Multiple sclerosis. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust: Information for young people. What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Multiple sclerosis. Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust: Information for young people. What is Multiple Sclerosis?"

Transcription

1 Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust: Information for young people Multiple sclerosis When young people are told that they have a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) they usually have lots of questions. Some young people may have never heard of the condition and most will never have met anybody else who has this condition. It can be difficult to know where to look for information and how to find answers to their questions. We asked the young people who attend the MS clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) what information they would have found most helpful when they were first diagnosed. This leaflet was written using their ideas. We are very grateful for their help and hope that this helps to answer some of the questions you may have. What is Multiple Sclerosis? Multiple sclerosis (MS for short) is a common neurological condition affecting approximately 100,000 adults in the UK, but it is very rare in childhood. Every year in the UK, around 125 children and young people will experience an initial episode of demyelination (when the fatty covering of the nerves is affected), but only about 25 of these will go on to have further relapses. MS is a life-long condition that can affect different areas in the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves (known together as the central nervous system or CNS). The word sclerosis comes from the Greek word for scarring or hardening. Simply put, the term multiple sclerosis means that there is more than one area of scarring affecting the nerves in the CNS. When a person has MS, the immune system, which normally is the body s defence mechanism to attack organisms such as bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body s own nervous tissue instead (this is called an autoimmune response). The main target of this attack is a fatty substance called myelin, which is a protective coating around the nerve cells in the CNS that helps the nerve to pass messages quickly. The immune attack damages the myelin and strips it off the nerve fibres (in a process called demyelination ), either partially or completely and as messages travel from the brain, they get stuck or slowed down causing some parts of the body to temporarily not be able to respond to what the brain is telling them to do. A relapse (also known as an attack, exacerbation or flare up) is a sudden worsening of an MS symptom or symptoms, or the appearance of a new symptom or symptoms, lasting at least 24 hours and separated from a previous relapse by at least one month. Relapses usually last from several days to several weeks, although they may extend into months. These further attacks leave behind scars (also known as lesions or plaques). These scars at multiple sites within the brain and/or spinal cord can also cause the ongoing symptoms associated with MS. neuron myelin sheath Sheet 1 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

2 What are the common symptoms of an MS relapse? Each person s symptoms will be different depending on where in the CNS the scarring occurs. There are many different MS symptoms. Not everyone with MS has the same ones. We usually only think of it being a relapse if the symptoms last more than one day. Tingles and strange feelings lasting only a few minutes are not signs of a new relapse. Possible symptoms of MS include: Physical Trouble seeing pain on movement of the eye, blurry vision or seeing two of everything (double vision) Losing balance and feeling a bit wobbly on your feet Weakness, tingling, or numbness in arms and legs Other symptoms that can be experienced with MS Psychological Difficulty with thinking and learning - such as finding it difficult to find the word you want to say, thinking quickly, or concentrating. Rapid changes in mood, suddenly bursting into tears, laughing or shouting angrily for no apparent reason. Many people feel a little sad, worried or frustrated at times. MS symptoms can come and go. Sometimes you don t even notice them. At other times they are more obvious. It is difficult for a person with MS to know from one day to the next how he or she will feel. That is why we say that MS is unpredictable. What are the types of MS in children and young people? We see different disease patterns in MS, known as: relapsing-remitting, primaryprogressive, secondary-progressive, and progressive-relapsing. MS nearly always starts as a relapsing-remitting condition in children. Relapsing-remitting means that the condition causes symptoms that occur for a short period (more than 24 hours) and then gradually improve over weeks to months. These symptoms come on over hours to days, and are caused by a new immune attack on the CNS. This attack is termed a relapse. On an MRI scan, they may be seen as a new area of demyelination. The period in between attacks is termed remission. The other forms of MS are rarely seen in children. Are there many people my age with MS? Multiple sclerosis is the most common disease of the CNS diagnosed in adults. An estimated 2,500,000 people in the world have MS. It is estimated that around 100,000 people live with MS in the UK. Most people with MS are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s, and it is rare in childhood. While exact figures are unknown, the MS Trust estimates that around 5 per cent of people with MS have their first symptoms in their teens or younger. How do you know I have MS? MS can be very tricky to diagnose. First, there is no one single test for MS. Second, most MS symptoms can also be caused by other conditions (the doctor may call these MS mimics, as they can mimic the symptoms), which means that the doctor cannot make a definite diagnosis of MS until other diseases and conditions are ruled out. Third, the doctor is unable to make the diagnosis until there is evidence of two different episodes of disease activity in either the brain or the spinal cord. To diagnose multiple sclerosis, the paediatric neurologist will take a detailed medical history and do a neurological examination and some tests. During your first appointment, the neurologist will spend some time asking you and your family lots of different questions about your medical history. The answers to these questions are important to help them to find out if you have had previous symptoms that might indicate an episode of demyelination had taken place in the brain and/or spinal cord. Sheet 2 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

