THE ANALYSIS OF KEY ELEMENTS OF SOCIO-TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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1 THE ANALYSIS OF KEY ELEMENTS OF SOCIO-TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Svetlana Šajeva Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania, Abstract There are different approaches to knowledge management. So, a knowledge management system could be analyzed from different viewpoints. Usually the term a knowledge management system is used as a synonym for the information and communication tools, and rarely is defined from a social or sociotechnical perspective. This paper acknowledges the socio-technical approach to knowledge management system. Analyzing a socio-technical knowledge management system, these three aims are achieved in this article: 1) different approaches to knowledge management and knowledge management system are explained; 2) the existing socio-technical models of knowledge management systems are presented and analyzed; 3) the key elements of socio-technical knowledge management system are explored. Based on this analysis the model of socio-technical knowledge management system is constructed. This model includes all essential elements that could characterize the ideal socio-technical knowledge management system. It could be used for better understanding how the organizations could construct the socio-technical knowledge management system and practice knowledge management successfully. Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management system, socio-technical approach. Introduction Nowadays, all organizations are competing in a complex and challenging context that is being transformed by many factors as globalization, hyper competition, technological development, and virtualization. These new environments require from organizations to think and behave differently in order to survive and prosper. That is why most of them are seeking for new methods to achieve the competitive advantage. Today scientists and practitioners acknowledge that the foundation of organisational competitiveness has shifted from an emphasis on physical and tangible resources to knowledge-based resources. So, the competitive advantage of an organization depends on how successful it in exploiting, applying and integrating its knowledge management capabilities. Knowledge-based resources include all the intellectual abilities and knowledge possessed by employees, as well as their capacity to learn and acquire more knowledge (DeNisi, Hitt, Jackson, 2003, p. 9). Knowledge management capability could be defined as firm s ability to mobilize and deploy its knowledgebased resources in combination with other resources and capabilities (Chuang, 2004). Knowledge management is a planned, structured approach to develop knowledge management capabilities and to manage the identification, creation, sharing, and leveraging of knowledge-based resources as an organizational asset in order to enhance a company s competitiveness. As Maier (2007, p. 103) states, knowledge management provides instruments to build capabilities which can be used to achieve competitive advantage. Knowledge management incorporates ideas and processes from a wide variety of disciplines such as information management, information technology management, communication, human recourses management and other. It is dealing with various processes such as knowledge identification, creation, capture, sharing, retention, and utilization. So, it can be conceptualized differently and applied to numerous areas of organizational activities related to people, technologies, and processes. In order to see the whole picture of knowledge management in the organization, it should be analyzed as a system. In general, a system is defined as a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole (Webster's Online Dictionary, 2010). In terms of organizations, systems are typically composed of people, technologies and data/information. These components interact with one another for some specific purpose (e.g. product distribution system) (Gallupe, 2000). In terms of knowledge management, a system could be seen as composed of various components that interact in order to maintain and ensure the management of knowledge in the organization. The idea that knowledge management could be seen as a system is confirmed by different authors. For example, Grundstein and Rosenthal-Sabroux (2007) say: knowledge management becomes a reality in the implementation of a system, which is a set of components in dynamic interaction organized according to a 765

2 purpose. Abdullah et. al. (2005) stress that there is a need for a system known as knowledge management system in order to allow people to work together at any given time, place and also regardless of any platform that they have. Bartholomew (2008) notes: one of the commonest mistakes in knowledge management is to think about it as a set of separate tools and processes rather than as an integrated system with business objectives. However, the conception of knowledge management system is not commonly accepted yet. While there are different approaches to knowledge management, a knowledge management system is analyzed from different perspectives. The socio-technical view is considered to be the most adequate, taking into account the idea that it will be the mistake to concentrate only on the one aspect of knowledge management (technological or social), and to ignore the other. So, the socio-technical approach which recognizes the interplay between social and technological factors is emphasized in this article. In developing a socio-technical perspective to knowledge management system, however, we need to understand the socio-technical approach to knowledge management and to identify the main elements of socio-technical