The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology

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1 ISSN: The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology Volume 2, Issue 1 January Editor-in-Chief Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj Editors Dr. Norlidah Alias Dr. Onur Isbulan Associate Editors Professor Dr. Raja Maznah Binti Raja Hussain, Associate Prof. Dr. Habib Bin Mat Som, Dr. Chin Hai Leng Dr. Dorothy Dewitt []

2 Copyright THE MALAYSIAN ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY All rights reserved. No part of MOJET s articles may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Contact Address: Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj MOJET, Editor in Chief University of Malaya, Malaysia Published in Malaysia

3 Message from the editor-in-chief The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET) highlights the current issues in educational technology. MOJET is an international, professional referred journal in the interdisciplinary fields sponsored by Faculty of Education, University of Malaya. This journal serves as a platform for presenting and discussing the emerging issues on educational technology for readers who share common interests in understanding the developments of the integration of technology in education. The journal is committed to providing access to quality researches raging from original research, theoretical articles and concept papers in educational technology. In order to produce high quality journal, extensive effort has been put in selecting valuable researches that contribute to the journal. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to editorial board, reviewers and researchers for their valuable contributions to make this journal a reality. Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj January 2014 Editor in chief Message from the editor The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET) is aimed at using technology in online teaching and learning through diffusing information from a community of researchers and scholars. The journal is published electronically four times a year. The journal welcomes the original and qualified researches on all aspects of educational technology. Topics may include, but not limited to: use of multimedia to improve online learning; collaborative learning in online learning environment, innovative online teaching and learning; instructional design theory and application; use of technology in instruction; instructional design theory, evaluation of instructional design, and future development of instructional technology. As editor of the journal, it is a great pleasure to see the success of this journal publication. On behalf of the editorial team of The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET), we would like to thank to all the authors and editors for their contribution to the development of the journal. Dr. Norlidah Alias January 2014 Editor

4 Editor-in-Chief Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj, University of Malaya, Malaysia Editors Dr. Norlidah Alias, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Onur Isbulan, Sakarya University, Turkey Associate Editors Professor Dr. Raja Maznah Binti Raja Hussain, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Prof. Dr. Habib Bin Mat Som, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia Dr. Chin Hai Leng, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Dorothy Dewitt, University of Malaya, Malaysia Advisory Board Professor Dr. Mohd Hamdi Bin Abd Shukor, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Emeritus Dato Dr. Abu Bakar Nordin, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Aytekin Isman, Sakarya University, Turkey Professor Dr. Fatimah Binti Hashim, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Mohammed Amin Embi, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Dr. Moses Samuel, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Omar Abdul Kareem, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Professor Dr. Richard Kiely, the University College of St. Mark and St. John, United Kingdom Dr. Zawawi Bin Ismail, University of Malaya, Malaysia Editorial Board Professor Emiritus Dr. Rahim Md. Sail, University Putra of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Datuk Dr. Tamby Subahan Bin Mohd. Meerah, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Associate Professor Dato Dr. Abdul Halim Bin Tamuri, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Dr. Abdul Rashid Mohamed, University of Science, Malaysia Professor Dr. Bakhtiar Shabani Varaki, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Professor Dr. H. Hamruni, Ma, Sunan Kalijaga Islamic University, Indonesia Professor Dr. Ibrahem Narongsakhet, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand Professor Dr. Iskandar Wiryokusumo M.Sc, PGRI ADI Buana University, Surabaya, Indonesia Professor Dr. Mohammad Ali, M.Pd, Ma, University of Islamic Education, Indonesia Professor Dr. Ramlee B. Mustapha, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Professor Dr. Rozhan M. Idrus, University of Science, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Abdul Jalil Bin Othman, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Ajmain Bin Safar, University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Esther Sarojini Daniel, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Fadzilah Siraj, Northern University of Malaysia, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Haji Izaham Shah Bin Ismail, Mara University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Mohamad Bin Bilal Ali, University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Norazah Mohd Nordin, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia

5 Associate Professor Dr. Rohaida Mohd Saat, University of Malaya, Malaysia Assist. Prof. Dr. Mubin KIYICI, Sakarya University, Turkey Dr. Adelina Binti Asmawi Dr. Farrah Dina Binti Yusop, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Husaina Banu Kenayathula, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Ismail Bin Abbas, Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia Dr. Khamsiah Binti Ismail, Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia Dr. Lorraine Pe Symaco, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Misnan Bin Jemali, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Dr. Mohammad Bin Ab Rahman, Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia Dr. Mohammad Attaran, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Mohd. Awang Bin Idris, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Mohd Burhan Bin Ibrahim, Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia Dr. Mojgan Afshari, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Muhamad Arif Ismail, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Dr. Muhamad Faizal Bin A. Ghani, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Nabeel Abdallah Mohammad Abedalaziz, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Nazean Binti Jomhari, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Rafiza Binti Abd Razak, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Rose Amnah Binti Abd. Rauf, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Siti Hendon Sheikh Abdullah, Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia Dr. Tee Meng Yew, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. T. Vanitha Thanabalan, English Language Teaching Centre, Malaysia Ministry of Education Dr. Zahra Naimie, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Mohd Khairul Azman Bin Md Daud, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Mohd Sharil Nizam Shaharom, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Norhashimi Saad, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Norjoharuddeen Mohd Nor, University of Malaya, Malaysia Pn. Norini Binti Abas, University of Malaya, Malaysia

