained in science, engineering or math, working in partnership with international customers, and getting information from market surveys. Five factors describe the knowledge dissemination construct: readily disseminating market information around the organization, disseminating knowledge on-the-job, using techniques such as quality circles, case notes, mentoring and coaching to disseminate knowledge, using technology (such as teleconferencing, videoconferencing and groupware) Filtering This activity refers to the revision of the knowledge gained to fit the needs of the organization as well as to identify knowledge task of the organization to be disseminated and shared among individuals in the organization (De Tienne et al., 2001) Auditing auditing include assessment, review and examine the knowledge base to ensure the current situation being experienced by the organization, and the process of auditing through the interaction of the elements of human knowledge management, organizational and technological and recruitment techniques, procedures and means of modern working Application This stage will make knowledge and applied linked with the practice and use in solving problems that might face the organization. The knowledge application directly affects the organization's ability to maintain its competitive advantage. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 57

6 Development Teece, (1998) indicates that the relationship between knowledge and performance is viewed in a way that knowledge contributes to performance through innovation. More specifically, knowledge initiates product innovation leading to better quality products and process innovation leading to lower cost products and/or production systems. The ability of producing better quality and/or lower cost products can be considered as organizational competencies developed by deploying knowledge assets or through knowledge management and innovation. Competencies include business-level organizational processes fundamental to running the business (e.g. order entry, customer service, product design, quality control and inventory management) Strategies Strategic knowledge emphasizes the extension of corporate activities, rather than improvement and problem solving. Consequently, it involves many actors, and may help to create a community between knowledge and products where one did not exist before (Newell et al., 2002). 3. Literature Review Gupta and McDaniel, (2002) argue that knowledge is referred to as an expensive commodity, which, if managed properly, is a major asset to the company. is a complex and fluid concept. It can be either explicit or tacit in nature. Explicit knowledge can be easily articulated and transferred to others. In contrast, tacit knowledge, which is personal knowledge residing in individuals' heads, is very difficult to articulate, codify and communicate. Drucker (2004) indicates that nowadays society is knowledge based society and argues that the knowledge society has to be highly specialized to be productive and need to apply two new requirements: 1. workers work in teams; and 2. workers have to have access to an organization which, in most cases, means that knowledge workers have to be employees of an organization. The conclusion of this study is that, there are social problems, the rise of knowledge workers and the emergence of the knowledge society will pose any number of new social problems and new social challenges which will occupy us for decades to come. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 58

7 (Adams & Lamont, 2003) argue that, the role of knowledge management systems to create competitive advantage by making it difficult to develop and maintain, because of rapid technological developments, and the ability of competitors to watch and tradition of the organization quickly and therefore, the organization must blending resources, competencies and capabilities that they possess, and continually learns how to use this combination to develop and maintain competitive advantage. According to the study, knowledge management systems alone can not find and maintain competitive advantage and the role of knowledge management systems highlights through coming with the rest of the resources and skills that belong to the organization and study suggested model shows how the Organization can obtain a competitive advantage and maintain, this model consists of the following elements: * management systems that assist in the acquisition, storage, deployment, retrieval, and knowledge management. * Information and knowledge are collected and disposed of through knowledge management systems, which are available to members of the organization to facilitate the development and the invention of goods and services and operations. * Material and financial resources, human and organizational owned by the organization, affecting the organization's ability to benefit from the knowledge. * Internal processes such as: strategic planning, knowledge management; by which transfer information, knowledge and resources owned by the Organization to undesirable results. * Career system through which to improve the level of goods, services, processes and the development of new goods and services. * Permanent competitive advantage, which is the outcome of interaction between the above elements, and represent the organization's ability to achieve the level of performance is higher than the average obtained by competitors in the same industry. Kalling, (2003) study aims to deal with the issue of converting knowledge into improved performance, to improve the understanding of knowledge management. A model linking knowledge with performance is presented. Managing knowledge so as to improve performance is less well discussed. In many of the discussed approaches, there is, evidently, an assumption that there are few obstacles to the use or capitalization of knowledge. (Feng et al., 2004) investigated to clarify the effect of the development of a knowledge management system for the organization's performance by comparing the performance of organizations that have adopted knowledge management systems with those COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 59

