# This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

5 N. Schultz-Jensen et al. / Bioresource Technology 140 (2013) Overall reaction for n at infinity for hydrolysis and fermentation of glucan: C 6 H 10 O 5 þ H 2 O! 2C 2 H 6 O þ 2CO 2 The theoretical yield of ethanol from glucan was calculated considering 100% conversion/fermentation efficiency: Yield Ethanol;glucan ¼ 2M wðc 2 H 6 OÞ M w ðc 6 H 10 O 5 Þ 2 46 g=mol ¼ ¼ 0: g=mol The theoretical calculation of ethanol production from 100 g DM C. linum containing 40 g glucan: 40 g glucan 100 g DM 0:57 g ethanol ¼ 23 g ethanol=100 g DM g glucan Equations to Table 3 The relative loss of DM of C. linum is the ratio between the difference of the DMs before and after and the DM before : Relative loss of DM ¼ DM before DM after DM before The relative expected glucan content after prorated to 100 g DM due to loss of DM is given by the relative glucan content of 40 g/100 g multiplied by the ratio of DM before and DM after : Relative glucan content after ¼ 40 g 100 g DM before DM after The relative gain in glucan content is given by the difference between the measured relative glucan content after and the relative expected glucan content after : Relative gain in glucan cont: ¼ Measured relative glucan cont: expected glucan cont: Equations to Table 4 Yield 1 was calculated as total amount of g ethanol obtained per g raw material of C. linum before : Total amount of ethanol obtained Yield 1 ¼ Raw material ðc:linum; before pretr:þ Yield 2 was calculated as total amount of g ethanol obtained per g raw glucan of C. linum before : ð1þ ð2þ ð3þ ð4þ ð5þ ð6þ and reproducible analysis of the chemical composition of the macroalgae. Previous investigations of the chemical composition of C. linum, were not as complete as the present study and mainly focused on the concentration of cellulose (Kiran et al., 1980). The reported cellulose content of 37 g/100 g DM in C. linum was also found in this study. In many cases, macroalgae appeared to have lower carbohydrate contents than lignocellulosic biomass due to their high ash content (Bird et al., 2011). It could be confirmed that the high amount of salt disturbed the analysis of the biomass by the concentrated acid hydrolysis (72 w/w% H 2 SO 4 ) and lead to an underestimation of the sugar contents (Bird et al., 2011). In accordance with the presented results (Table 1) Bird et al. (2011) reported that the carbonate free ash content of macroalgae varied between 11 and 34 g/100 g DM Effect of on chemical composition of C. linum Three thermochemical methods HTT (180, 190 and 200 C), WO (180, 190 and 200 C) and STEX (200 and 210 C) were tested at various temperatures. HTT and WO, performed at 200 C, resulted in the highest glucan concentration of 64 and 74 g/100 g DM after (Table 1). The xylan (1.8 and 0.0 g/100 g DM) and arabinan concentrations (0.6 and 0.3 g/100 g DM) were significantly reduced during HTT and WO, due to hydrolysis and thermal degradation (Table 1). The amount of NHOC was doubled to 14 g/100 g DM by HTT. This was probably caused by the degradation of sugar monomers, rendering the carbohydrates non extractable (Table 1). In contrast, STEX performed at 200 C resulted in a lower concentration of glucan (46 g/100 g DM) but similar concentrations of xylan and arabinan (0 2 g/ 100 g DM) after (Table 1). Obviously, the process conditions during STEX were less severe compared to WO due to addition of oxygen to the process. NHOC were accumulated and the total amount raised from seven to a three times higher value (Table 1, 21 g NHOC/100 g DM) during the STEX process. PAP of C. linum conserved the concentration of glucan (C6) and arabinan (C5) in the pretreated biomass, independent of the treatment time (Table 1). The xylan concentration decreased to 70% compared to the concentration before, however, remaining at a much higher concentration than achieved with HTT, WO and STEX (Table 1). BM experiments were done in order to test the effect of mechanical on washed and dried C. linum (95 g DM/100 g). BM had no effect on the total amount of carbohydrates, therefore the concentration of C6 sugars (glucan) and C5 sugars (xylan, arabinan) remained unchanged after (36 g glucan, 6 g xylan and 12 g arabinan per 100 g DM). Total amount of ethanol obtained Yield 2 ¼ Raw glucan ðc:linum; before pretr:þ ð7þ 3.3. Carbohydrate recovery after of C. linum in the solid and liquid fraction 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Chemical composition of the macroalgae C. linum C. linum consisted of g glucan, 6 g xylan, 9 10 g arabinan, 7 g non hydrolyzable organic components (NHOC), g ash, 14 g pectin and 6 g wax per 100 g DM (Table 1). NHOC could not be hydrolyzed or extracted into solution by the concentrated acid hydrolysis. This included phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. C. linum was washed with cold tap water in order to remove salts (mainly NaCl), sand and insects prior to analysis. Salts (mainly NaCl) interfered with the biomass analysis, e.g. concentrated and dilute acid hydrolysis. The washing was done to assure a clear The carbohydrate recovery of C. linum in the solid and liquid fractions was investigated after with HTT, WO, STEX, PAP and BM (Table 2). Generally, HTT, WO and STEX provided high extractions of xylan (22 26 g/100 g xylan) and arabinan (30 54 g/ 100 g arabinan) into the hydrolysates (liquid). However, the amount of glucan (8 g/100 g), xylan (26 g/100 g) and arabinan (54 g/100 g) extracted was highest after STEX (Table 2). This was probably due to the lower water to DM ratio in the STEX process, compared to HTT and WO (Table 2). The highest glucan contents of 100 g/100 g DM and 98 g/100 g DM were recovered after HTT and WO (Table 2). This was in congruency with the results of the chemical composition of C. linum after WO (Table 1). No C6 and C5 sugars were detected in the liquid fraction after BM, indicating that most of the sugars remained in the fibers after