6 Table of Contents BETWEEN SCHOOL FACTORS AND TEACHER FACTORS WHAT INHIBITS MALAYSIAN SCIENCE TEACHERS FROM USING ICT 1 Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad E-LEARNING NEEDS ASSESSMENT AMONG STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION 11 Hamid Mohammad Azimi EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING 23 Nafisat Afolake Adedokun-Shittu, Abdul Jaleel Kehinde Shittu IMPLEMENTATION OF PTECHLS MODULES IN RURAL MALAYSIAN SECONDARY SCHOOL: A NEEDS ANALYSIS 30 Norlidah Alias, Dorothy DeWitt, Saedah Siraj, Mohd Nazri Abdul Rahman, Rashidah Begum Gelamdin, Rose Amnah Abd Rauf THE EFFECT OF FIELD SPECIALIZATION VARIATION ON TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (TPACK) AMONG MALAYSIAN TVET INSTRUCTORS 36 Junnaina Husin Chua, Hazri Jamil

7 Between School Factors and Teacher Factors: What Inhibits Malaysian Science Teachers From Using ICT? Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad [1] [1] Institute of Education International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) ABSTRACT Despite the Malaysian government s efforts to increase the use of ICT in school, teachers uptake of the technology remains slow and dismal. In this study, teachers perceptions of the barriers that inhibited their use of ICT in the science classroom were explored. One hundred and fifty-one (N = 151) science teachers from selected secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor took part in the survey. Teachers perceptions of the barriers were captured using a selfdeveloped questionnaire consisting of 27 Likert-type items. The questionnaires were administered with the help of school principals. Principal components analysis (PCA) with Promax rotation extracted four underlying dimensions of barriers to ICT use, namely teachers self-handicapping thoughts, school support, attitude toward ICT use, and negative beliefs about ICT use. Three of these factors were teacher related. Self-handicapping thoughts emerged as the largest inhibitor, explaining about 38.2% of teachers lack of ICT utilization in the science classroom. The results corroborated previous findings that teacher factors tend to outweigh school factors in hampering teachers uptake of technology. Keywords: ICT utilization, science teaching, barriers to ICT use, Malaysian science teachers, Principal Components Analysis INTRODUCTION In Malaysian schools where traditionalist pedagogical approaches prevail over other methods (Sharifah Maimunah, 2003), the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) can significantly enhance the quality of teaching and students learning experience, especially in science subjects. Somekh (2008) argues that ICT is a powerful driver for educational change if used in the right manner, and helps to create a less stressful environment for both teachers and students. The benefits of using ICT are immense for teachers and students of science. For teachers, the Internet expands the instructional resources available to them (Bingimlas, 2009), while also allowing them to empower students to become active and skilful information seekers rather than remaining passive recipients of scientific facts (Pickersgill, 2003). Teachers can make science more engaging and comprehensible to students by employing ICT in four distinct ways as categorized by Ball (2003): as a tool, as a reference source, as a means of communication and as a means for exploration. For students, ICT can support development of science process skills and conceptual understanding, besides enhancing opportunities to engage in effective communication about science at several levels (Murphy, 2006). A comprehensive review of 557 research papers concludes that students can acquire science ideas quite successfully through ICT models and simulations (Hogarth, Bennett, Lubben, Campbell, & Robinson, 2006). In steps that acknowledge the importance of ICT-enhanced education and mirror global trends in ICT uptake and integration, the Malaysian Ministry of Education formulated multiple strategies and plans to encourage teachers to integrate ICT into classroom teaching. The strategies included the 1997 Smart School Project, the 2003 provision of laptops to Mathematics and Science teachers and the ICT in Education policy, all of which constituted the Ministry s efforts to galvanize greater ICT use by teachers. Extensive amounts of money and resources were expended to this end, but success was marginal. Research shows that the ICT integration level in classroom science is still below the expected standards (Hamid, 2011; Lau, 2006; Shahril, 2007). By and large, science teachers reported using ICT for ancillary services and activities but not for teaching. This is despite their having the necessary equipment (Mohd Darus, 2004), skills 1