knowledge management system. So, the objective of this paper is to explore the specific of socio-technical knowledge management system and to analyze its key elements. The main result is the conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system which is developed based on the research of the structure and content of the existing models of socio-technical knowledge management systems. In order to achieve this purpose, a systemic and comparative scientific literature analysis was selected as the main research method. The paper is structured as follows. First, the overview of different approaches to knowledge management and knowledge management system is presented. Second, the existing models of sociotechnical knowledge management are analyzed, underlying the key components of these systems. Finally, the conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system is developed. Different Approaches to Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System During several decades the concept of knowledge management changed from its whole comparison with information management till contemporary view which strengths organizational learning, social interaction and knowledge creation. The rapid development of knowledge management is one of the reasons why there is still a difference between various perceptions of what is it knowledge management and how organizations could manage knowledge. According to Maier (2007), generally, there is agreement about the distinction between human oriented (social, organizational, people-centred) and technology oriented (technological, technology-centred) knowledge management approaches. Bibikas et al. (2008) explained that these different perceptions were developed during the proceeding discussion about the distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge utilization: easily codified and documented knowledge could be managed through a technology-oriented approach, whereas knowledge that resides on people s thoughts and beliefs requires people-oriented actions. First, the literature emphasized mostly the technological aspects of knowledge management. Later, the literature on knowledge management was less technology and information focused and more recognized the need for organizational learning and cultural change. Recently, however, begins to dominate the agreement that it is the mistake to concentrate only on the one aspect of knowledge management information technology tools or human activities, and to ignore the other. For example, Hasan and Crawford (2007) state, that a focus on knowledge management technologies, without consideration of the social processes that surround them is a recipe for failure. Bibikas et al. (2008) propose that overly stressing the importance of either technological or social components of knowledge management can sometimes be misleading and conducive to less effective organizational initiatives. Maier (2007) stress the importance of more holistic knowledge management conceptualization which encompasses both human and technology oriented directions. So, the authors recognize the importance of integration and balance between the technological and social aspects of knowledge management. As Hlupic, Pouloudi, Rzevski (2002) argue, that it is the integration of hard (technological) and soft (organizational and human) parts of the knowledge base that are critical to business success. Next technological, social and socio-technical perspectives of knowledge management are briefly presented in the paper. Technological approach to knowledge management. The technological approach concentrates on technical and technological aspects of knowledge management. The starting point of this approach is the 766

3 equalization of knowledge with information, and knowledge management with information management. Knowledge is viewed as a thing or object that exists on its own, that can be captured, transmitted among individuals, and stored in multiple ways within the organization. According to Grant, Shahsavarani (2006), in technological approach the main focus is on the collection, codification, storage, and manipulation of knowledge using technical systems. These systems include various information and communication technologies, for example, groupware, , databases, intranet and other. Choi and Lee (2002) name the technological approach as a system strategy. According to them, the main features of this strategy are: 1) the emphasis on codified knowledge in knowledge management processes; 2) the focus on codifying and storing knowledge via information technology, and 3) the attempt to share knowledge formally. Although it is obvious that information and communication technologies are the key element in knowledge management, it is not the one and the only, and not the dominant aspect of knowledge management. As Coakes (2002) stresses, effective knowledge management is more than about the managing the technology. Social approach to knowledge management. In acquaintance with social approach, it is recognized that the effective management of knowledge involves more than simply exploiting the data held on information systems (Hlupic, Pouloudi, Rzevski, 2002). According to them, knowledge management requires more attention to the human, organizational, and cultural aspects. The starting point of social approach is the acknowledgement that knowledge is personal in nature. This means that knowledge resides primarily in the heads of individuals, and in the social interactions of these individuals (Grundstein, 2008). That is why, in contrast to technological knowledge management, social based knowledge management emphasizes knowledge that can be acquired and shared via a socially interactive process (e.g., through experienced and skilled people, trust, and reciprocal relationships among employees) to support