3 The neurologist will also do lots of different things to assess your nervous system, such as: Tapping your knee with a rubber hammer - This is when the doctor taps your knee and your leg swings up and down without you doing anything. This tests how well your nerves are carrying messages in your body. Looking into your eyes Doctors know what healthy eyes are supposed to look like. The ophthalmoscope lets the doctor see the retina, which is the light sensitive bit of your eye that sends messages to the brain. Additionally, the doctor might have to use other tests to help them make the diagnosis, such as: Blood tests: while there is no definitive blood test for MS, blood tests can rule out other conditions that cause symptoms similar to those of MS. MRI scan: this uses a magnetic field to take pictures of your brain and spine. It will enable the doctor to see whether the myelin around the brain and spinal cord has been damaged. Sometimes a dye (contrast) will need to be given intravenously (into a vein using a needle) during the scan, to help see the areas involved more clearly. Lumbar puncture: this is when a tiny amount of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid which surrounds the brain and spine) is taken from the bottom of your spine. This is to check for the presence of particular proteins that might indicate MS. The immune system produces antibodies to fight infection. In MS, antibodies attack the myelin surrounding nerves. As a result, the level of antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of someone with MS is higher than it should be. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is looking for: White blood cells: the number of white cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with multiple sclerosis can be higher than normal. If the count is very high, it might be due to an infection of some sort, and not MS. Oligoclonal bands: in MS, cells from the immune system attack the myelin that surrounds nerves. Because of this, the level of protein from the immune system of someone with MS is higher than it should be and is higher than the level in the blood. The test that looks for this is called electrophoresis. When doing this test, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid is placed on a gel and voltage is applied. This makes proteins that are the same size bunch together, forming visible bands. When bands are seen in the spinal fluid, which are not found in your blood, this indicates to us that there is increased immune activity in the brain. More than 80 per cent of people with MS have oligoclonal banding in their cerebrospinal fluid. Evoked potential tests: this is a method of measuring electrical activity in the brain and the eye in response to stimulation of specific sensory nerve pathways. They are able to detect the slowing of electrical conduction caused by damage (demyelination) along these pathways. A few small silver discs (electrodes) are attached to your scalp and face while a series of audio, visual or sensory tests are carried out. Information about many of these tests is available on our website at nhs.uk/teenagers/your-condition/tests-andtreatments. How did I get MS? Nobody knows exactly how MS is caused, but there is lots of research looking into it. Scientists think that your genes play a role in whether you might get MS or not. Your genes are inherited from your parents and they control lots of things, such as the colour of your eyes, whether you can roll your tongue or not and how tall you will be. Scientists think that having certain groups of genes may make a person more likely to develop MS. However, it is not just your genes that play a role and scientists are also looking into other things that might cause MS. It is thought that it might also be linked to certain types of viral infection, or even lack of exposure to sunlight as it is less common in countries that are nearer the equator. Sheet 3 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

4 What we do know however is that there was nothing you or your parents could have done to prevent MS. We also know that MS is not contagious like the flu. You didn t catch MS and will not give it to someone else. Is there a cure for MS? At the moment there is no cure for MS. MS is a chronic condition, which means that it is always there, even though the symptoms may come and go. Although there may be times when you might feel perfectly well, this doesn t mean that the MS has gone away. Scientists all over the world are working very hard to find better ways to treat and to hopefully one day cure MS. Treatments Although there is no cure for MS, there are different types of treatment that may help. While there are no medicines that can make MS go away completely, there are medicines that can help to make the symptoms feel better, to reduce the amount of relapses you might have, and to reduce the severity of symptoms when they do happen. Treatment for relapses If a person with MS has an attack, or relapse, they may be treated with steroids, usually given through a drip into a vein. For this, they may need to go into hospital for a few days. This will help to speed up the body s own recovery process. However, they will not change the long-term outcome for that attack. Disease modifying drugs These drugs are suitable for some young people with MS and are used to reduce the number and severity of relapses. Diseasemodifying drugs (DMDs) work by interacting with the immune system and calming the inflammation that is attacking the CNS. There are currently a number of DMDs used as first line treatments for relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis. The current licensed drug need to be injected on a regular basis - once a day, once a week or every few days. All the medications come with injection devices that make giving an injection much easier and the needle is almost always hidden. There are also new oral treatments becoming available, and these are now being trialled in children in the UK as they have been found to be safe and effective in adults. Speak to your doctor about the current trials available. In adult trials using all these treatments, the number of relapses decreased and the effect on relapses in young people with MS appears to be greater than seen in adults. Some research also suggests that the earlier treatment starts, the more effective it is likely to be. These drugs may not work for everyone, and the pros and cons of treatment need to be constantly reviewed. Vitamin D Evidence from studies on people with MS suggests that low vitamin D levels might be a risk factor for developing MS and also that low Vitamin D levels may increase the risk of a further relapse. Low Vitamin D levels are common in young people in the UK. Taking additional Vitamin D is now considered very helpful in MS. Your Vitamin D level will be checked on a regular basis. If your Vitamin D level is found to be low, we will ask your GP to prescribe Vitamin D, first to bring it to the recommended level, and then to take regularly. Other support Lifestyle changes and involvement of the whole team, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists and psychologists, are also important. This is to ensure that everyone with MS has the support and help they need, as well as to treat specific symptoms such as feelings of depression and fatigue or to help you cope better with injections. Sheet 4 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