8 (Multimedia Development Corporation, 2006), and belief that ICT can improve the quality of education (Mohamed Zaki, 2013). These findings support Redecker (2009) who found that, in practice, ICT is either scarcely used or only used to supplement traditional and frontal teaching. Lıterature Revıew Integrating ICT into classroom learning is not as easy as it sounds. The process is indeed complex and teachers often encounter difficulties. Schoepp (2005) called these difficulties barriers and defined them as conditions that make it difficult for a person or organization to progress or achieve an objective. Numerous studies across contexts and cultures have identified what these barriers are among teachers, for example, mismatch between available ICT and existing curricula (Albirini, 2006); lack of institutional support (Ageel, 2011); lack of funds and budget allocation (Alwani & Soomro, 2010); insufficient training (Al-Oteawi, 2002; Taylor & Corrigan, 2007); computer anxiety, ICT efficacy, and lack of confidence (Becta, 2004); teacher beliefs and attitudes (Chen, Tan, & Lim, 2012); resistance to change (Gomes, 2005); overwhelming workload and commitment (Hennessy, Ruthven, & Brindley, 2005); overloaded curriculum and lack of subject-specific guidance for using ICT (Osborne & Hennessy, 2003); outdated hardware and Internet facilities (Ozen, 2012); time constraint and unfamiliarity with new equipment (Peralta & Costa, 2007); absence of technical support (Toprakci, 2006); and readiness as well as motivation (Ward, 2003). In a comprehensive review, Mumtaz (2000) summed up three factors that impede teachers ICT uptake: the school/institution, resources and the teachers themselves. Although these discoveries are insightful, ICT utilization barriers can be more fully understood if they are clustered into categories or underlying dimensions. The literature offers some useful classifications of factors impeding teachers ICT utilization. Ertmer (1999) grouped factors related to teacher variables (e.g., attitudes, beliefs, practices, resistance, personal experience, and awareness) as intrinsic or first order barriers, while placing factors such as inadequate and/or inappropriate configuration of ICT infrastructure, access, time, technical support, resources, and training in the extrinsic or second order category. Chen et al. (2012) discovered that extrinsic barriers (i.e., time and curriculum constraints) tend to play a greater role than intrinsic barriers in hampering teachers use of ICT in the classroom. Becta (2004) summarized the research conducted in several different countries over a ten-year period ( ) and proposed two categories of barriers, namely school-level barriers (such as lack of instructional time, access to resources, hardware, and effective training; inappropriate organization; poor quality software; and technical problems), and teacher-level barriers (such as lack of preparation time, confidence and access to ICT resources; resistance to change; negative attitudes; and no perception of benefits). According to Veen (1993), teacher-level factors (e.g., beliefs about ICT benefits and computer skills) tend to outweigh school factors in influencing ICT use. Since the nature of ICT barriers and how they operate to inhibit ICT use are highly context-specific, Becta (2004) suggested that it might be useful to further compare them between specific subjects (e.g., Science, Mathematics or English). In this study, the Becta categorization of barriers (teacher factors and school factors) was used as the conceptual framework to guide the analysis and discussion of inhibitors. Problem Statement An extensive body of research is available to inform us about factors inhibiting teachers in general from using ICT in teaching. Much of this body of research, however, has studied these inhibitors as single or individual indicators rather than as groups of factors, or constructs, that share a set of common attributes. Thus the approach to identifying inhibitors has largely been piecemeal. Furthermore, although the literature is replete with studies on ICT barriers, consensus is lacking regarding which factors (teacher-related or school-related) are more instrumental in impeding science teachers utilization of ICT in the classroom. For instance, the findings of Albirini (2006), Ageel (2011), Alwani and Soomro (2010), Osborne and Hennessy (2003), and Ozen (2012) among others pointed to extrinsic or non-teacher factors, but those of Veen (1993), Becta, (2004), Ward (2003) and Gomes (2005) pinned the inhibitors down to teacher variables. This could be due in part to the piecemeal approach adopted by most studies. The lack of agreement in the findings is also understood as suggesting that ICT utilization barriers are context- and culture-specific, and often influenced by personal, sociocultural and system variables such as local policies, subjective norm, prior experience and institutional support. Furthermore, a large amount of research into ICT use inhibitors among science teachers has been conducted in non-malaysian settings. As such, the findings may not be completely applicable to the context of Malaysian secondary science teachers. Thus, research to understand these barriers in a specific context among specific groups of teachers is much needed in order to design appropriate intervention programs to galvanize their ICT uptake. 2

9 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of this study were threefold: (i) to determine Malaysian science teachers use of selected ICT applications; (ii) to explore if the ICT inhibitors identified from the literature and teacher interviews constituted meaningful and interpretable categories of barriers as proposed by Becta (2004); and (iii) to identify whether school factors or teacher factors were more instrumental in impeding teachers use of ICT in the science classroom. METHOD Respondents The study was a cross-sectional survey involving 151 science teachers who were purposively sampled from a number of secondary schools in Malaysia. The criteria set in identifying the respondents that befit the purpose of the study were: (i) they must be science teachers teaching in public secondary schools; and (ii) they must be teachers who were not using ICT in teaching science at the time of data collection. Science teachers who did employ ICT in teaching were excluded from the survey. Female teachers made up 76% of the respondents (n = 115). The sample s mean age was approximately 35 years with an average teaching experience of 9.5 years. Fifty-one percent (n = 77) had received some form of ICT training at their respective schools, while the other half reported having received none. A majority were degree holders (88%), while the rest held either a master s degree (3.3%) or a diploma (8.7%). Instrument The data collection instrument was a self-developed questionnaire containing three parts. The first part requested demographic details, while the second required the respondents to indicate whether they used the given ICT tools or applications. Eleven were listed, namely , blogs, Skype, social networks, online libraries, e-news, Internet browsing, database, spreadsheet, presentation software, and word processor. The third section contained items on two categories of ICT barriers, namely teacher factors (such as ICT efficacy, beliefs about ICT and interest) and school factors (such as scheduling, workload and technical support). The items were drawn from a review of previous works (e.g., Becta, 2004; Mumtaz, 2000), as well as from several interviews and focus group discussions with Malaysian science teachers. The initial pool consisted of 28 Likert-type items with response categories ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. After content validation with five experts in the field, the questionnaire was refined and pilot tested with 31 science teachers. Results of the pilot test indicated that one item was problematic; the item was therefore removed. A reliability check was run on the remaining 27 items yielding an alpha value of.93. Therefore, the study proceeded with the 27 items for data collection. Out of the 27 items, 14 were related to school factors while the remaining 13 were teacher-related. Data Collection and Analysis With the help of school principals, 200 questionnaires were distributed to selected secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. s and text messages were later sent as reminders to the respondents to return the questionnaire. Out of the 200 distributed, 152 were collected, constituting a response rate of 76%. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (to address research objective 1) and Principal Components Analysis (to address research objective 2). RESULTS Use oc ICT Applıcatıons Among The Respondents Figure 1 presents a visual summary of the respondents use of selected applications. Four applications turned out to be utilized by a large number of science teachers (between 66% and 79%), namely , the Internet for browsing purposes, PowerPoint presentation software, and e-news. Just over half reported using social networking sites (55.9%) and databases (51.3%), while about one third (33.6%) used online libraries. Few reported using spreadsheet (21%), Skype (15.1%) and blogs (13.8%). The figures suggest that using ICT was common and quite widespread among the respondents, although the type of application used might vary. This was not a surprising finding considering that the sample consisted of relatively young teachers (mean age was 35) who were more likely to be familiar with ICT than older teachers. 3