6 40 N. Schultz-Jensen et al. / Bioresource Technology 140 (2013) Table 1 Chemical composition of C. linum as obtained with the methods tested such as hydrothermal (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted (PAP) and ball milling (BM). The NCWM fraction of 22 g/100 g DM was found to contain 14 g pectin and 6 g wax per 100 g DM. Condition Glucan (C6) g/100 g DM Xylan (C5) g/100 g DM Arabinan (C5) g/100 g DM NHOC g/100 g DM Ash g/100 g DM NCWM g/100 g DM P Raw Raw STDEV HTT 180 C HTT 190 C HTT 200 C STDEV WO 180 C WO 190 C WO 200 C STDEV STEX 200 C STEX 210 C STDEV PAP 20 min PAP 40 min PAP 60 min STDEV BM STDEV Table 2 Carbohydrate recovery after hydrothermal treatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma assisted (PAP), and ball milling (BM) of C. linum in the resulting solid and liquid fractions. Pretreatment Glucan Xylan Arabinan g/100 g glucan g/100 g xylan g/100 g arabinan Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid HTT (200 C) 100 ± 6 2 ± 0 22 ± 5 22 ± 5 4 ± 0 30 ± 1 WO (200 C) 98 ± 6 2 ± 0 0 ± 0 25 ± 6 2 ± 0 39 ± 2 STEX (200 C) 92 ± 8 8 ± 0 21 ± 7 26 ± 6 14 ± 1 54 ± 2 PAP (60 min) 100 ± 6 75 ± ± 5 BM (18 h) 91 ± 5 90 ± ± 5 (Table 2). The chemical analysis of C. linum after BM revealed no significant changes in biomass composition after. This supported the observation, that no sugars were detected in the liquid fraction (Tables 1 and 2). The recovery of the carbohydrates was similar after with PAP and BM. This was in accordance with the results presented in Table 1. Glucan and arabinan were recovered to 100 and 98 g/100 g DM in the solid fraction of C. linum after PAP, while xylan was recovered to 75% Estimation of loss of biomass during The estimation of the loss of DM and the gain of glucan during of C. linum with HTT, WO, STEX, PAP and BM was investigated. C. linum pretreated with HTT showed the highest gain of glucan (+7 g/100 g DM) compared to WO, STEX, PAP and BM (Table 3). This was in congruency with the low extraction of glucan into the hydrolysate after HTT (Table 2), indicating easier accessibility of glucan for the acidic hydrolysis. HTT extracted less glucan, xylan and arabinan into the hydrolysate compared to the two other thermal methods (WO, STEX) investigated (Table 2). Only 30% of the DM of C. linum was lost after HTT, while 50% was lost after WO (Table 3). This might explain the higher gain of glucan after with HTT compared to WO (Table 3). HTT produced less formic acid and acetic acid than WO of C. linum (Fig. 1). It could be speculated that there was little conversion of C6 and C5 sugars into inhibitors (Tables 1 3), supporting the highest gain of glucan after HTT of C. linum. STEX showed the highest extraction of glucan into the hydrolysate (Table 2) compared to HTT and WO, matching with the highest loss of glucan ( 11 g/ 100 g DM) estimated in Table 3. PAP and BM showed no loss of DM after, indicating that only a little amount of undesirable, non-digestible residues and fermentation inhibitors was produced Fermentation inhibitors measured in the hydrolysates after The inhibitor concentration of C. linum in the hydrolysates was measured after with HTT, WO, STEX, PAP and BM (Fig. 1). HTT and WO resulted in the highest concentrations of Table 3 Estimation of the loss of DM (g/100 g DM) and the gain of glucan during of the macroalgae C. linum with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma assisted (PAP) and ball milling (BM). The measured glucan values were taken from Table 1. Pretreatment Eq. (3) Eq. (4) Eq. (5) DM before DM after Difference Loss of DM g g g g/ 100 g DM Remain DM (=100 loss) Relative expected glucan content after Relative measured glucan content after g/100 g DM g/100 g DM g/100 g DM g/100 g DM HTT ± 2 64 ± 2 +7 ± 3 WO ± 3 74 ± 2 6±3 STEX ± 2 46 ± 3 11 ± 4 PAP ± 2 38 ± 2 2±2 BM ± 2 36 ± 2 4±2 Difference between measured and expected relative glucan content after treatment