8 that had not developed systems for knowledge management. Results showed that organizations that adopt knowledge management systems achieved a reduction in administrative costs and an increase in productivity during the second year of adopting knowledge management systems, and using the profit and cost ratios indicate the presence of important differences, because the financial performance of organizations that do not embrace the knowledge management systems fall with the passage of time, while it remains steadfast to organizations that adopt knowledge management systems. 4. Originality of Study This study is the second in its field in Jordan which talks about the Management Concept with studying and analysis.. This research is exploratory in nature because very few studies conducted to characterize the knowledge management in banks sector. Moreover, this research could be considered as an analytical study. It tries to generate a knowledge management profile for Jordan banks for the four main banks ventures (Jordan bank, Arab bank, Housing bank and Jordan Kuwait bank). Furthermore, this study tries to explore the nature, direction, and significance of the bi-vitiate relationship between knowledge management and Jordan banks technical efficiency. 5. Methodology 5.1Research Hypotheses H1: First Hypothesis: there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the overall knowledge activities and its strategy. 5.2 Data Collection To collect data from its own sources, researcher conducted a personal interview with four directors in Jordan banks questionnaire used to measure knowledge management practices in Jordan banks. Study community consists of all the managerial levels in Jordan banks that they are (370), 170 questionnaires had been distributed on random sample that has managers, departments heads, assistant managers and other sections heads for the Jordan banks. (139) questionnaires had been returned and 139 had been analyze that mean about 81 percent from all responds, returned and analyzed. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 60

9 5.2.1 Validity Tests Content validity and construct validity of an instrument can be established through a correlation analysis. Pearson correlation test was used to establish the content and construct validity of knowledge management activities measurement instrument used and its strategy Reliability: Cronbach s Alpha Coefficient Cronbach s alpha was used to test the knowledge management dimensions (knowledge creation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge filtering, knowledge storage, knowledge auditing, knowledge application, knowledge distribution, knowledge development, community & practice and knowledge strategies). Table (2) presents the reliability results. The Cronbach s coefficient alpha values for the all knowledge management activities more than (0.60), which mean its good result except knowledge acquisition activity. The greatest percentage is (.874) for Community & Practice activity whereas the least percentage is (.238) of knowledge acquisition activity. The reason for the low value of consistency coefficient of paragraphs that measure this activity is the differences of viewpoint on the concept of knowledge acquisition in Jordan banks Descriptive Statistical Techniques The analyzing scale that is used to represent results will be as follows: Means (1-2.5) indicates weak usage Means ( ) indicates average usage Means (3.51-5) indicates usage COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 61

10 6. Analysis and Results Study Question: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge management activities? Question one: To what extent Jordan banks can practice knowledge creation activity? Table 3 ( Creation) # Std. Practicing Mean Deviation level 1 My company concerns with developing abilities and skills of subordinates 2 Renewal and creation are very important for my job My company concerns with new ideas, thought and suggestions proposed by employees 4 My Company cares for motivating and rewarding creative persons (employees) 5 My Company encourages collective work and subordinates cooperation instead of competition 6 My company encourages employees to seek new ideas from all possible sources (i.e. Internally and Externally) 7 My company gives its employees the freedom to organize and carry out their job by methods and means they believe appropriate My company has a commitment to new ideas because of its important role in achieving innovation. 9 My company's information system facilitates ideas sharing between or among employees to achieve innovation Total 4.57 Table (3) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge creation activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.57). The results that are mentioned in table (3) indicates that the activity which is related with the renewal and creation are very important for job has the first degree with mean (4.74) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity which relate with company encourages collective work and subordinate cooperation instead of competition has the second degree with mean (4.66), reflecting practicing degree. Whereas the activity which related with company concerns with new ideas, thoughts and suggestions proposed by employees has the third degree with mean (4.63) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity which related with company concerns with developing abilities and skills of subordinate has the fourth degree with means (4.61) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity which related with company has a commitment to new ideas and the important role to achieve innovation has the fifth degree with means (4.60) reflecting practicing degree. The sixth degree was company encourages employees to seek employee ideas from all possible sources internally or externally with mean (4.58) reflecting COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 62