10 Volume 2, Issue 1 The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 55.9% 15.1% 33.6% 13.8% 66.4% 74.3% 51.3% 21% 73% 62.5% 78.9% percentage Figure 1: Malaysian Science Teachers Use of Selected ICT Applications (Percentage) Based on the percentage of teachers who reported using the given ICT applications, it could be inferred that most had the basic skills to enable them to use ICT in science teaching. Quite a large majority were familiar with the use of (78.9%), the Internet (74.3%) and PowerPoint (73%). This means that most respondents could at least use PowerPoint, including its animation features, to present science concepts to the class, search the Internet for supporting materials, learning activities and reading lists, and use to communicate with students about science ideas and homework. This information rules out lack of ICT skills as a possible barrier to ICT use. Barrıers to ICT Use Principal Components Analysis (PCA) with Promax rotation was applied on the data to extract underlying factors that represented barriers to the respondents use of ICT in the science classroom. The PCA procedures would allow the study to reduce the number of items or variables in the questionnaire down to their principal components, which constituted inhibitors to ICT use. Matsunaga (2010) suggests the use of the Promax rotation technique rather than the more popular Varimax rotation as it is the most suitable and robust technique for data obtained in social science research. The PCA procedures applied on the data produced acceptable results in terms of sampling adequacy and item correlations. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy was 0.88, indicating that the sample size relative to the number of questionnaire items was adequate for applying PCA. The Bartlett s test of sphericity was statistically significant (χ2 = , 351, p =.001), indicating that the overall correlations within the correlation matrix were adequate. Except for one item ( There are not enough ICT technicians to help ), the communalities of the variables were acceptable at above 0.5. In summary, these results show factorability of the data, hence justifying the use of PCA in the analysis. The first run of PCA produced a six-factor structure of ICT barriers that explained close to 64.2% of the variance. However, the PCA had to be revised due to eight items that either cross loaded or failed to load on any of the factors. These items were all school-related inhibitors. The problematic items were then identified and removed from subsequent analysis. The revised PCA after removing eight problematic items produced a clean four-factor solution with no contamination. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure was 0.86, while the Bartlett s test of sphericity was statistically 4

11 significant (χ 2 = , 171, p =.001). The correlations among items were significant with communalities ranging between.324 and.797. Only three items ( I find it troublesome to use ICT, There aren t enough ICT technicians to help, and The school provides no ICT training for teachers ) had a communality of less than 0.5. Table 1 shows the inter-item correlation matrix, descriptive statistics and communalities. Table 1: Inter-Item Correlation Matrix, Descriptive Statistics and Communalities ITEM B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 B17 B18 B19 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B M SD Comm The Promax rotation extracted a four-factor structure of underlying ICT barriers. No item cross-loaded. The structure was represented by 19 items and explained close to 63% of the variance. The four factors are shown in Table 2 along with their representative items, factor loadings, eigenvalues, individual variance explained and internal consistency index. 5

12 Table 2: Factor Solution with Items, Factor Loadings, Eigenvalues, Variance Explained and Reliability Index Factor and Items Factor Loading Eigenvalue Variance Explained Cronbach s alpha Factor 1: Self-Handicapping Thoughts %.84 I don t know how to teach using ICT.835 I don t have the required ICT skills.814 I have no time to learn ICT skills.632 I don t feel confident to use ICT to teach.569 I find it troublesome to use ICT.478 Factor 2: School Support %.79 There are not enough computers for teachers.824 My school doesn t provide enough ICT facilities.792 There are no ICT facilities in the class or lab.662 The school provides no ICT training for teachers.641 Class time is too short to use ICT.582 There aren t enough ICT technicians to help.499 Factor 3: Attitude Toward ICT Use %.85 I m not interested in using ICT to teach.762 I don t see how ICT helps students to understand.731 science ICT doesn t improve my teaching.687 I think the science curriculum is inappropriate.671 for ICT use Factor 4: Beliefs about ICT %.82 My students learn equally well without ICT.878 I teach just as well without ICT.827 Using ICT requires a lot of time.663 My workload doesn t allow me to use ICT.648 The factors were then labelled based on the common idea shared by the items that loaded into them. Five items empirically grouped together to create Factor 1. The items revealed debilitating ideas that the respondents had about themselves and their ability to use ICT for teaching. Thus, the factor was labelled Self-Handicapping Thoughts. It alone accounted for 38.2% of the variance. The second factor consisted of six items that pointed to lack of support from the school in terms of infrastructure, technical help and scheduling; thus the factor was labelled School Support. It explained 12.2% of the variance. The empirical grouping of items that loaded on the third factor revealed the respondents less than favorable attitude toward ICT use. This factor explained 6.8% of the variance and was named Attitude toward ICT Use. The last factor which accounted for 5.8% of the variance consisted of four items that underscored the respondents deep-seated beliefs about the necessity of using ICT and the amount of time it would require. The factor was hence labelled Beliefs about ICT Use. All four underlying dimensions displayed high internal consistency indices ranging between.79 and.85 with items that loaded in the same consistent direction, resulting in a solution that was free from variable-specific factors. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The descriptive results generally showed that the science teachers surveyed were not unfamiliar with ICT. Based on the figures that reported using the myriad applications asked, it cannot be concluded that they did not have the basic ICT skills needed for science teaching. The least ICT they could employ was PowerPoint as a content delivery tool and an aid to the explication of complex science concepts. They could also refer students to myriad science reading materials on the Internet to augment classroom teaching. However, the use of ICT in this manner should be viewed with 6