knowledge management activities (Yang, Chen, 2009). According to Mason and Pauleen (2003), social approach to knowledge management includes the management of people and processes. The authors noticed that the organizational behavior and culture need to be changed. The aim here is to get people to share what they know. So, the processes are what matter, not technology. According to Grant, Shahsavarani (2006), social approach is more concerned with nature of learning, the organizational culture and structure, and harnessing tacit forms of knowledge as an organizational resource. Analyzing human and organizational aspects of knowledge management Hlupic, Pouloudi, Rzevski (2002) notice these main elements: organizational learning, business intelligence, cultural aspects of knowledge management, organizational structures that support knowledge management, best practices in knowledge management, human resource management in the context of knowledge management, project management in the context of knowledge management, and operational management in the context of knowledge management. Choi and Lee (2002) emphasize these three main things: 1) the dialogue through social networks and person-to-person contacts; 2) focus on acquiring knowledge via experienced and skilled people, and 3) the attempt to share knowledge informally. So, a social approach to knowledge management integrates mostly intangible elements. However, as Prieto and Revilla (2003) state, the compatibility between both (technological and social) approaches is the key to satisfy customer needs and to improve the competitive position of the organization. Socio-technical approach to knowledge management. According to Pan, Scarbrough (1998, p. 57), the term socio-technical was first suggested by Trist to describe a method of viewing organizations which emphasizes the interrelatedness of the functioning of the social and technological subsystems of the organization, and the relation of the organization as a whole to the environment in which it operates. From this perspective, it is acknowledged, that both the technological and social aspects are important. Theoretically a socio-technical paradigm combines the social and technical paradigms, and could be described as the study of the relationships between the social and technical parts of any system (Coakes, 2002). As Grant, Shahsavarani (2006) state, this approach suggests the combination of effective use of technology with the appropriate and humanistic use of individuals. The socio-technical view of knowledge management focuses on a firm s strategy for harmonizing knowledge management activities with technological drivers and social enablers to achieve its business objectives (Yang, Chen, 2009). So, from this point of view, knowledge management is recognized as a socio-technical phenomenon where the basic social constructs such as person, team and organization require support from information and communication technology applications (Lytras, Pouloudi, 2006). It is acknowledged, that the balance and integration of technological and social perspectives let organizations manage knowledge more effectively. Technology can 767

4 increase the efficiency of information flows and social factors can improve the comprehension of knowledge assets (Yang, Chen, 2009). Figure 1. Main approaches to knowledge management The discussion above shows that there are different approaches to knowledge management (Figure 1). In accordance with this, the concept of knowledge management system is not commonly accepted yet. The knowledge management system is usually determined from a technological perspective. Grundstein (2008) stresses, that numerous authors are limiting the notion of knowledge management system to the notion of an information technology-based system, which reduces the knowledge management system to a data-processing system. From this perspective, a term knowledge management system is used narrowly, underlining only the information and communication systems (platforms) or single technological products (tools or technologies) that could be adopted and designed in order to support the processes of knowledge management. For example, Alavi and Leidner (2001) refer knowledge management systems to a class of information systems applied to managing organizational knowledge. Typical knowledge management systems for them include databases, intranet, groupware, search engines and etc. Gupta and Sharma (2004; cited by Grundstein, 2008) notice that knowledge management systems could be divided into several major categories, as follows: groupware, including , and wikis; decision support systems; expert systems; document management systems; semantic networks; relational and object oriented databases; simulation tools; and artificial intelligence. According to this point of view knowledge management systems share many similarities with information systems and many of the tools and techniques of knowledge management are related to information systems. Identifying the difference between knowledge management tools and information management tools Gallupe (2000) noted that tools for knowledge management should be capable of handling the richness, the content, and the context of the information and not just the information itself. If the purpose of information system is effective storage and fetching by request of the necessary information, the main target of knowledge management system is to increase quality of the specialists knowledge by mean of either organization of dialogue with experts which possess the necessary knowledge or rendering the information where the necessary knowledge are coded (Tuzovsky, Yampolsky, 2003). However, even recognizing the differences between information system and knowledge management system, the latter is seen only as a set of technological tools. From