5 Common Questions from Young People with MS Am I not going to see properly anymore? Most people who have an attack involving the eye (optic neuritis) make an excellent recovery. Unfortunately in some people, there can be a small amount of scarring left at the back of the eye which can affect vision. More information on optic neuritis is available at optic-neuritis. Am I going to die? This is a common worry for young people with Multiple Sclerosis. Most people with MS will live just as long as anybody else. People don t die from MS itself. Sometimes people who are very badly affected get more infections, or pick up other illnesses more easily than other people and it is this that shortens their life expectancy. Will I have to use a wheelchair? Most children who have MS will not have to use a wheelchair. If you do, you might not need to use it all the time. The aim of treatments will be to decrease the scarring, as we know that the scarring on your brain increases with each relapse. It is this scarring which can cause problems with moving and walking. Will I be able to go to school and play like usual? You will be able to go to your usual school and play like before. But sometimes you might feel tired, or a bit wobbly. You might miss some school sometimes if you have to go to doctors appointments or if you have a relapse. Your teacher will be able to help you catch up. Who will be involved in my care at GOSH? There may be many different people involved at GOSH and these may change over the years. This may seem confusing, but different members of the team can help young people with MS in different ways. Consultant Paediatric Neurologist These are doctors who have specialist knowledge of MS in children. They play an important role in diagnosing, treating and prescribing appropriate treatment. This is the person you will see each time you come to your appointment in the clinic. Clinical Nurse Specialist Your clinical nurse specialist works closely with the neurologists. They have an in-depth knowledge of the condition and are usually your main contact person in between appointments. Clinical Psychologists Clinical Psychologists can support children and their families in many aspects of MS care. Feelings of anger, anxiety, fear and sadness, for example, are common and understanding and managing these may be easier with the support of the Clinical Psychologist. The team can help with discussing various coping strategies for daily ups and downs and knowing which symptoms are common for young people who have MS. In addition, the team can support you with getting on with friends and family, planning for the future, techniques to cope with blood tests and other practical issues such as managing injectable therapies. Clinical Neuropsychologists We know that MS affects a person s CNS, and as a result there can sometimes be effects on a person s ability to concentrate, on their memory and on their learning. Neuropsychological testing will help identify specific strengths and weaknesses that you may be experiencing. The Clinical Neuropsychologist can use the results of the testing to make recommendations to help you at school. Even if there are no problems, it is very helpful for us to establish a baseline and re-evaluate progress every few years. Sheet 5 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

6 Advice from other young people with MS Be happy, live life to the fullest, enjoy what you are doing NOW, make sure to have a lot of rest and motivation. Don t read dodgy websites Further support The MS Society supports people affected by multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders. Call their helpline on or visit their website. A website for young people is also available. Never lose hope and show people that MS doesn t influence your personality Keep strong and be proud of yourself as you have gone through or are going through something that no-one else would want to go through. Do your physiotherapy and keep yourself checked up regularly Do not let MS stop or limit you from doing whatever you wish Compiled by the Neuroimmunology Centre with help from our children and young people with MS in collaboration with the Child and Family Information Group Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH Sheet 6 of 6 Ref: 2015C0193 GOSH NHS Foundation Trust August 2015

About MS. An introduction to. An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed. What is MS? Is it common?

About MS. An introduction to. An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed. What is MS? Is it common? An introduction to multiple sclerosis for people who have recently been diagnosed When you have just been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, you will probably have many questions about the condition and

More information

Understanding. Multiple Sclerosis. Tim, diagnosed in 2004.

Understanding. Multiple Sclerosis. Tim, diagnosed in 2004. Understanding Multiple Sclerosis Tim, diagnosed in 2004. What Is Multiple Sclerosis? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurologic disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS includes the

More information

CBT IN THE CITY. adjusted to the news of being with MS? April 2013. Experts at your fingertips call now. Check out our new services in you local area

CBT IN THE CITY. adjusted to the news of being with MS? April 2013. Experts at your fingertips call now. Check out our new services in you local area April 2013 Experts at your fingertips call now CBT IN THE CITY Check out our new services in you local area contents. A message from Susie, Information Multiple Sclerosis CBT can make a difference on the

More information

Choices. Diagnosis. Read me

Choices. Diagnosis. Read me Choices Diagnosis Read me Diagnosis Diagnosing multiple sclerosis can be complicated, not least because there is no single test that conclusively indicates the presence of the condition. Multiple sclerosis

More information

Optic Neuritis. A Patient s Guide

Optic Neuritis. A Patient s Guide Optic Neuritis Sashank Prasad, MD www.brighamandwomens.org/neuro-ophthalmology A Patient s Guide Symptoms Prognosis Treatment Sashank Prasad, MD What are the symptoms of Optic Neuritis? Symptoms An episode

More information

Optic Neuritis. The optic nerve fibers are coated with myelin to help them conduct the electrical signals back to your brain.

Optic Neuritis. The optic nerve fibers are coated with myelin to help them conduct the electrical signals back to your brain. Optic Neuritis Your doctor thinks that you have had an episode of optic neuritis. This is the most common cause of sudden visual loss in a young patient. It is often associated with discomfort in or around

More information

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) Multiple sclerosis (MS) Summary Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an incurable disease of the central nervous system that can affect the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves. The effects of MS are varied and unpredictable,

More information

What is Multiple Sclerosis? Gener al information

What is Multiple Sclerosis? Gener al information What is Multiple Sclerosis? Gener al information Kim, diagnosed in 1986 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (or MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal

More information

A Definition of Multiple Sclerosis

A Definition of Multiple Sclerosis English 182 READING PRACTICE by Alyx Meltzer, Spring 2009 Vocabulary Preview (see bolded, underlined words) gait: (n) a particular way of walking transient: (adj) temporary; synonym = transitory remission:

More information

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. Mary Beth Rensberger, RN, BSN, MPH Author

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. Mary Beth Rensberger, RN, BSN, MPH Author MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Mary Beth Rensberger, RN, BSN, MPH Author All rights reserved. Purchasers of this module are permitted to reproduce the forms contained herein for their individual internal use only.