13 some concern as it may lead to nothing more than ICT-supported traditional or frontal teaching as highlighted by Redecker (2009). Instead, teachers should be encouraged to use ICT in more innovative ways. The fact that these teachers actually used ICT for various purposes provides some empirical support for an earlier observation that teachers tend to use ICT for ancillary services and activities, but not so much for teaching. In this study, the science teachers surveyed reported not using ICT at all in their science classes. The reasons were indicated by the data. It appeared that they were impeded by four major barriers: their own self-handicapping thoughts; lack of school support; negative attitude toward ICT utilization; and negative beliefs. Three of these were teacher-level barriers (Becta, 2004) that stemmed from within the teachers themselves. Cumulatively they accounted for 50.7% of the reason Malaysian science teachers avoided using ICT to teach science. The results supported Veen (1993) who earlier maintained that teacher factors tend to outweigh school-related factors in influencing teachers use of ICT. Lack of confidence and interest intertwined with insufficient ICT efficacy and negative beliefs worked their way up to become the largest inhibitors of science teachers ICT utilization. However, one particular finding merits further attention, and that concerns teachers report about not knowing how to teach using ICT (the first item in Table 2). This brings to light the importance of subject-specific guidance highlighted by Osborne and Hennessy (2003) which also includes technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Providing teachers with ICT facilities and access alone is insufficient. In order to empower teachers to use ICT successfully, subject-specific ICT training must be designed and imparted with appropriate care and rigor. This effort can be taken up at the school level if necessary with the cooperation of head teachers and school principals. Teacher training programs should also take this finding into account in designing technology training for teachers. Science teachers needs for training in ICT use may differ from those of other teachers. For example, science teachers may benefit more from skills in using screencasts, simulation and spreadsheet than other ICT applications such as database, programming or word processing. Training in all ICT applications available is not the answer to science teachers lack of ICT uptake. Moreover, technology is only good insofar as teachers know how to use it in meaningful ways that encourage student learning. In this regard, future research should explore the role of TPCK and relevant ICT training in influencing science teachers use of ICT. Of the four categories of barriers, only one was school-related, and within this category, access to ICT facilities, technical support and scheduling of class time were discovered to be the main inhibitors. Teachers attributed their lack of ICT use to their respective schools failure to provide enough computing facilities, access to computers, technical help when needed, adequate ICT training and sufficient class time to accommodate ICT use. The findings agreed with Ageel (2011), Al-Oteawi (2002), Taylor and Corrigan (2007) and Toprakci (2006), but the extent to which they accurately reflected the actual situation in the schools involved could not be ascertained as the study did not acquire institutional data to cross-validate the teachers self-reports. Future studies to examine ICT utilization barriers should therefore take the cross-validation and triangulation factor into account when designing their research in order to give more weight and credibility to the data. In addition, school administration and management should identify the ICT requirements of science teachers through an ICT needs analysis. The analysis will help schools to carefully assess and identify whether the ICT facilities they wish to purchase would be relevant to what science teachers need to enhance their instructional quality. Eight school-related items failed to load on any factor although they were included in the PCA procedures. This may be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the eight items were found to be too weakly correlated to be able to form a factor or to load on the extracted school-related category of barriers. Secondly, they did not constitute a reliable construct to represent meaningful barriers. Thirdly, each of the items could have measured different aspects of schoolrelated barriers that did not share a common attribute, which would have been detected during the pilot test had the sample size been large enough. Fourthly, the pilot test conducted could not examine the structure of school-related barriers due to the small sample size of 31 science teachers. Further studies looking into ICT barriers should address these inadequacies and methodological concerns. On the measurement side, given the substantial number of problematic items found in the questionnaire (i.e., items with significant cross-loadings) which affected the number of factors to be retained and the proportion of variance explained, many items had to be revised and reworded to be more closely in line with the categories of barriers established in the literature (e.g., Becta 2004). The present study could be treated as a pilot test to establish the reliability of the data and refine the items that measure ICT adoption barriers among science teachers. Upon revision and improvement of the items, new samples of science teachers could be surveyed from within and outside of Malaysia 7

14 (for comparative analysis) to generate more comprehensive data that can better explain the reasons for science teachers slow uptake of ICT. REFERENCES Ageel, M. (2011, September). The ICT proficiencies of university teachers in Saudi Arabia: A case study to identify challenges and encouragements. Hummingbird: University of Southampton s Doctoral Research Journal, 2, Retrieved from hummingbird/40891_hummingbird_web_bkmk.pdf Albirini, A. (2006). Teachers attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers and Education, 47(4), Al-Oteawi, S. M. (2002). The perceptions of administrators and teachers in utilizing information technology in instruction, administrative work, technology planning and staff development in Saudi Arabia.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, College of Education, Ohio University, Columbus. Alwani, A. E. S., & Soomro, S. (2010). Barriers to effective use of information technology in science education at Yanbu, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In S. Soomro (Ed.), E-learning experiences and future (pp ). Vukovar, Croatia: INTECH. Ball, S. (2003). ICT that works. Primary Science Review, 76, Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the Literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education, 5(3), British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (Becta). (2004, June). A review of the research literature on barriers to the uptake of ICT by teachers. Retrieved from becta_2004_barrierstouptake_litrev.pdf Chen, W., Tan, A., & Lim C. (2012). Extrinsic and intrinsic barriers in the use of ICT in teaching: A comparative case study in Singapore. In M. Brown, M. Hartnett & T. Stewart (Eds.), Proceedings of ASCILITE- Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Annual Conference, Wellington, 2012 (pp ). Retrieved from Ertmer, P. A. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), Retrieved from Gomes, C. (2005). Integration of ICT in science teaching: A study performed in Azores, Portugal. Paper Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Multimedia and Information & Communication Technologies in Education (m-icte2005), Caceres (Spain), June 8-10th Hamid, R. H. (2011). Teachers beliefs and use of ICTs in Malaysian Smart Schools: A case study. In G. Williams, P. Statham, N. Brown & B. Cleland (Eds.), Changing Demands, Changing Directions: Proceedings ASCILITE, Hobart 2011 (pp ). Retrieved from 8