another perspective, a knowledge management system is analyzed as a complex socio-technical system, which is not equal to technological tools, but encompasses both technological and social elements, and underlines their interaction. According to Becerra-Fernandez (2004), knowledge management system intends the synergy between latest technologies and social/structural mechanisms. Nielsen and Michailova (2005) see knowledge management system as the combination of enterprise strategies, business processes and information technology for capturing, organizing, storing and disseminating knowledge and experiences of individual workers and groups in an extended-enterprise environment. According to the authors, the major components of the knowledge management system are the following: 1) A people-centred knowledge management conceptualisation focusing on social processes, ad-hoc work practices and organisational structures (i.e. individual, team, business units). Situated innovation management processes, cultivation of communities of practice and project adaptation procedures comprise fundamental components of this socially-focused processual approach. 2) A technology-centred knowledge management conceptualisation focusing on the integration of enterprise social software applications (wikis, blogs, collaborative bookmarking tools and search engines) with semantic technologies (ontology-based annotation, semantic text analysis, logic-based 768

5 reasoning). Hoffmann et al. (1999) notice, that a company s knowledge management system encompasses organizational, social, and technological subsystems that combine continuous organizational design, development of human resources, and innovation of technology. Success can only be ensured by simultaneous development of all parts of the knowledge management system and their mutual adaptation. While socio-technical view of knowledge management system is not clearly described in the literature, various models of socio-technical knowledge management system will be further presented in the article. Review of the Socio-technical Knowledge Management Systems In order to examine the main components of socio-technical knowledge management system this section identifies the existing models presented in the literature. Whereas the socio-technical perspective to knowledge management system is not so popular in the literature, only some models of socio-technical knowledge management system will be further presented in this paper (Pan, Scarbrough (1998), Gallupe (2000), Meso, Smith (2000), Dingsoyr (2002), McNabb (2007), Grundstein (2008)). Pan and Scarbrough (1998) paper could be considered as the first main work in this area. The authors described a process of knowledge-sharing in Buckman Laboratories through a socio-technical perspective. They acknowledged the multi-layered nature of knowledge management system, and summarised three major elements of such system: infrastructure, infostructure, and infoculture. Infrastructure involves the hardware/software which enables the physical/communicational contact between network members. Infostructure encompasses the formal rules which govern the exchange between the actors on the network, providing a set of cognitive resources (metaphors, common language) whereby people make sense of events on the network. Infoculture includes the stock of background knowledge which actors take for granted and which is embedded in the social relations surrounding work group processes. According to Gallupe (2000), knowledge management systems can be thought of as systems composed of people, tools and technologies, and knowledge that interact to provide knowledge to people in the organization who need it. Meso, Smith (2000) presented an analysis of organizational knowledge management system from two perspectives the technical and socio-technical. The authors indicated that, for a firm to reap long-term strategic benefit from knowledge management, it should adapt the broader socio-technical view when developing, implementing and managing its knowledge management system. They suggest that knowledge management system should be seen as a complex combination of technology infrastructure, organizational infrastructure, corporate culture, knowledge, and people. The core of the organizational knowledge management system is the people. This component includes all the organization's stakeholders employees, owners, customers, suppliers and regulators/legislators. However, employees are the most significant participants. They are the key source of the intellectual capital acquired and managed by the knowledge management system. Technology infrastructure comprises the hardware, software, middle-ware and protocols that allow for the encoding and electronic exchange of knowledge. Organizational infrastructure refers to the set of roles and organizational teams whose members have skills to serve as resources for individual projects. The way these roles relate to each other within the context of the organization's structure defines the organizational infrastructure. The organizational infrastructure defines the organization's management style and philosophy. It determines how the employees of the firm are organized into formal and informal teams of departments; how these teams interact formally and informally; and the role and goals of each team and how these relate to the overall corporate strategy. Culture refers to the shared beliefs, norms, ethics and practices within an organization. A knowledge friendly culture is one in which the employees highly value learning and exhibit a positive orientation to knowledge. Knowledge may be tangible or intangible in nature. Dingsoyr (2002) acknowledges that a knowledge management system in a company consists of three parts: 1) an overall strategy for knowledge management; 2) a set of processes (activities) that a company does in order to facilitate knowledge management, and 3) a set of tools for knowledge management: a computer software system where operational information, or knowledge, can be found by different groups of practitioners (like developers, project managers, quality management, etc.) McNabb (2007) view knowledge management system as a living, dynamic system which involves five subsystems: information processes subsystem, social processes subsystem, human interactions subsystem, collaborative culture subsystem, and organizational learning subsystem. An information technology-based information processes subsystem of hardware and software tools facilitates the transformation of data to information, and of information to knowledge. In a social processes subsystem, knowledge sharing and 769