More information

Relapsing remitting MS

Relapsing remitting MS An introduction to Relapsing remitting MS What does it mean when you are diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS? There are three main types of MS: relapsing remitting MS, primary progressive MS and secondary

More information

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) Spirella Building, Letchworth, SG6 4ET 01462 476700 www.mstrust.org.uk reg charity no. 1088353 We hope you find the information in this factsheet helpful. If you would

More information

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis. A guide for people with MS and their families

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis. A guide for people with MS and their families Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis A guide for people with MS and their families Introduction You have been given this booklet because you have been diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and

More information

Managing the Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. Yolanda Harris, MSN, CRNP-AC CPODD Nurse Practitioner

Managing the Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis. Yolanda Harris, MSN, CRNP-AC CPODD Nurse Practitioner Managing the Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Yolanda Harris, MSN, CRNP-AC CPODD Nurse Practitioner What is Multiple Sclerosis An autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) The immune

More information

Do I Have Epilepsy? Diagnosing Epilepsy and Seizures. Epilepsy & Seizures: Diagnosis

Do I Have Epilepsy? Diagnosing Epilepsy and Seizures. Epilepsy & Seizures: Diagnosis Epilepsy & Seizures: Diagnosis Do I Have Epilepsy? Diagnosing Epilepsy and Seizures Artwork by Studio E participant Ashley N. (details on inside cover) About the Cover: Cover artwork was created by Ashley

More information

Multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs second line treatments

Multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs second line treatments Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust: Information for Families Multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs second line treatments The following information should be read in conjunction

More information

IF YOU ARE RECEIVING TREATMENT WITH TYSABRI FOR RELAPSING-REMITTING MS (NATALIZUMAB)

IF YOU ARE RECEIVING TREATMENT WITH TYSABRI FOR RELAPSING-REMITTING MS (NATALIZUMAB) IF YOU ARE RECEIVING (NATALIZUMAB) TREATMENT WITH TYSABRI FOR RELAPSING-REMITTING MS Read the patient information leaflet that accompanies the medicine carefully. 1 This brochure is a supplement to the

More information

Coping with Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Coping with Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Coping with Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Josée Poirier B. Sc. Nursing, MSCN Outline What Is a Pseudo exacerbation? Awareness Advancement of Treatments Treatment of Symptoms Uhthoff s Phenomenon What

More information

Multiple Sclerosis & MS Ireland Media Fact Sheet

Multiple Sclerosis & MS Ireland Media Fact Sheet Multiple Sclerosis & MS Ireland Media Fact Sheet This fact sheets gives a summary of the main facts and issues relating to Multiple Sclerosis and gives an overview of the services offered by MS Ireland.

More information

Understanding your Tecfidera treatment

Understanding your Tecfidera treatment Understanding your Tecfidera treatment Information for patients who have been prescribed treatment with Tecfidera. (dimethyl fumarate) Contents About Multiple Sclerosis (MS) What is MS? Symptoms of MS

More information

Understanding your Tecfidera treatment

Understanding your Tecfidera treatment Understanding your Tecfidera treatment Information for patients who have been prescribed treatment with Tecfidera. (dimethyl fumarate) Contents About Multiple Sclerosis (MS) What is MS? Symptoms of MS

More information

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis

Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis Understanding Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis A guide for people with MS and their families Introduction Relapses are very common in MS and largely unpredictable in terms of how often they occur, how severe

More information

Understanding MS An Introduction for People Living with MS

Understanding MS An Introduction for People Living with MS An Introduction for People Living with MS Freecall TM 1800 042 138 www.msaustralia.org.au MS Australia strives for a world without multiple sclerosis (MS) through quality research and for service excellence

More information

Multiple Sclerosis: What You Need To Know. For Professionals

Multiple Sclerosis: What You Need To Know. For Professionals Multiple Sclerosis: What You Need To Know For Professionals What will I learn today? The Basics: What is MS? Living with MS: A Family Affair We Can Help: The National MS Society What MS Is: MS is thought

More information

Transverse Myelitis ISBN 978-1-901893-57-1. A guide for patients and carers

Transverse Myelitis ISBN 978-1-901893-57-1. A guide for patients and carers Transverse Myelitis ISBN 978-1-901893-57-1 A guide for patients and carers The Brain and Spine Foundation provides support and information on all aspects of neurological conditions. Our publications are

More information

Trauma Insurance Claims Seminar Invitation

Trauma Insurance Claims Seminar Invitation Trauma Insurance Claims Seminar Invitation Introduction Since the development of Trauma Insurance in Australia in the 1980s, the product has evolved at a great pace. Some of the challenges faced by claims

More information

Multiple Sclerosis: Early recognition of symptoms. Dr Peter Brex

Multiple Sclerosis: Early recognition of symptoms. Dr Peter Brex Multiple Sclerosis: Early recognition of symptoms Dr Peter Brex Consultant Neurologist South London Healthcare NHS Trust & King's College Hospital NHS Trust Multiple Sclerosis GP Update Workshop 12.30-3pm

More information

Treating symptoms. An introduction to. Everyone diagnosed with MS can get treatment for their symptoms. The symptoms of MS. Who can get treatment?