7 N. Schultz-Jensen et al. / Bioresource Technology 140 (2013) Fig. 1. Concentration of inhibitors (g/100 g DM) measured in the hydrolysates after of C. linum with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma assisted (PAP) and ball milling (BM). formic acid (0.7 and 1.8 g/100 g DM, respectively) and acetic acid (0.2 and 1.0 g/100 g DM, respectively) (Fig. 1). However, no formic acid and less acetic acid (0.1 g/100 g DM) were found after STEX. The highest amount of furfural (0.2 g/100 g DM) was measured after HTT. This is probably due to the chemical and thermal conversion of the C5 sugars to 2-furfural (Fig. 1). Interestingly, neither 2-furfural nor 5-HMF(5-Hydroxymethylfurfural) was measured after PAP and BM (Fig. 1). This is in agreement with the observation that samples pretreated with PAP and BM resulted in almost 100% recovery of glucan, xylan and arabinan (Tables 1 and 2). It can be speculated, that there was no conversion of C6 and C5 sugars into inhibitors (Tables 1 and 2). Generally, low concentrations of fermentations inhibitors were found for all 5 technologies applied and no effect on the conversion of pretreated C. linum into ethanol was observed Ethanol yield after of C. linum Pretreated C. linum was used for SSF. The yield of ethanol after was calculated in g ethanol/100 g DM (yield 1) and in g ethanol/100 g raw glucan (yield 2) as shown in Table 4. Differences in the ethanol yields of pretreated C. linum were observed (Table 4). HTT, WO, PAP and BM increased the ethanol yield (yield 1) from 11 to g ethanol/100 g DM (Table 4). Furthermore, HTT, WO, PAP and BM increased the ethanol yield (yield 2) from 31 to g ethanol/100 g glucan. The maximum was found for ball milled C. linum (Table 4). STEX, however, resulted in the lowest ethanol yield 1 and yield 2 of pretreated C. linum (13 g ethanol/ 100 g DM and 38 g ethanol/100 g glucan). The reason might be the high loss of glucan during STEX (Tables 2 4). The theoretical ethanol yields (yield 1 and yield 2) at complete DM and glucan conversion were 23 g ethanol/100 g DM and 57 g ethanol/100 g glucan (Eq. (2)). Among the thermal methods, WO resulted in the highest glucan content of 74 g/100 g DM and in the highest ethanol yield (yield 1) of 17 g/100 g DM (Tables 1 and 4). The low extraction of glucan during WO (Table 2), contributed to the high amount of glucan available for ethanol production. The highest ethanol yield (yield 1) of 18 g ethanol/100 g raw glucan was achieved with BM (Table 4). This was a clear improvement of the ethanol yield (yield 1) of 64% compared to the ethanol production form unpretreated C. linum (Table 4). The ethanol yield (yield 2) achieved with WO and BM (44 g ethanol/100 g raw glucan) was 77% of the theoretical ethanol yield (yield 2) (57 g/100 g glucan) (Table 4). A mechanical grinding process, highly different from our grinding process (BM), enhanced the ethanol yield from S. latissima (Adams et al., 2009). Therefore it can be speculated, that BM could be sufficient for the of C. linum for ethanol production. Obviously, the surface which can be active for reaction (with e.g. enzymes) is inversely proportional to the particle size. This might explain the higher ethanol yield when smaller sized particles were used for the SSF. Those results indicate that the production of ethanol from C. linum might be rather simple compared to terrestrial lignocellulosic biomass. In conclusion, WO was the preferred method, if high glucan outcome was desired. WO resulted in an 80% higher concentration of glucan in the pretreated biomass compared to unpretreated C. linum (Table 1). Consequently, WO resulted in the yield (yield 2) of ethanol of 44 g ethanol/g of raw glucan. However, about 50% loss of DM (especially C5 sugars) was observed during the process, decreasing the yield of ethanol per g DM (Tables 3 and 4). Hence, BM should be the method of choice, if high conservation of sugars and little loss of DM are in focus Perspectives and discussion of macroalgae utilization in ethanol production Pioneer research on the comparison of 5 different methods for C. linum for ethanol production has been performed, based on the experience of the of land-based biomass. To the knowledge of the authors, no other study compared the effect of thermochemical, chemical and mechanical methods on the biomass composition of macroalgae systematically. C. linum was chosen for ethanol production, since it contained a higher amount of cellulose compared to similar algae such as S. japonica (Lee et al., 2013) and G. salicornia (Wang et al., Table 4 Comparison of the ethanol yield produced from C. linum pretreated with hydrothermal treatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma assisted (PAP) and ball milling (BM) compared to raw material. Pretreatment Raw material(c. linum before pretr. a ) Glucan before Total DM after Total amount of ethanol obtained Yield 1 (total ethanol/ raw material) Yield 2 (total ethanol/ raw glucan) g g g g g ethanol/100 g DM g ethanol/100 g C6 None ± ± ± 1 31 ± 2 HTT (200 C) ± ± ± 1 39 ± 3 WO (200 C) ± ± ± 1 44 ± 3 STEX (200 C) ± ± ± 1 38 ± 3 PAP (60 min) ± ± ± 1 41 ± 3 BM (18 h) ± ± ± 1 44 ± 3 Theoretical yield 23 ± 1 57 a Referred to g raw material in column 1.