6 distribution are enabled and promoted. The four social processes include socialization, internalization, combining, and externalizing (or sharing). A human interactions subsystem makes it possible to support and value knowledge creating, collecting, and sharing. The informal, self-regulating communities of practice form the heart of this subsystem. A collaborative culture subsystem includes all the knowledge management applications designed to improve the products and services provided by an agency. It also includes knowledge applications designed to improve the agency s internal processes, procedures, and policies, as well as its service delivery mechanisms. An organizational learning subsystem makes it possible for a government agency or department to transform itself from the traditional hierarchical, bureaucratic structure thought for decades to be the public service ideal, to become an organization that learns from its mistakes and successes. Grundstein (2008) also suggests the socio-technical approach to knowledge management system. The author presents a model for global knowledge management within the enterprise. This model is composed of two main categories of elements: 1) the underlying elements consist of socio-technical environment, and value-adding processes; 2) the operating elements focus on the underlying elements (managerial guiding principles, ad hoc infrastructures, generic knowledge management processes, organizational learning processes, and methods and supporting tools). Socio-technical environment constitutes the relations and interactions between information and communication technologies, structure and people. Value adding processes derive from the value chain described by Porter and represent the organizational context for which knowledge is essential factor of performance. The managerial guiding principles bring a vision aligned with the enterprise s strategic orientation. The relevant infrastructures adapt sets of devices and means for action. Ad hoc infrastructure includes content and document management systems, collaborative information systems, and organisational conditions encouraging interaction, communication and knowledge sharing. Generic knowledge management processes encompass the processes of locating, preserving, enhancing, and actualising crucial knowledge. The organizational learning processes underlay the whole generic knowledge management processes. The aim of the organizational learning process is to increase individual knowledge, to reinforce competencies, and to convert them into a collective knowledge through interactions, dialogue, discussions, exchange of experience, and observation. Methods and supporting tools include general technological tools. With reference to the discussion above, the conceptual elements of socio-technical knowledge management system could be identified and summarised in Table 1. Table 1. Major elements of socio-technical knowledge management system Author (year) People Knowledge Process of knowledge management Strategic leadership Organizational infrastructure Technological infrastructure Organizational learning Knowledge culture Pan, Scarbrough (1998) Meso, Smith (2000) Gallupe (2000) Dingsoyr (2002) McNabb (2007) Grundstein (2008) Human resources Knowledge Info-structure Infrastructure Info-culture Organizational infrastructure Technology infrastructure People Knowledge Tools and technologies Processes Strategy Tools Social processes subsystem Generic KM processes Managerial guiding principles Human interactions subsystem Ad hoc infrastructures Information processes subsystem Methods and supporting tools Organizational learning subsystem Organisational learning process Culture Collaborative culture subsystem Summarizing, we could notice that the existing models of socio-technical knowledge management systems provide the importance of interplay of knowledge management process and organizational context. This means that although the process of knowledge management is usually seen as the major component of 770

7 knowledge management system, it should be integrated and harmonized with the appropriate organizational environment. Various aspects of organizational context are stressed in different models. However, none of them presents the whole spectrum of elements that need to be designed and encouraged in order to create an effective knowledge management system in the organization. For example, the component of strategic leadership is missing in the model of McNabb (2007) and the knowledge culture is not underlined in the model presented by Grundstein (2008). Applying the socio-technical perspective to knowledge management system and linking all the key elements underlined in the foregoing models, the conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system is further presented. The Model of Socio-technical Knowledge Management System In general, a socio-technical knowledge management system could be defined as a set of technological and social elements that