Treating symptoms. An introduction to. Everyone diagnosed with MS can get treatment for their symptoms. The symptoms of MS. Who can get treatment? Everyone diagnosed with MS can get treatment for their symptoms This resource is an introduction to the treatments that are available. The symbol will point you to further resources. An introduction to

More information

Diagnosis THE BASIC FACTS

Diagnosis THE BASIC FACTS Diagnosis THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS MS is a disease of the central nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves. Surrounding and protecting

More information

Life with MS: Mastering Early Treatment

Life with MS: Mastering Early Treatment Life with MS: Mastering Early Treatment Essential Information About MS Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS). Approximately 2.5 million people worldwide and

More information

HOW RESEARCH INFLUENCES MS CARE TODAY? Patient Perspective Kimberly Haddock

HOW RESEARCH INFLUENCES MS CARE TODAY? Patient Perspective Kimberly Haddock HOW RESEARCH INFLUENCES MS CARE TODAY? Patient Perspective Kimberly Haddock My MS Story August 2011 - Life couldn't be better. 33 years old and finally on the happy trail of life New job as a clinical

More information

http://images.tutorvista.com/content/control5coordination/human5brain.jpeg!! 387

http://images.tutorvista.com/content/control5coordination/human5brain.jpeg!! 387 http://images.tutorvista.com/content/control5coordination/human5brain.jpeg!! 387! 388! http://my.fresnounified.org/personal/lygonza/gonzalez/neuron/neuron5synapse%20communication.png!! http://www.urbanchildinstitute.org/sites/all/files/databooks/2011/ch15fg25communication5between5neurons.jpg!!

More information

Oxford University Hospitals. NHS Trust. Department of Neurology Natalizumab (Tysabri) for Multiple Sclerosis. Information for patients

Oxford University Hospitals. NHS Trust. Department of Neurology Natalizumab (Tysabri) for Multiple Sclerosis. Information for patients Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Department of Neurology Natalizumab (Tysabri) for Multiple Sclerosis Information for patients page 2 What is Natalizumab and what is it used for? Natalizumab is an

More information

What is Alzheimer s disease?

What is Alzheimer s disease? alzheimers.org.uk What is Alzheimer s disease? Alzheimer s disease is the most common cause of dementia, affecting around 496,000 people in the UK. The term dementia describes a set of symptoms which can

More information

AUBMC Multiple Sclerosis Center

AUBMC Multiple Sclerosis Center AUBMC Multiple Sclerosis Center 1 AUBMC Multiple Sclerosis Center The vision of the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) is to be the leading academic medical center in Lebanon and the

More information

Parkinson's Disease. It gets worse as people who have it get older. These nerves help to control your movement.

Parkinson's Disease. It gets worse as people who have it get older. These nerves help to control your movement. Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease is an illness affecting the brain. It gets worse as people who have it get older. Parkinson's Disease happens when certain nerve cells in the brain do not work properly.

More information

Stepping toward a different treatment option LEARN WHAT ACTHAR CAN DO FOR YOU

Stepping toward a different treatment option LEARN WHAT ACTHAR CAN DO FOR YOU FOR MS RELAPSES Stepping toward a different treatment option LEARN WHAT ACTHAR CAN DO FOR YOU As a person with multiple sclerosis (MS), you know firsthand the profound impact MS relapses can have on your

More information

First edition December What is primary progressive MS?

First edition December What is primary progressive MS? First edition December 2008 What is primary progressive MS? This booklet is available in large print and audio CD. For either of these formats, contact the MS Society information team: 020 8438 0799 (Weekdays

More information

Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders Neurological Disorders Grades 9-12 Driving Question: In what ways do neurological impairments affect brain function? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe how migraines, Alzheimer s disease, and

More information

Primary bone cancer. For people with cancer, their family and friends

Primary bone cancer. For people with cancer, their family and friends This fact sheet is for people with primary bone cancer who would like to know more about their cancer and its treatment. It describes the types, causes and symptoms of primary bone cancer, as well as treatments

More information

The Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System A fact sheet for patients and carers Spinal strokes This fact sheet provides information on spinal strokes. Our fact sheets are designed as general introductions to each subject and are intended to be

More information

A Guide to Neuropathy

A Guide to Neuropathy Neuropathy Action Foundation Awareness Education Empowerment A Guide to Neuropathy Jonathan Katz, MD Michelle Greer, RN The Neuropathy Action Foundation (NAF), a 501(c)(3) non profit, is dedicated to ensuring

More information

The treatment of depression in children and young people. Issue date: September 2005

The treatment of depression in children and young people. Issue date: September 2005 Issue date: September 2005 The treatment of depression in children and Understanding NICE guidance information for children and young with depression, their families and carers, and the public Information

More information

Understanding. Peripheral Neuropathy. Lois, diagnosed in 1998, with her husband, Myron.

Understanding. Peripheral Neuropathy. Lois, diagnosed in 1998, with her husband, Myron. Understanding Peripheral Neuropathy Lois, diagnosed in 1998, with her husband, Myron. What Is Peripheral Neuropathy? Peripheral neuropathy is a nerve disorder. It may cause numbness, tingling, and weakness.