11 practicing degree. The seventh degree was company cares for motivating and rewarding creative employees with means (4.55) reflecting practicing degree. The eighth was company information system facilitates ideas sharing between or among employees to achieve innovation with mean (4.45) reflecting participating degree. Finally the ninth degree was company gives its employees the freedom to organize and carry out there job by methods and means they believe appropriate with mean (4.36) reflecting practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge creation activity in the Jordan Banks. Results show that the nature of the work in Jordan banks requires attention to the knowledge and creativity, and concerns focused on the activation of the role of information and digital economy and the introduction of new technologies to improve performance and to the changing environment and the impact of competition in an active interest in cognitive construction. Therefore, we can say that main ingredient of creativity and knowledge creation exists in Jordan banks through motivations to staff. Question Two: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge acquisition activity? # Table (4) ( Acquisition) 10 My company seeks the help of external experts and specialists to transfer their knowledge and experience to our personnel. 11 My company is concerned in participating in conferences and workshops inside and outside Jordan as a method of obtaining knowledge. 12 My company encourages personnel to join training programs inside and outside Jordan to gain knowledge in their fields. 13 My company seeks to qualify its personnel through scholarships award to gain knowledge of modern technology in the field of communication. 14 My company encourages personnel to benefit from the experience of successful international practices and knowledge to adopt them. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 63 Mean Std. Deviation Practicing level weak Total 4.27 Table (4) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge acquisition activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.27). The results that are mentioned in table (4) indicate that the activity which is related with company is concerned in participating in conferences and workshops inside and outside Jordan as a method of obtaining knowledge, has the first degree with mean (4.73) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity which related with company seeks the help of external experts and specialists to transfer their knowledge and experience to our personnel has the second degree with mean (4.71), reflecting practicing degree. Whereas the

12 activity which related with company encourages personnel to join training programs inside and outside Jordan to gain knowledge in their fields has the third degree with mean (4.51) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity which related with company encourages personnel to benefit from the experience of successful international practices and knowledge to adopt them has the fourth degree with mean (4.50) reflecting practicing degree. Finally the fifth degree was company seeks to qualify its personnel through scholarships award to gain knowledge of modern technology in the field of communication with mean (2.90) reflecting low practicing degree, the reason for the low value of consistency coefficient of paragraphs that measure this activity is the differences of viewpoint on the concept of knowledge acquisition in Jordan banks. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge creation activity in the Jordan banks. Previous results show that the Jordan banks consider to the knowledge management as an open system affect and be affected by the external environment. The reason is that the group is part of this environment, and knowledge management process can't separate from the external environment. Question three: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge filtering activity? Table (5) ( Filtering) # Mean 15 In case of adopting successful international communication practices, my company modifies these practices to be suitable for Jordanian conditions and environment. 16 My company filters obtained knowledge and determines the most important part to be distributed and exchanged between personnel. 17 In my company each department determines important knowledge in its field to be distributed and exchanged between personnel. 18 When new knowledge is created my company filter (adjust) it to be suitable for work environment. Total 4.58 Std. Deviation Practicing level Table (5) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge filtering activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.58). The results that are mentioned in table (5) indicate that the activity which is related with adopting successful international communication practices, company modifies these practices to be suitable for Jordanian conditions and environment, has the first degree with mean (4.63) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the both activities related with company filters obtained knowledge and determines the most important part to be distributed COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 64

13 and exchanged between personnel and company in each department determines important knowledge in its field to be distributed and exchanged between personnel has the second degree with mean (4.58), reflecting practicing degree. Finally the third degree was when new knowledge is created company filter (adjust) it to be suitable for work environment with mean (4.51) reflecting low practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge filtering activity in the Jordan banks. It is essential that a Jordan banks to filter internal knowledge through classification, set possess large quantities of knowledge vary in importance. Therefore, should distinguish such information according to their importance and need. Question Four: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge storage and representation activity? Table (6) Storage & Representation # Mean Std. Deviation 19 My company has a comprehensive, adequate database or (knowledge base) which is available for all personnel My Company documents new acquired knowledge for each accomplished project I document problems we faced and methods used to solve these problems for future benefits In each department, we document experts knowledge and organize it as stories of success to be used as basis for problem solving. Total 4.44 Practicing level Table (6) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge storage and representation activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.44). The results that are mentioned in table (6) indicate that the activity which is related with document problems we faced and methods used to solve these problems for future benefits, has the first degree with mean (4.69) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company documents new acquired knowledge for each accomplished project has the second degree with mean (4.65) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company has a comprehensive, adequate database or (knowledge base) which is available for all personnel has the third degree with mean (4.36) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with each department, documents experts knowledge and organize it as stories of success to be used as basis for problem solving has the fourth degree with mean (4.07) reflecting practicing degree. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 65