8 42 N. Schultz-Jensen et al. / Bioresource Technology 140 (2013) ). Other macroalgae used for biofuel production e.g. Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria longissima contained less glucan (6 g/100 g DM and 20 g/100 g DM) (Coppalo et al., 2009). Consequently, the maximum ethanol yield (yield 1) of C. linum found in our study (18 g ethanol/100 g DM) was up to 125% higher than reported in other studies using different types of macroalgae such as G. salicornia and S. japonica (Jang et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2011). The ethanol yield for G. salicornia for example, pretreated in a 2-stage hydrolysis processs, was 8 g ethanol/100 g DM (Wang et al., 2011). The ethanol yield of S. japonica after with thermal acid hydrolysis resulted in 7.7 g ethanol/100 g DM (Jang et al., 2012). Apparently, the type of and the type of macroalgae are significantly contributing factors for enhancement of the ethanol yield from marine biomass. 4. Conclusions A comprehensive research on the comparison of five different methods for C. linum for ethanol production was performed based on the experience of the of land-based biomass. Results have shown that the with BM resulted in 64% higher raw material based ethanol yield compared to unpretreated C. linum. Furthermore, the with WO and BM resulted in 42% higher raw glucan based ethanol yield compared to unpretreated C. linum. Finally, the of C. linum with WO and BM resulted in 77% of the theoretical ethanol yield (57 g/100 g glucan). Acknowledgements Support from the Danish Energy Council research program project Microwave and plasma assisted of wheat straw for bioethanol production (EFP07, ENS to 0.043) is acknowledged. The study was also financially supported by the PSO project (Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca): The authors want to thank Tomas Fernqvist, Ingelis Larsen and Annette Eva Jensen for technical assistance in the and the analysis work. Prof. Claus Felby at Copenhagen University is acknowledged for academic advice on ball milling. References Adams, J.M., Gallagher, J.A., Iain, S.D., Fermentation study of Saccharina latissima for bioethanol production considering variable pre-treatments. J. Appl. Phycol. 21, Bastianoni, S., Coppola, F., Tiezzi, E., Colacevich, A., Borghini, F., Focardi, S., Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: a comparison with sunflower feedstock. Biomass Bioenergy 32, Bird, M.I., Wurster, C.M., de Paula Silva, P.H., Bass, A.M., de Nys, R., Algal biochar production and properties. Bioresour. Technol. 102, Bjerre, A.B., Olesen, A.B., Fernqvist, T., Plöger, A., Schmidt, A.S., Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 49, Bruhn, A., Dahl, J., Nilsen, H.B., Nikolaisen, L., Rasmussen, M.B., Markager, S., Olesen, B., Arias, C., Jensen, P.D., Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion. Bioresour. Technol. 102, Burton, T., Lyons, H., Lerat, Y., Stanleym, M., Rasmussen, M.B., A Review of the Potential of Marine Algae as a Source of Biofuel in Ireland. Sustainable Energy Ireland, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland, <www.sei.ie>. Coppalo, F., Simoncini, E., Pulselli, R.M., Bioethanol potentials from marine residual biomass: an energy evaluation. In: Brebbia, Tiezzi (Eds.), Fifth International Conference on Ecosystems and Sustainable Development, Italy. Eder, M., Lütz-Meindl, U., Pectin-like carbohydrates in the green alga Micrasterias characterized by cytochemical analysis and energy filtering TEM. J. Microsc. 231, Flindt, M.R., Kamp-Nielsen, L., Marques, J.C., Pardal, M.A., Bocci, M., Bendoricchio, G., Salomonsen, J., Nielsen, S.N., Jørgensen, S.E., Description of the three shallow estuaries: Mondego River (Portugal), Roskilde Fjord (Denmark) and the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). Ecol. Model. 