More information

Non-epileptic seizures

Non-epileptic seizures Non-epileptic seizures a short guide for patients and families Information for patients Department of Neurology Royal Hallamshire Hospital What are non-epileptic seizures? In a seizure people lose control

More information

Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz

Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz Did you know? RA is the second most common form of arthritis Approximately 40,000 New Zealanders have RA RA can occur at any age, but most often appears between

More information

Multiple Sclerosis. Matt Hulvey BL A - 615

Multiple Sclerosis. Matt Hulvey BL A - 615 Multiple Sclerosis Matt Hulvey BL A - 615 Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) MS is characterized by demyelination (lesions)

More information

Acute Oncology Service Patient Information Leaflet

Acute Oncology Service Patient Information Leaflet Spinal cord compression Acute Oncology Service Patient Information Leaflet Introduction If you have been diagnosed with cancer, you need to know about spinal cord compression and the warning signs. What

More information

Cauda equina syndrome. Information for patients

Cauda equina syndrome. Information for patients Cauda equina syndrome Information for patients 4 Recovering from a heart attack Recovering from a heart attack 4 Cauda equina syndrome is a condition which occurs when the nerves at the base of the spinal

More information

CEN Outreach Neurological Disorders

CEN Outreach Neurological Disorders CEN Outreach Neurological Disorders Migraine, Mul,ple Sclerosis, Alzheimer s Disease Migraine Migraine is the most common neurological disorder in the developed world Almost 1 in 5 Americans will have

More information

1: Motor neurone disease (MND)

1: Motor neurone disease (MND) 1: Motor neurone disease (MND) This section provides basic facts about motor neurone disease (MND) and its diagnosis. The following information is an extracted section from our full guide Living with motor

More information

Epilepsy. What is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a common brain condition. About 1 person in every 200 has epilepsy. Epilepsy is when you keep having seizures.

Epilepsy. What is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a common brain condition. About 1 person in every 200 has epilepsy. Epilepsy is when you keep having seizures. Epilepsy What is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a common brain condition. About 1 person in every 200 has epilepsy. Epilepsy is when you keep having seizures. A seizure is a sudden burst of electrical activity

More information

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) By Professor Clive Hawkins, Professor of Clinical Neurology, Consultant Neurologist, University Hospital of North Staffordshire and reviewed by Dr Sarosh Irani,

More information

Discectomy. Information for patients Orthopaedics - Spinal Physiotherapy

Discectomy. Information for patients Orthopaedics - Spinal Physiotherapy Discectomy Information for patients Orthopaedics - Spinal Physiotherapy Introduction We have written this booklet to explain how you can prepare for your operation and to give you advice on your recovery

More information

Oxford University Hospitals. NHS Trust. Pneumonia. Information for patients

Oxford University Hospitals. NHS Trust. Pneumonia. Information for patients Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Pneumonia Information for patients Introduction You have been admitted to hospital for treatment of pneumonia. This leaflet will give you information so that you understand

More information

Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS)

Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Knowledge for the Present, Hope for the Future An educational resource from the International Organization of MS Nurses (IOMSN). This publication is supported by an educational

More information

We move our mission forward through Client Education & Services, Research, Advocacy and Professional Education.

We move our mission forward through Client Education & Services, Research, Advocacy and Professional Education. 1 It is the National MS Society s mission to mobilize people and resources to drive research for a cure and to address the challenges of everyone affected by MS. The National MS Society, Greater Northwest

More information

SSPE: a Chronic Encephalitis as a Result of Measles

SSPE: a Chronic Encephalitis as a Result of Measles SSPE: a Chronic Encephalitis as a Result of Measles By Dr Pam Tomlin, Paediatric Neurologist and reviewed by Dr. Rachel Kneen, Consultant Paediatric Neurologist, Alder Hey Children s Hospital This factsheet

More information

sound or ringing in the ears.

sound or ringing in the ears. (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension) Sashank Prasad, MD www.brighamandwomens.org/neuro-ophthalmology A Patient s Guide Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis Symptoms The symptoms of include: Headaches

More information

But You Look So Good! Managing Specific Issues

But You Look So Good! Managing Specific Issues MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. WE EXIST TO MAKE SURE IT DOESN T. JOIN THE MOVEMENT. But You Look So Good! Managing Specific Issues 700 Broadway Suite 810 Denver CO 80203 tel 303 813 1052 fax 303 813 1513

More information

Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME

Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME Young Person s Guide to CFS/ME The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health This leaflet has been developed as part of the Evidence based guideline for management of CFS/ME (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

More information

TALKING ABOUT NEUROFIBROMATOSIS: A GUIDE FOR TEENS. StLouisChildrens.org

TALKING ABOUT NEUROFIBROMATOSIS: A GUIDE FOR TEENS. StLouisChildrens.org TALKING ABOUT NEUROFIBROMATOSIS: A GUIDE FOR TEENS StLouisChildrens.org WHAT IS NEUROFIBROMATOSIS? Whether you were just diagnosed with neurofibromatosis or you have been seeing an NF doctor for years,

More information

Understanding The Unique Aspects And Challenges Of Living With MS

Understanding The Unique Aspects And Challenges Of Living With MS Connecticut Resident Services Coordinator Training Understanding The Unique Aspects And Challenges Of Living With MS July 23, 2009 Susan Raimondo, Senior Director, Advocacy & Programs National Multiple

More information

The Family Library. Understanding Strokes. What is a stroke?