15 Hennessy, S., Ruthven, K., & Brindley, S. (2005). Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: commitment, constraints, caution, and change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37, Retrieved from Hogarth, S., Bennett, J., Lubben, F., Campbell, B., & Robinson, A. (2006). ICT in science teaching. Technical report. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Lau, K. H. (2006). Integration of ICT in the teaching of science: An investigation of 45 primary school teachers. Unpublished Master s Thesis. Faculty of Education, Open University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. Mohamed Zaki, F. Z. (2013). ICT and internet usage in early childhood education: A comparative study of Australian and Malaysian teachers beliefs and current practices. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis, Faculty of Education, Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Mohd Darus, N. (2004). Review of the implementation of the willingness of teachers in teaching of Science and Mathematics in English. Unpublished Master of Education Project Paper. Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi. Multimedia Development Corporation. (2006). Impact assessment study on the Smart School Integrated Solution and other ICT initiatives. Putrajaya: Government of Malaysia. Mumtaz, S. (2000). Factors affecting teachers use of Information and Communications Technology: A review of the literature. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(3), Retrieved from Murphy, C. (2006). Report 5: Literature Review in Primary Science and ICT. Bristol, UK: FutureLab Series. Osborne, J., & Hennessy, S. (2003). Report 6: Literature Review in Science Education and the Role of ICT: Promise, Problems and Future Directions. Bristol, UK: FutureLab Series. Retrieved from Ozen, R. (2012, February). Distance education for professional development in ICT integration: A study with primary school teachers in Turkey. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), Retrieved from Peralta, H., & Costa, F. A. (2007).Teacher s competence and confidence regarding the use of ICT. Sísifo: Educational Sciences Journal, 3, Retrieved from 7008/1/(2007)PERALTA,H%26COSTA,F(ICTCompetenceConfidence)S%C3%8DSIFO3eng.pdf Pickersgill, D. (2003). Effective use of the internet in science teaching. School Science Review, 84(309), Redecker, C. (2009). Review of learning 2.0 practices: Study on the impact of Web 2.0 innovations on education and training in Europe. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. European Commission: Luxembourg. Retrieved from Schoepp, K. (2005). Barriers to technology integration in a technology-rich environment. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 2(1),

16 Shahril, S. (2007). Sikap dan persepsi guru sains terhadap penggunaan komputer dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran di makmal sains.unpublished Master s Thesis, Faculty of Education, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin. (2003). The teaching of maths and science through English in Malaysian schools. Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia. Somekh, B. (2008). Factors affecting teachers pedagogical adoption of ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education (pp ). New York, NY: Springer. Taylor, N., & Corrigan, G. (2007). New South Wales primary school teachers perceptions of the role of ICT in the primary science curriculum: A rural and regional perspective. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 5(1), Toprakci, E. (2006). Obstacles at integration of schools into information and communication technologies by taking into consideration the opinions of the teachers and principals of primary and secondary schools in Turkey. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (E-JIST), 9(1), Veen, W. (1993). The role of beliefs in the use of information technology: Implications for teacher education, or teaching the right thing at the right time. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 2 (2), Retrieved from Ward, L. (2003). Teacher practice and the integration of ICT: Why aren t our secondary school teachers using computers in their classrooms? In Educational Research, Risks, & Dilemmas.Proceedings of the Conference of the Joint New Zealand Association for Research in Education and Australian Association for Research in Education, Auckland. Retrieved from war03165.pdf 10

17 E-Learning Needs Assessment among Students in the Colleges of Education Hamid Mohammad Azimi [1] [1] Department of Studies in Education, University of Mysore, India ABSTRACT The purpose of this survey study was to clearly identify major gaps and needs of e-learning components among students in thecolleges of Education (one year Bachelor of Education or B.Ed. degree programme) affiliated by University of Mysore, India. A questionnaire was designed and validated by experts. A pilot test was carried out on a sample of 45 students and the Cronbach alpha value for the instrument was.89. Data were collected from 346 students selected through stratified random sampling method to gauge students needs on learning e- learning components. Findings highlighted that in the ranking of needs for learning of e-learning components, Internet tools and video streaming ranked on the highest level also instructional theories and mobile technology graded as the lowest one. t- Test revealed a non-significant association between gender and needs to learning e-learning components. Moreover, One Way ANOVA test showed there is no significant difference among type of colleges (government / private aided and unaided) and different subjects (science / art / language) in needs for learning of e-learning components. Keywords: TPACK; professional knowledge; specialization; technology integration; technological knowledge. INTRODUCTION Advances in information technology, and changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education and training. These massive changes have tremendous impact on our educational and training systems (Reigeluth & Khan, 1994). To stay viable in this global competitive market, providers of education and training must develop efficient and effective learning systems to meet societal needs. The higher education sector can take greatest advantage of the increased use of technology, especially the Internet, in delivering educational products. Distance learning via the Internet will drive tremendous growth (Cappelli, 2003). Usage of new technologies, Internet and e-learning in development of higher education enable education of citizens familiar with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and needs of living in the 21st century.the present study is a survey type involving descriptive research among students of colleges of education. The study includes assessing and evaluation of needs on e-learning system components from the viewpoint of students of colleges of education affiliated with the University of Mysore, India. E-Learning Electronic learning or E-learning concept has been around for decades and is one of the most significant recent developments in the Information Systems (IS) industry (Wang, 2003). E-learning has been viewed as synonymous with Web-based learning (WBL), Internet-based training (IBT), advanced distributed learning (ADL), Web-based instruction (WBI), online learning (OL) and open/flexible learning (OFL) (Khan, 2001). E-learning system is implemented through several ways; however, the best practices among the various educational institutions have recommended developing a Web-based learning management system (LMS). E-learning has been defined a number of different ways in the literature. In general, e-learning is the expression broadly used to describe instructional content or learning experience delivered or enabled by electronic technologies (Ong, Lai, & Wang, 2004). Some definitions of e-learning are more restrictive than this one, for example limiting e- learning to content delivery via the Internet (Jones, 2003). The broader definition can include the use of the Internet, intranets/extranets, audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive television (TV), and CD-ROM, not only for 11