102, Graham, H.D., Stabilization of the Prussian blue colour in the determination of polyphenols. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, Jang, J.-S., Cho, Y., Jeong, G.-T., Kim, S.-K., Optimization of saccharification and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from seaweed, Saccharina japonica. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 35, Kaar, W.E., Cool, L.G., Merriman, M.M., Brink, D.L., The complete analysis of wood polysaccharides using HPLC. J. Wood Chem. Technol. 11, Kiran, E., Teksoy, I., Güven, K.C., Güler, E., Güner, H., Studies on seaweeds for paper production. Bot. Mar. 23, Lee, J.Y., Li, P., Lee, J., Ryu, H.J., Oh, K.K., Ethanol production from Saccharina japonica using an extremely low acid followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Bioresour. Technol. 127, Leipold, F., Schultz-Jensen, N., Kusano, Y., Bindslev, H., Jacobsen, T., Decontamination of objects in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas. Food Control 22, Olsson, L. et al. (Eds.), In the series: Scheper, T. et al. (Eds.), Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Springer, Berlin. ISBN Palmqvist, E., Hähn-Hägerdal, B., Galbe, M., Larsson, M., Stenberg, K., Szengyel, Z., Tengborg, C., Zacchi, G., Design and operation of a bench-scale process development unit for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosics. Bioresour. Technol. 58, Park, J.I., Lee, J., Sim, S.J., Lee, J., Production of hydrogen from marine macroalgae biomass using anaerobic sewage sludge microflora. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 14, Roesijadi, G., Jones, S.B., Snowden-Swan, L.J., Zhu, Y., Macroalgae as a biomass feedstock: a preliminary analysis, prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy under the contract DE-ACO5-76RL01830 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Ross, A.B., Anastasakis, M., Kubacki, M., Jones, J.M., Investigation of the pyrolysis of brown algae before and after pre-treatment using PY-GC/MS and TGA. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 85, Rudolf, A., Baudel, H., Zacchi, G., Hähn-Hägerdal, B., Lidén, G., Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-pretreated bagasse using Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400 and Pichia stipitis CBS6054. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 99, Schultz-Jensen, N., Kádár, Z., Thomsen, A.B., Bindslev, H., Leipold, F., Plasma assisted of wheat straw for ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 165, Schultz-Jensen, N., Leipold, F., Bindslev, H., Thomsen, A.B., Plasma-assisted of wheat straw. Appl. Biochem. 163, Thomsen, M.H., Thygesen, A., Thomsen, A.B., Hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw at pilot plant scale using a three-step reactor system aiming at high hemicellulose recovery, high cellulose digestibility and low lignin hydrolysis. Bioresour. Technol. 99, Thomsen, M.H., Thygesen, A., Thomsen, A.B., Identification and characterization of fermentation inhibitors formed during hydrothermal treatment and following SSF of wheat straw. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 83, Thygesen, A., Madsen, B., Thomsen, A.B., Lilholt, H., Cellulosic fibres: effect of their processing on fibre bundle strength. J. Nat. Fibres 8, Vandendriessche, S., Vincx, M., Degraer, S., Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: a case study from Belgian coastal waters. J. Sea Res. 55, Wang, X., Liu, X., Wang, G., Two-stage hydrolysis of invasive algal feedstock for ethanol fermentation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53,