The Family Library. Understanding Strokes. What is a stroke? The Family Library Understanding Strokes What is a stroke? A stroke, sometimes called a brain attack, occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted in some way. Brain cells in a specific area

More information

What are the signs and symptoms of dematomyositis?

What are the signs and symptoms of dematomyositis? Dermatomyositis What is dermatomyositis? Dermatomyositis is the medical term for a disease that affects muscles and the skin. This term comes from several words in Greek: derma means skin (the skin is

More information

What is Alzheimer s disease

What is Alzheimer s disease PBO 930022142 NPO 049-191 What is Alzheimer s disease Alzheimer s disease is the most common form of dementia. This information sheet outlines the symptoms and cause of Alzheimer s disease and describes

More information

MS Learn Online Feature Presentation Invisible Symptoms in MS Featuring Dr. Rosalind Kalb

MS Learn Online Feature Presentation Invisible Symptoms in MS Featuring Dr. Rosalind Kalb Page 1 MS Learn Online Feature Presentation Invisible Symptoms in MS Featuring Dr. Rosalind Kalb >>Kate Milliken: Hello, I m Kate Milliken, and welcome to MS Learn Online. No two people have exactly the

More information

Multiple System Atrophy guide (http://www.msaweb.co.uk/msaguide.htm)

Multiple System Atrophy guide (http://www.msaweb.co.uk/msaguide.htm) Multiple System Atrophy guide (http://www.msaweb.co.uk/msaguide.htm) Accessing information on Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) can be hard work. The Sarah Matheson Trust (SMT) produces a guide to MSA that

More information

This information explains the advice about tuberculosis (TB) that is set out in NICE guideline 33.

This information explains the advice about tuberculosis (TB) that is set out in NICE guideline 33. Tuberculosis: prevention, ention, diagnosis, management and service organisation Information for the public Published: 13 January 2016 nice.org.uk About this information NICE guidelines provide advice

More information

But You Look So Good!

But You Look So Good! But You Look So Good! Fotini (middle), diagnosed in 2007 My neurologist, my family doctor, even my aunt s visiting nurse they all say but you look so good for someone who has MS. My family seems to assume

More information

Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis. ultimately lead to the crippling of the muscular system, there are many differences between these

Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis. ultimately lead to the crippling of the muscular system, there are many differences between these Battles 1 Becky Battles Instructor s Name English 1013 21 November 2006 Muscular Dystrophy and Multiple Sclerosis Although muscular dystrophy and multiple sclerosis are both progressive diseases that ultimately

More information

The road to recovery. The support available to help you with your recovery after stroke

The road to recovery. The support available to help you with your recovery after stroke The road to recovery The road to recovery The support available to help you with your recovery after stroke We re for life after stroke Introduction Need to talk? Call our confidential Stroke Helpline

More information

Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz

Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz Rheumatoid Arthritis www.arthritis.org.nz Did you know? Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the third most common form of arthritis Approximately 40,000 New Zealanders have RA RA can occur at any age, but most

More information

the Bank Statement The UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank

the Bank Statement The UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank the Bank Statement ISSUE 1 A newsletter for you In this issue, find out about What does the Tissue Bank do? News from The UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank Welcome to our first newsletter, designed with

More information

Multiple Sclerosis: Just the Facts

Multiple Sclerosis: Just the Facts Multiple Sclerosis: Just the Facts LISA DIAGNOSED IN 1998 MS Facts What is multiple sclerosis? Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable and potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system, which

More information

Choices Primary Progressive MS (PPMS)

Choices Primary Progressive MS (PPMS) Choices Primary Progressive MS (PPMS) What is primary progressive MS? Approximately 10% of people with MS worldwide are told they have primary progressive MS a form of MS where from the very first symptoms,

More information

Third edition July Just diagnosed an introduction to MS

Third edition July Just diagnosed an introduction to MS Third edition July 2012 Just diagnosed an introduction to MS 2 What is MS? 6 What causes MS and who gets it? 8 Types of MS Why is it called multiple sclerosis? Genetic factors Environmental factors Who

More information

Your most common questions about dementia, answered

Your most common questions about dementia, answered Alzheimer s Society is the UK s leading support and research charity for people with dementia, their families and carers. We provide information and support to people with any form of dementia and their

More information

When someone close has MND

When someone close has MND A aged four to 10 When someone close has MND This book belongs to MND Connect MND Connect is our advice and information service for children and grown-ups. Telephone calls and emails to MND Connect are

More information

MS Treatments Gilenya

MS Treatments Gilenya 1 MSology Essentials Series Gilenya (fingolimod) Developed by MSology with the invaluable assistance of multiple sclerosis nurse advisors: Trudy Campbell Dalhousie MS Research Unit, Capital Health, Halifax,

More information

Information About Medicines for Multiple Sclerosis

Information About Medicines for Multiple Sclerosis Information About Medicines for Multiple Sclerosis Information About Medicines for Multiple Sclerosis What is multiple sclerosis? 1 Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a lifelong disease that affects your brain

More information

Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Introduction Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. The increased number of these cells leads to overcrowding of healthy blood cells. As a result, the healthy cells are not

More information

SpineFAQs. Thoracic Disc Herniation. What is a thoracic disc herniation?