14 The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge storage and representation activity in the Jordan banks. Note from previous findings that the activity of knowledge storage in the Jordan banks was high, and the reason behind this was that the level of information technology support to the activities of advanced knowledge management in terms of the provision of necessary tools to do so from computers and advanced software, add to that a Jordan banks, knowledge store of experts who are in the group, through databases and individuals can workers access and retrieval by using search tools. Question Five: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge auditing activity? Table (7) Auditing # Mean Std. Deviation Practicing level 23 In my department, my concern is to follow up new ideas in my work and transfer it to my subordinates In my department, I regularly review work processes and procedures to ensure up-to-date ness I always follow up to ensure that my subordinates review methods gained during training courses My company continuously concerns in training courses to develop personnel skills and knowledge I regularly review and modify database in my department I regularly compare my department s performance with other departments to be aware of my weakness points Total 4.70 Table (7) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge auditing activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.70). The results that are mentioned in table (7) indicate that the activity which is related with managers, concerns to follow up new ideas in work and transfer it to subordinates, has the first degree with mean (4.81) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with all departments, they regularly review work processes and procedures to ensure up-to-date has the second degree with mean (4.79) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with managers always follow up to ensure that subordinates review methods gained during training courses has the third degree with mean (4.74) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the both activities related with company continuously concerns in training courses to develop personnel skills and knowledge and managers regularly compare their department s performance with other departments to be aware of any weakness points has the fourth degree with mean (4.63) reflecting practicing degree. Finally the fifth degree was related with managers regularly review and COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 66

15 modify database in their departments with mean (4.62). The low standard deviation indicates the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge auditing activity in the Jordan banks. Previous results show that the Jordan banks interested in the process of training, for its importance to develop the ability of managers, to develop the skills of individuals to deal with knowledge management technology. Question six: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge application activity? Table (8) application # Std. Mean Deviation 29 When new methods to improve work emerged, I adopt them instantly I treat all information I receive from any source (internal or external) and benefit from it Typically, I don t face difficulty in applying work methods that I have been trained on I always follow up to ensure that my subordinates use and apply methods gained during training courses Total 4.50 Practicing level Table (8) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge application activity in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.50). The results that are mentioned in table (8) indicate that the activity which is related with when new methods emerged together to improve work, company adopts them instantly has the first degree with mean (4.71) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with treating all information which received from any source (internal or external) and benefit from it has the second degree with mean (4.63) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company always follow up to ensure that subordinates use and apply methods gained during training courses has the third degree with mean (4.48) reflecting practicing degree. Finally the fourth degree was related with difficulty in applying work methods that have been trained on, with mean (4.19). The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge application activity in the Jordan banks. Previous results show that the activity of the application of knowledge effective, the application of the methods of work by individuals were trained had been effectively. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 67

16 Question Seven: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge distribution and exchange activity? Table (9) Distribution & Exchange # Std. Mean Deviation 33 Our database includes a list of names and addresses of experts to call up for consultancy when needed I don t face difficulty in accessing any information I need in my work I foster and promote training courses to develop employees skills in sharing and exchanging new ideas I have an intranet (internal communication network) which enables me to share and exchange knowledge with others. 37 I can easily access internet to collect any information I need I use to share and exchange knowledge with others I don t hesitate to ask for help or advice from my managers or colleagues at work I have enough time to interact and work with my colleagues to discuss work related issues I link up incentives to the ability of individuals to distribute and share knowledge with others I encourage group work as it enables me to share and exchange knowledge with others I encourage informal meetings between or among subordinates Total 4.69 Practicing level Table (9) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge distribution & exchange in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.69). The results that are mentioned in table (9) indicate that the activity which is related with use to share and exchange knowledge with others has the first degree with mean (4.82) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with easily access internet to collect any information needs has the second degree with mean (4.79) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activities related with intranet (internal communication network) which enables to share and exchange knowledge with others has the third degree with mean (4.78) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with the hesitate to ask for help or advice from managers or colleagues at work has the fourth degree with mean (4.77) whereas the activity related with enough time to interact and work with colleagues to discuss work related issues has the fifth degree with mean (4.70) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activities related with link up incentives to the ability of individuals to distribute and share knowledge with others and encourage informal meetings COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 68

17 between or among subordinates has the sixth degree with mean (4.65) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with don t face difficulty in accessing any information need in work has the seventh degree with mean (4.64) reflecting practicing degree, whereas activity related with database includes a list of names and addresses of experts to call up for consultancy when needed has the eight degree with mean (4.45) reflecting practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge distribution & exchange in the Jordan banks. Note from these results that the dissemination and exchange of knowledge in the Jordan banks was a high level, and perhaps the important reasons that led to this is the high level, high practice of this activity. Question eight: To what extent Jordan banks practices knowledge development activity? Table (10) Development # 44 I encourage subordinates to develop and improve acquired knowledge. 45 When new knowledge is adopted from external sources, I usually develop it to fit our work environment. 46 I encourage subordinates to benefit from new adopted knowledge and use it as a basis to develop and create new knowledge. 47 I encourage subordinates to hold periodical meetings to discuss the important and role of adopted knowledge in achieving Jordan Telecom goals. 48 I periodically evaluate acquired knowledge to determine its importance and role in solving communication problem. Mean Std. Deviation Practicing level Total 4.63 Table (10) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge development in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.63). The results that are mentioned in table (10) indicate that the activity which is related with encourage subordinates to develop and improve acquired knowledge has the first degree with mean (4.73) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related when new knowledge is adopted from external sources, company usually develop it to fit their work environment has the second degree with mean (4.71) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with encourage subordinates to hold periodical meetings to discuss the important and role of adopted knowledge in achieving Jordan banks goals has the COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 69

