0. Introduction. Protocols for Data Networks. (aka Advanced Computer Networks)

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1 0. Introduction Protocols for Data Networks (aka Advanced Computer Networks)

2 A bit about myself Professor in ULisboa since 2011 University lecturer for 13 years now, estimate of over 1500 students lectured! physical layer (electromagnetism, electronics), network layer (communication foundations, communication systems, optical communications, computer networks), systems layer (computer architecture, operating systems, distributed systems), top layers (programming languages - matlab, fortran) Research interests software-defined networking, network virtualization, cloud computing Universidade de Aveiro Queen Mary University of London University of Cambridge source of figures: [wikipedia]

3 Lecture plan 1. The Internet: an exciting time 2. But, what is networking? 3. Why should you stay in this class, and in this field? 4. What will this course be about? 5. How to read a paper [Keshav]?

4 The Internet: an exciting time One of the most influential inventions ever made A research experiment that escaped from the lab to be a global communications infrastructure Ever wider reach 2.77 billion users (39% of the world s population) Constant innovation Apps: Web, P2P, social networks, virtual worlds Links: optics, WiFi, cellular, WiMax,... source:

5 Internet users in 2012 as a percentage of a country's population source:

6 A growing digital divide In this map, the size of each territory is shown proportional to its internet connectivity

7 Transforming everything The ways we do business E-commerce, advertising, cloud computing The way we have relationships , IM, Facebook friends, virtual worlds The way we govern E-voting and e-government Censorship and wiretapping The way we fight Cyber-attacks

8 Lecture plan 1. The Internet: an exciting time 2. But, what is networking? 3. Why should you stay in this class, and in this field? 4. What will this course be about? 5. How to read a paper [Keshav]?

9 A big bag of protocols (S. Shenker) LLDP OSPF SNMP WAP SIP IPX PPP MAC FTP UDP RTP ICMP IMAP IGMP HIP BGP PIM HTTP ECN RED ARP IP RIP TCP MPLS RTCP SMTP RTSP BFD CIDR NNTP TLS SACK NAT DNS SSH DHCP VLAN VTP POP LISP TFTP LDP

10 A heap of header formats?

11 TCP/IP header formats in lego! source:

12 A big bunch of boxes? router Gateway Proxy Switch load balancer NAT DHCP server intrusion detection system route reflector hub repeater firewall deep packet inspection packet shaper DNS server packet sniffer

13 A ton of tools? arpwatch tcpdump syslog nslookup traceroute wget nmap dig snort ifconfig whois rancid ntop net-snmp ping iperf bro NDT dummynet wireshark mrtg

14 Before you all leave

15 Lecture plan 1. The Internet: an exciting time 2. But, what is networking? 3. Why should you stay in this class, and in this field? 4. What will this course be about? 5. How to read a paper [Keshav]?

16 So, why is networking cool? Tangible, relates to reality Can measure/build things Can truly effect far-reaching change in the real world Inherently interdisciplinary Interplay with policy, economics, and social science In CS, from theory: algorithms (Dijkstra), control theory (TCP), queuing theory (statistical mux), optimization (traffic engineering), game theory (interdomain routing), crypto (secure protocols), programming languages (software-defined networking) to systems: distributed systems (SDN controllers), operating systems (end-host networking stack), computer architecture (NIC, router hw), software engineering (designing protocols) Widely-read papers Many of the most cited papers in CS are in networking Five of top-ten CS authors (Shenker, Foster, Estrin, Culler, Towsley) So, lots of interest in reading this stuff

17 So, why is networking cool? Young, relatively immature field Great if you like to make order out of chaos Tremendous intellectual progress is still needed You can help decide what networking really is Defining the problem is a big part of the challenge Recognizing a need, formulating a well-defined problem is at least as important as solving it Lots of platforms for building your ideas Programmability: Click, OpenFlow/SDN controllers, NetFPGA Routing software: Quagga, XORP, and Bird Testbeds: Emulab, PlanetLab, GENI,... Measurements: RouteViews, traceroute,... Simulators and emulators: mininet,...

18 Lecture plan 1. The Internet: an exciting time 2. But, what is networking? 3. Why should you stay in this class, and in this field? 4. What will this course be about? 5. How to read a paper [Keshav]?

19 Goals 1. To become familiar with the state-of-the-art in networking research: network architecture, protocols and systems. 2. To get some practice in the art of reading research papers. 3. To gain experience with network programming using state-of-the-art research platforms. It s a big field, so we will focus on just a few topics.