SpineFAQs. Thoracic Disc Herniation. What is a thoracic disc herniation? SpineFAQs Thoracic Disc Herniation What is a thoracic disc herniation? The thoracic spine is the mid back in the chest area. The discs in the thoracic spine act like shock absorbers and also help with

More information

Taking Charge of Your Depression

Taking Charge of Your Depression Taking Charge of Your Depression Take charge of your health. Learn as much as you can. It s one of the most important things you can do for yourself. Depression is more than just feeling down or blue for

More information

Posterior Lumbar Decompression for Spinal Stenosis

Posterior Lumbar Decompression for Spinal Stenosis Posterior Lumbar Decompression for Spinal Stenosis Issue 6: March 2016 Review date: February 2019 Following your recent MRI scan and consultation with your spinal surgeon you have been diagnosed with

More information

What is dementia? Types of dementia. Alzheimer s disease. Vascular dementia

What is dementia? Types of dementia. Alzheimer s disease. Vascular dementia What is dementia? Dementia is the name for several conditions that lead to the progressive loss of the powers of the brain and changes in a person s behaviour. The most common change is in a person s memory,

More information

There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However treatments can help treat attacks, modify the course of the disease and treat symptoms.

There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However treatments can help treat attacks, modify the course of the disease and treat symptoms. MayoClinic.com reprints This single copy is for your personal, noncommercial use only. For permission to reprint multiple copies or to order presentation-ready copies for distribution, use the reprints

More information

CHEMOTHERAPY AND PROSTATE CANCER

CHEMOTHERAPY AND PROSTATE CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PROSTATE CANCER Table of Contents Introduction...3 What is Chemotherapy?...4 Why Would I Need Chemotherapy?...5 How Does Chemotherapy Work?...6 Will Chemotherapy Cure My Prostate Cancer?...7

More information

Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work

Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work Understanding How Existing and Emerging MS Therapies Work This is a promising and hopeful time in the field of multiple sclerosis (MS). Many new and different therapies are nearing the final stages of

More information

Lewy body dementia Referral for a Diagnosis

Lewy body dementia Referral for a Diagnosis THE Lewy Body society The more people who know, the fewer people who suffer Lewy body dementia Referral for a Diagnosis Lewy Body Dementias REFERRAL FOR A DIAGNOSIS In the UK people with all forms of dementia

More information

UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND)

UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND) UNDERSTANDING NEUROTRANSMITTER DISEASE (ND) What are neurotransmitters? Normal brain function depends on good communication of information between nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

More information

What is dementia? Symptoms. alzheimers.org.uk

What is dementia? Symptoms. alzheimers.org.uk alzheimers.org.uk What is dementia? This factsheet explains what dementia is, including the causes and symptoms, and how it is diagnosed and treated. It also looks at some of the different types of dementia.

More information

Sincerely, Cindi. Cindi Crews Patient Services Coordinator for Dr. John Aucott Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center

Sincerely, Cindi. Cindi Crews Patient Services Coordinator for Dr. John Aucott Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center 2360 W. Joppa Road Joppa Concourse Suite 320 Lutherville, MD 21093 410-616-7596 Telephone 410-616-7595 Fax Please fill out the attached questionnaire and if possible

More information

Multiple Sclerosis Jeffrey M. Gelfand, MD

Multiple Sclerosis Jeffrey M. Gelfand, MD Multiple Sclerosis Jeffrey M. Gelfand, MD UCSF Multiple Sclerosis Center SFGH Neuroimmunology Clinic UCSF and SFGH Departments of Neurology Goals To review the fundamentals of neurological localization

More information

BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT HIV, HEPATITIS B and C, and TUBERCULOSIS Adapted from the CDC

BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT HIV, HEPATITIS B and C, and TUBERCULOSIS Adapted from the CDC BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT HIV, HEPATITIS B and C, and TUBERCULOSIS Adapted from the CDC HIV What are HIV and AIDS? HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is

More information

Use of oral steroids in Multiple Sclerosis

Use of oral steroids in Multiple Sclerosis Use of oral steroids in Multiple Sclerosis Information for patients and carers Neurology Department Aberdeen Royal Infirmary What are steroids? The steroids used to treat Multiple Sclerosis (MS) relapses

More information

Taylor Slotte Pathology Disease Report Spring 2014 Multiple Sclerosis

Taylor Slotte Pathology Disease Report Spring 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Taylor Slotte Pathology Disease Report Spring 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that attacks the body s central nervous system. It affects the brain,

More information

National MS Society Information Sourcebook www.nationalmssociety.org/sourcebook

National MS Society Information Sourcebook www.nationalmssociety.org/sourcebook National MS Society Information Sourcebook www.nationalmssociety.org/sourcebook Chemotherapy The literal meaning of the term chemotherapy is to treat with a chemical agent, but the term generally refers

More information

Department of Neurosciences Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation Information for patients

Department of Neurosciences Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation Information for patients Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust Department of Neurosciences Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Stimulation Information for patients We have recently seen you in clinic as you have had pain for a long period

More information

LIVING WITH HIV-ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS (HAND)

LIVING WITH HIV-ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS (HAND) LIVING WITH HIV-ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS (HAND) Information for people living with HIV and HAND, their partners, families and friends This booklet has been produced by Alzheimer s Australia

More information