18 third degree with mean (4.65) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with periodically evaluate acquired knowledge to determine its importance and role in solving communication problem has the fourth degree with mean (4.60) reflecting practicing degree. Finally the fifth degree was related with encourage subordinates to benefit from new adopted knowledge and use it as a basis to develop and create new knowledge with mean (4.46) reflecting practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge development in the Jordan banks. Through previous results, we find the Jordan banks working to develop the knowledge acquisition as a model for the creation of knowledge. Question nine: To what extent Jordan banks forms community of practice activity? Table (11) Community of Practice # 49 I encourage subordinates who have common interest in a specific field to form a community (group) for sharing and exchanging knowledge among them. 50 I encourage these community groups to cooperate with external groups having the same interest. 51 I usually consider these community groups a knowledge reference in their field of specialty. 52 I encourage these community groups to continuously Mean develop their knowledge Total 4.04 Std. Deviation Practicing level Table (11) describes the descriptive statistics of community of practice in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.04). The results that are mentioned in table (11) indicate that the activity which is related with encourage community groups to continuously develop their knowledge has the first degree with mean (4.06) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the both activities related encourage subordinates who have common interest in a specific field to form a community (group) for sharing and exchanging knowledge among them and when company consider these community groups a knowledge reference in their field of specialty has the second degree with mean (4.04) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with encourage community groups to cooperate with external groups having the same interest has the third degree with mean (4.02) reflecting practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on community of practice in the Jordan banks. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 70

19 Many confirm the importance of forming community of practice groups, and benefit from the knowledge management process, since these groups impact on the development of knowledge management process through experiences of knowledge. Question Ten: To what extent Jordan Banks practices knowledge strategy activity? # Table (12) Strategy 53 My company uses formal methods to document and disseminate knowledge (i.g. formal meetings and instructions). 54 My company uses information technology and communication systems to document and disseminate knowledge. 55 My company encourages knowledge dissemination and exchange through individual interactions. 56 My company usually achieves needful qualified and skilful personnel in knowledge through training and development programs. 57 My company extends the cooperation with knowledgeable establishments and institutions inside and outside Jordan (i.g. universities, research centers, international and regional organizations) 58 My company introduces intermediate and long range plan to achieve effective knowledge management administration. Mean Std. Deviation Practicing level Total 4.80 Table (12) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge strategy in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.80). The results that are mentioned in table (12) indicate that the activity which is related with company encourages knowledge dissemination and exchange through individual interactions has the first degree with mean (4.86) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company uses information technology and communication systems to document and disseminate knowledge has the second degree with mean (4.83) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company uses formal methods to document and disseminate knowledge formal meetings and instructions has the third degree with mean (4.81) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company introduces intermediate and long range plan to achieve effective knowledge management administration has the fourth degree with mean (4.79) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company extends the cooperation with knowledgeable establishments and institutions inside and outside Jordan ( universities, research centers, international and regional organizations) has the fifth degree with mean (4.78) reflecting practicing degree, whereas the activity related with company usually COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 71

20 achieves needful qualified and skilful personnel in knowledge through training and development programs has the sixth degree with mean (4.73) reflecting practicing degree. The low standard deviations indicate the agreement of the views of sample on knowledge strategy in the Jordan banks. Previous results show a successful strategy for managing knowledge in Jordan banks. This is not surprising, because a Jordan banks did not achieve any practice a high degree of knowledge management activities without developing a successful knowledge management able to consolidate and clarify the concept of knowledge management. Table (13) Means and Std. Divisions of knowledge management dimensions: Field Mean Std. Division Agreement degree Creation Acquisition Filtering Storage & Representation Auditing application Distribution & Exchange Development Community Of Practice Strategy Total 4.54 Table (13) describes the descriptive statistics of knowledge management activities in Jordan banks is done in ly degree of practicing in which general mean is (4.54). The results that are mentioned in table (3) indicate that all knowledge management activities have practicing degree. 4.1 Study Hypothesis Test First Hypothesis: there is a statistically significant positive correlation between the overall knowledge activities and its strategy. To test this relation researcher chooses Pearson's correlation, table (4) describes the test results. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 72

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