ensure the development of knowledge management process and the creation of appropriate organizational conditions. According to the analysis above, we could stress, that a knowledge management system includes three main sub-systems: 1) the subsystem of knowledge management process, 2) the subsystem of technological context, and 3) the subsystem of social context (Figure 2). Figure 2. Conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system The most obvious components of the socio-technical knowledge management system are people and their knowledge. Knowledge includes explicit knowledge that is expressed in words and numbers and codified in manuals, databases and information systems as well as tacit knowledge that are shared collectively in the firm in the form of routines, culture and know-how. Knowledge is located in the head of the person and is not seen and inseparable from him or her. Individual knowledge is transformed into the organizational knowledge though the process of knowledge management. The process of knowledge management includes a set of practices or activities that are initializing in organization in order to identify, acquire, create, storage, disseminate, and apply knowledge. While designing the knowledge management system in the organization, these key processes should be established: Knowledge identification means the determination of all critical knowledge that is possessed by employees and their groups in the organization. Knowledge acquisition involves the renewal of employees` knowledge by attaining new information, knowledge and experience. 771

8 Knowledge creation is the creation of new knowledge that is materialized in new products, services, processes, and concepts. Valuable knowledge storing deals with the structuring and storing knowledge in the ways that make it more formalized and accessible. Knowledge dissemination means the diffusion of knowledge, experience and valuable information between individuals and their groups in the organization. Knowledge application is the productive use of organizational knowledge in business processes through solving the problems, making the decisions, designing new products and services for the benefit of the organization. The process of knowledge management, however, does not exist in vacuum. It should be integrated into other organizational processes that create value. The process of knowledge management should be also harmonized with general corporate strategy and maintained by appropriate culture. This requires the formation of suitable organizational context, i.e. particular socio-technical environment, which is created in order to ensure the working of the process of knowledge management. In accordance with the analysis of the main components of socio-technical knowledge management system five major elements of socio-technical environment could be identified: strategic leadership, organizational infrastructure, technological infrastructure, organizational learning, and knowledge culture: Strategic leadership means the active interest in knowledge management and its promotion by the leaders and chief officers of the organization. Organizational infrastructure includes formal and informal structures that ensure the creation of formal and informal social networks through which knowledge and information flow in the organization. Technological infrastructure is designed by technological products (tools) and their systems which are based on information and communication technologies and used to facilitate the process of knowledge management. Organizational learning encompasses the processes of individual and collective learning that ensure the creation of new knowledge and enhancing the organization s knowledge base. Knowledge culture deals with the systems of values, beliefs and norms accepted and supported by all employees in the organization, and based on the acknowledgement of the importance of knowledge and its management. The presented model could provide a holistic view and better understanding of how the knowledge management could be practiced in the organization. Furthermore, it could be used as a general tool for designing the unique knowledge management systems in various organizations. Conclusions 1. There are three broad approaches to knowledge management. The technological approach focuses on the management of information objects through the development and using of appropriate technologies. The social approach recognizes that the effective management involves more attention to the human, organizational, and cultural aspects. The socio-technical view of knowledge management focuses on harmonizing the technological tools and human related activities. Based on these different perceptions of knowledge management, a knowledge management system is not commonly defined in the literature. The majority of the authors refer a knowledge management system to a class of information systems. However, today this point of view is acknowledged as to be narrow and limited. The other authors intend the synergy between the technologies and social/structural mechanisms. This socio-technical view is considered today to be the most adequate for designing a knowledge management system in the organization. 2. There are different models of socio-technical knowledge management systems provided in the literature. Most of them emphasize the importance of interplay of knowledge management process and organizational context. However, none of them presented the whole spectrum of elements that need to be designed and encouraged in order to create an effective knowledge management system in the organization. 3. The conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system includes three main subsystems: 1) the subsystem of knowledge management process, 2) the subsystem of technological context, and 3) the subsystem of social context. The process of knowledge management includes a set of practices or activities that are initializing in organization in order to identify, acquire, create, storage, 772