18 content delivery, but also for interaction among participants (Industry Canada, 2001). More recently, this definition can be further expanded to include mobile and wireless learning applications (Kinshuk, Suhonen, Sutinen, & Goh, 2003; Lehner, Nösekabel, & Lehmann, 2003). Many researchers in the field of integrating ICT in educational settings have attempted to define the concept of e-learning. Liaw, Huang, and Chen (2007) define e-learning as the convergence of technology and learning, and as the use of network technologies to facilitate learning anytime, anywhere. Davis (2001) has also defined e-learning as technology-enabled learning that covers various concepts, or a phenomenon delivering instructions through technology. Welsh, Wan Berg, Brown, and Simmering (2003, p. 246) define e-learning as the use of computer network technology through the Internet to deliver information and instruction to learners. Rosenberg (2001) refers to e-learning as using Internet technologies to deliver various solutions to learners. Holmes and Gardner (2006) point out that e- learning provides access to resources that promote learning on an anyplace and anytime basis. E-learning is simply defined as a delivery of course content via electronic media such as Internet, Intranet, Extranet, satellite broadcast, audio/video tapes, interactive TV and CDROMs (Urdan & Weggen, 2000). However, the most well-known definition that educators agree on is that e-learning is a set of synchronous and asynchronous instruction delivered to learners over technology (Colvin & Mayer, 2008). E-learning encompasses related terms such as online learning, virtual learning, webbased learning, and distance learning (Panda & Mishra, 2007). Obringer (2001) mentioned that the history of e-learning goes back to 1983 when Nova Southern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, offered online courses to students for credit, and since then, schools have made a serious move toward implementing e-learning into curricula. In 2005, nearly 32.2 million students took at least one e-learning course (Lin, Lin, & Laffey, 2008). In general, e-learning is the future of learning that focuses on both the individual learner needs as well as the delivered content (Colvin & Mayer, 2008). Given the variety of definitions of e-learning, it is difficult to estimate the size of the market. However, e-learning is believed to be the fastest growing sub-sector of the $2.3T USD global education market, with the market for online higher education expected to grow to $69B USD by 2015 (Hezel Associates, 2005). Many reasons account for the growth of the higher education e-learning industry, both from the institutions and students perspectives. Globally, the demand for post secondary education is increasing. For example, in the United States, college enrollment among high school graduates increased from 56% in 1980 to 67% in 2003 (Morrison, 2003). With the limited capacity of existing classrooms at academic institutions and the prohibitive cost of building new facilities, e-learning is an attractive alternative (Werbach, 2000). According to Kleiman (2004), e-learning can contribute to addressing each challenge by enhancing the preparation of new teachers, providing high quality and readily accessible professional development opportunities for active teachers, and making the teaching profession more attractive (e.g., by providing online resources for teachers and new connections to colleagues and mentors) to help address the teacher recruitment and retention problem. E-Learning Components Khan (2001) pointed out that an e-learning program can be described in terms of various components and features conducive to learning. Components are integral parts of an e-learning system. Features are characteristics of an e-learning program contributed by those components. Components, individually and jointly, can contribute to one or more features. Khan (2005) has organized e-learning components into seven categories, namely: 1. Instructional Design (ID) 2. Multimedia Component 3. Internet Tools 4. Computers and Storage Devices 5. Connections and Service Providers 6. Authoring/Management Programs, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software, and Standards 7. Server and Related Applications Needs Assessment Mitchell (1993) describes needs assessment/analysis as an examination of the existing need for training within an organization. It identifies performance areas or programs within an organization where training should be applied. A needs analysis identifies the problem or need and then proceeds to identify the aims, content, implementation, target population and outcome of an intervention (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007). Needs assessments have occurred in various settings including community organizations (Rahtz & Sirgy, 2000; Torma, 1998), government agencies (Holton, Bates, & Naquin, 2000; Noll & O Dell, 1997), health care facilities (Barry, Doherty et al., 2000; Thorton, 1995; Lockwood & Marshall, 1999) as well as education institutions (McCaslin & Lave, 1976; Stabb et al., 1995). In higher education, the needs assessment process appears in several contexts. This process 12