20 Background If you want to refresh your background, the following textbooks might be useful: J. Kurose and K. Ross, Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach L. Peterson and B. Davie, Computer Networks: A Systems Approach

21 Lectures (T) In each class we will discuss 1-3 papers You must read one of the papers before class Papers should be read in depth Most of the lecture will be spent on discussion You will submit a critique to the paper before the lecture (in groups of 2) During the semester, you will also present a (selected) paper to your colleagues 25% of your grade comes from critiques and in-class participation (including the presentation) So read the papers, come to class, and be ready to participate

22 Critiques What to submit? Short critique (1 page ideal; 1.5 pages max!) for the assigned paper before the class Submit online (moodle; details available soon) (by midnight the Saturday before class) Questions to answer while writing your critique (hint: 1 succinct paragraph for each) What problem are the authors solving? context and problem Is the problem relevant? (motivation) motivation What is their solution? (Main contribution/idea) contribution How does it differ from previous work? differentiation What are the strongest points of the paper? pros Are there flaws or limitations in the work? cons Can you think of an extension to this work? future Will the paper matter in 10 years? longevity

23 Course structure and grade Lectures and papers 25% (individual) in-class participation: 5% (individual) presentation: 10% (group) critiques before class: 10% Programming assignments 35% Use of modern techniques including Software-Defined Networks and the mininet emulator to understand, discuss and/or solve relevant networking problems In groups of 2 (More details next week) Exam 40%

24 Plan Week T (monday) TP (Monday) 1 23-Fev 0. Introduction 2 02-Mar 1. Arquitecture and principles Introduction to mininet 3 09-Mar 1. Arquitecture and principles ppt Mar 2. Foundations: naming Mininet quiz 5 23-Mar 2. Foundations: routing and switching ppt Mar 2. Foundations: congestion control ppt Abr Easter holidays Easter holidays 8 13-Abr 3. Software-Defined Networking ppt Abr 3. Software-Defined Networking ppt Abr 4. Networking use cases: wireless ppt Mai 4. Networking use cases: data center ppt Mai 5. Miscellaneous: network virtualization ppt Mai 5. Miscellaneous: load balancing ppt Mai 5. Miscellaneous: security ppt Jun 6. Student's topic ppt11

25 Logistics Contacts Use the forum we are currently migrating from mocho to moodle More info will be made available soon Discussions in English, please! Fernando Ramos T and TP Office:

26 Lecture plan 1. The Internet: an exciting time 2. But, what is networking? 3. Why should you stay in this class, and in this field? 4. What will this course be about? 5. How to read a paper [Keshav]?

27 You spend a lot of time reading Reading papers for grad classes (like this one!) Reviewing papers for conferences/journals Giving colleagues feedback on their papers Keeping up with work related to your research Staying broadly educated about the field Transitioning into a new research area Learning how to write better papers So, it is worthwhile to learn to read effectively

28 Keshav s Three-Pass Approach [Keshav] s paper outlines a practical and efficient three-pass method First pass to give a general idea 5-10 minutes Second pass to grasp the content, not the details 1-2 hours Third pass to understand the paper in depth several hours (varies with researcher experience)

29 Step 1 A ten-minute scan to get the general idea Title, abstract, and introduction Section and subsection titles Conclusion Bibliography What to learn: the five C s Category: What type of paper is it? Context: What body of work does it relate to? Correctness: Do the assumptions seem valid? Contributions: What are the main research contributions? Clarity: Is the paper well-written? Decide whether to read further

30 Step 2 A more careful, one-hour reading Read with greater care, but ignore details like proofs Figures, diagrams, and illustrations Mark relevant references for later reading Grasp the content of the paper Be able to summarize the main thrust to others Identify whether you can (or should) fully understand Decide whether to Abandon reading the paper in any greater depth Read background material before proceeding further Persevere and continue on to the third pass

31 Step 3 Several-hour virtual re-implementation of the work Making the same assumptions, recreate the work Identify the paper s innovations and its failings Identify and challenge every assumption Think how you would present the ideas yourself Jot down ideas for future work When should you read this carefully? Reviewing for a conference or journal Giving colleagues feedback on a paper Understanding a paper closely related to your research Deeply understanding a classic paper in the field

32 Other tips for reading papers Read at the right level for what you need Work smarter, not harder Read at the right time of day When you are fresh, not sleepy Read in the right place Where you are not distracted, and have enough time Read actively With a purpose (what is your goal?) With a pen or computer to take notes Read critically Think, question, challenge, critique,

33 Next lecture readings Mandatory V. Cerf, R. E. Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1974 [Optional] Leiner et al., "A Brief History of the Internet", Internet Society David D. Clark et al., Tussle in cyberspace: defining tomorrow's internet, SIGCOMM 02

34 Refs & acks [keshav] S. Keshav, How to read a paper, CCR July 2007 (original version) Most up-to-date version: ta/07/paper-reading.pdf Thanks to Jennifer Rexford and Nick McKeown for the inspiration behind many of these slides (in many cases, for the slides themselves!)

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