9 disseminate, and apply knowledge. Strategic leadership, organizational infrastructure, technological infrastructure, organizational learning, and knowledge culture form the organizational socio-technical environment that ensures the process of knowledge management. References 1. Abdullah R.H., Sahibuddin S., Alias R.A., & Selamat M.H. (2005). Knowledge Management System Architecture For Organizational Learning With Collaborative Environment. Proceedings of the Postgraduate Annual Research Seminar. Online. Available from: _Knowledge_Management_System_Architecture_For_Organizational.pdf 2. Alavi M., & Leidner D.E. (2001). Review: Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues. MIS Quaterly, 25 (1), Bartholomew D. (2008). Building on Knowledge. Developing Expertise, Creativity and Intellectual Capital in the Construction Professions. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN: Becerra-Fernandez I. (2004). Introducing Knowledge Management. Online. Available from: 5. Bibikas D., Kourtesis D., Paraskakis I., Bernardi A., Sauermann, L., Apostolou D., Mentzas G., & Vasconcelos A.C. (2008). Organisational Knowledge Management Systems in the Era of Enterprise 2.0: The case of OrganiK. 11th International Conference on Business Information Systems, BIS, Innsbruck, Austria 5-7 May. Online. Available from: 6. Choi B., & Lee H. (2002). Knowledge management strategy and its link to knowledge creation process. Expert Systems with Applications, 23, Chuang, S.H. (2004). A resource-based perspective on knowledge management capability and competitive advantage: an empirical investigation. Expert Systems with Applications, 27, Coakes E. (2002). Knowledge Management: A Sociotechnical Perspective. In Knowledge Management in the Sociotechnical World. E. Cokes, D. Willis, S. Clarke, editors. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN-13: p DeNisi A.S., Hitt M.A., & Jackson S.E. (2003). The Knowledge-Based Approach to Sustainable Competitive Advantage. In Managing Knowledge for Sustained Competitive Advantage: Designing Strategies for Effective Human Resource Management, A.S. DeNisi, M.A. Hitt, S.E. Jackson, editors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint. ISBN , p Dingsoyr T. (2002). Knowledge Management in Medium-Sized Software Consulting Companies. An Investigation of Intranet-based Knowledge Management Tools for Knowledge Cartography and Knowledge Repositories for Learning Software Organisations. Dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. ISBN Gallupe B. (2001). Knowledge Management Systems: Surveying the landscape. International Journal of management Reviews, 3 (1), Grant G., & Shahsavarani N. (2006). A Socio-Technical View of Knowledge Creation and Storage in Organizations. Proceedings, 4th International Management Conference, Tehran, December Online. Available from: 13. Grundstein M. (2008). Assessing the enterprise s knowledge management maturity level. International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, 4 (5), Grundstein M., & Rosenthal-Sabroux C. (2007). A Sociotechnical Approach of Knowledge Management within the Enterprise: The MGKME Model. In Proceedings The 11th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 3, Online. Available from: 15. Hasan H., & Crawford K. (2007). Socio-Technical Systems for Knowledge Mobilisation in Communities. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 5 (4), Hoffmann M., Loser K., Walter T., & Herrmann T. (1999). A Design Process for Embedding Knowledge Management in Everyday Work. International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work, Phoenix, AZ, USA, Lytras MD., & Pouloudi A. (2006). Towards the development of a novel taxonomy of knowledge management systems from a learning perspective: an integrated approach to learning and knowledge infrastructures. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10 (6), Maier R. (2007). Knowledge Management System: Information and Communication Technologies for Knowledge Management. Third Edition. Springer, ISBN

10 19. Mason D., & Pauleen D.J. (2003). Perceptions of knowledge management: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(7), McNabb D.E. (2007). Knowledge Management in the Public Sector: A Blueprint for Innovation in Government. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., ISBN-10: Meso P., & Smith R. (2000). A resource-based view of organizational knowledge management systems. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4 (3), Nielsen B.B., & Michailova S. (2005). Designing Knowledge Management Systems in MNCs: A Managerial Framework. Honolulu Conference. Online. Available from: 23. Pan S.L., & Scarbrough H. (1998). A Socio-Technical View of Knowledge-Sharing at Buckman Laboratories. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2 (1), Prieto I., & Revilla E. (2003). The Social Approach of Knowledge Management: the Effect of the Organizational Learning Capacity. Working paper. Online. Available from: 25. Ricceri F. (2008). Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management: Strategic Management of Knowledge Resources. T & F Books UK, ISBN Tuzovsky A.F., & Yampolsky V.Z. (2003). The system approach to knowledge management systems designing and development. Proceedings of the 7th Korea-Russia International Symposium. KORUS 2003, Webster's Online Dictionary. Online. Available from: 28. Yang C., & Chen L.-C. (2009). On Using Organizational Knowledge Capabilities to Assist. In Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. W.R. King, editor. Springer Science and Business Media, ISBN p

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