19 has been applied to distance education, to various student organizations or faculty work groups (Bishop, Bauer, & Becker, 1998; Kruse, Elacque, & Rapaport, 1998). Witkin (1984) utilized a general definition of needs assessment namely that any systematic approach used in setting priorities for future action constitutes needs assessment. Kaufman (1985) contends, in a specific way, that needs assessment focuses on identifying and justifying gaps in results and how these gaps are prioritized for attention. The results of needs assessment will be an important part of the information used in decision-making about training, but it will not be the only information used. Needs assessment is one of the main investigative tools institutions use to identify actual needs, gaps, and hidden parts in the system and other activities. Needs assessment can help institutions to match the needs of their target audience with the e-learning courses and programs they plan to market. Any institution venturing into e-learning should conduct a needs assessment survey to find out its expected customers (i.e., learners ) willingness to enrol in its e-learning courses. Needs assessment will help institutions analyze the short-term and long term needs for their e-learning initiatives, and in turn will be instrumental in developing their e-learning strategies. Needs assessment can also provide information about the technological and other support services needed for their e-learning initiatives. Through a comprehensive needs assessment process, an institution can establish its e-learning goals (Khan, 2005). One Year Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Program The Bachelor of Education program, generally known as (B.Ed)., is a professional course that prepares teachers for upper primary or middle level (classes VI-VIII), secondary (classes IX-X) and senior secondary (classes XI-XII) levels. This program is offered by teacher training colleges which mainly designed to prepare effective secondary school teachers. The program essentially aims at providing student teachers with an insight into the educational scenario in the world with a specific reference to India. NCTE (The National Council for Teacher Education) prescribed minimum percentage of marks for admission as 45% in the qualifying examination. The duration of study for the B.Ed. degree is extended over a period of one academic year as a regular course of not less than 180 working days of which at least 40 days shall be for practice teaching in about ten schools at upper primary / secondary / senior secondary levels. The medium of instruction and examination in the B.Ed. program is Kannada (local language of Karnataka state, India) or English. Need and Significance of the Study The present research is among the first efforts to determine the needs assessment of e-learning among students of colleges of teacher education. The results of this study will be significant for several reasons.teachers play a very important role in a student s life. It is, to a great extent, the teachers who decide the shape a student s life will take. So, it is very necessary to be adequately equipped with resources that will make the teacher a perfect role model to the students. To achieve this, the Bachelor of Education program was introduced, which will teach a person about teaching and the various aspects associated with teaching. Candidates who complete the Bachelor of Education training are awarded the B.Ed. degree. Curriculum, administration, and assessment are all affected as members of the educational community experience changes in communication and commerce resulting from the explosive expansion of the Internet (Austin & Mahlman, 2001). Thus, many educators are looking at how ICT and Internet-based learning can provide flexibility and convenience. Internet-based learning can overcome some traditional barriers such as time and place. A student can study independently online or take an instructor-led online class, which combines the benefits of self-study with those of more traditional classroom-based learning (Ryan, 2001). For working adults occupying an increasingly large percentage of our college population, and with greater numbers of students having computers and Internet experience prior to entering college, opportunities are being made to better meet their needs, interests, and work schedules through online classes (Cooper, 2001). As university-level technology education programs begin to offer more online classes and degree programs, technology education professors may be in the position to develop online offerings (Flowers, 2001). Technological advancement has been the major inspiration for change, beginning with the integration of radio broadcasting in the 1920s (Huynh, Umesh, & Valachich, 2003). More recently, the advent of the Internet has enabled tremendous innovation in the delivery of post secondary education (Gunasekaran, McNeil, & Shaul, 2002; Teo & Gay, 2006). With time, more people gain access to the Internet, the cost of computer ownership decreases, and overall computer literacy increases (Huynh et al., 2003). These trends provide educational institutions with an ideal channel for delivering educational content. Integrating e-learning technology in education, having skilled faculties and students as future teachers should be an integral part of the Teacher Training colleges curriculum to develop in Information Technology (IT) and knowledge based societies. 13 Having a clear profile of needs assessment on e-learning components of students (as future teachers) of colleges of education provides vital information about the situation in colleges of education. Through a comprehensive needs assessment process, an institution can establish its e-learning goals. Findings of the study would facilitate the decision

20 making process and planning of usage and implementation of e-learning in teacher education colleges. Clarifying potential differences or similarities on gender, type of institution, and type of subject would show a mirror with a full feature of selected sample and finally population of B.Ed. colleges in the area and even at state level. Therefore, according to the literature we reviewed regarding assessment of needs of e-learning at the teacher training level, with confidence and certainty it can be said that; this research project was the first one in the field around the state and even the country. According to the advantages of using e-learning, importance of having basic information on B.Ed. colleges mentioned in the above paragraphs; conducting this study was not only essential but indispensable and vital to planning for developing and preparing teacher education to enter the ICT world and information & knowledge based society. Studies Related to E-learning Needs A survey study was undertaken to analyze the needs assessment in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). Glasgow (2011) found the existence of a relationship (correlation) between program choice and level of educational attainment. Respondents with the highest qualifications opted for the academic programs while those with lower qualifications selected technical, vocational and skill based programs. However, respondents with the lowest qualifications (incomplete primary/secondary education and ODL certification) were the ones who selected literacy courses. Ailing Qiao and Nan Wang (2009) explored in their study that the majority of respondents were required to learn computing skills on web design software, Learning Management System, and electronic resources for teaching; only a few needed to learn basic computing skills such as and Internet. A more important issue was that respondents wanted to learn how to integrate ICT in classroom teaching effectively and efficiently. Omwenga (2004) carried out a needs assessment of five universities in East Africa in order to determine their state of readiness to embrace ICT and educational technology. He reported on students access to computer facilities, the percentage of staff with computers in the offices; the networking of computers in the faculties of science and engineering, nature of link with the Internet, general computer literacy of staff and students and factors affecting ICT use as educational technology. This work determined in each university the resources (both human and material) required to enable the institution to use ICT as an educational technology; indicates the resources required for each level of ICT use as an educational technology and the level of within classroom interaction, at the level of interaction within departments, faculty and campus and the level of interaction with the wider world. Martin, Klein, and Igoe (2003) reported on the needs assessment conducted among the current graduate students, past graduate students (professionals) and faculty of Arizona State University to find their views on the course Instructional Media Design being offered online. Findings indicated that only 14% of the participants preferred a totally online setting for the course, more than 60% preferred a blended approach of online and classroom based learning. The review of related literature has elicited widely accepted definitions of key terms and the variables used in the study. As made clear from the comprehensive literature review, just a few researchers worked on the e-learning needs assessing in higher educational level especially in teacher training colleges, while the present study was going to shed some light on the students, different subjects of studies in colleges, comparing institutional types of colleges with reference to their financial in/dependency on governmental supports. In the literature review, extant studies regarding awareness, perceptions and attitudes, gender differences address these issues, but remain inadequate to address Teacher Education in e-learning needs. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The objective of this study was to investigate: The differences between the following categories of students with reference to their e-learning system components needs (a) Male and female students (b) Government, aided an unaided colleges students (c) Science, Art and Language subjects students H 0. There is no significant difference between the following categories of students with reference to their e- Learning system components needs (a) Male and female students (b) Government, aided and un-aided colleges students (c) Science, Art and Language subjects students 14

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