### Production of 2nd generation bioethanol from lucerne with optimized hydrothermal pretreatment

Downloaded from orbit.dtu.dk on: Feb 03, 2016 Production of 2nd generation bioethanol from lucerne with optimized hydrothermal pretreatment Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

### Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates

Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates Anneli Nilsson Department of Chemical Engineering II, Lund University P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden In this work substrate feeding rate to

### The Macroalgae Biorefinery (MAB3) with Focus on Cultivation, Bioethanol Production, Fish Feed and Sustainability Assessment

The Macroalgae Biorefinery (MAB3) with Focus on Cultivation, Bioethanol Production, Fish Feed and Sustainability Assessment Dr. Anne-Belinda Bjerre Xiaoru Hou, Annette Bruhn, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Mette

### THE COST OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUGAR FOR COMMODITY CHEMICAL PRODUCTION. Mark F. Ruth, Robert J. Wooley

THE COST OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUGAR FOR COMMODITY CHEMICAL PRODUCTION Mark F. Ruth, Robert J. Wooley National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT Currently, some commodity

### Cellulosic ethanol Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 - Enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic

Cellulosic ethanol Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 - Enzymes for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic Application sheet Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol involves the liberation of sugars from

### Conversion of macroalgae to bioethanol and fish feed preliminary trials in the MAB3 project

Conversion of macroalgae to bioethanol and fish feed preliminary trials in the MAB3 project Anne-Belinda Bjerre, Senior Scientist PhD Danish Technological Institute 3rd Danish Macroalgae conference Grenå

### Process evaluation of industrial strains

BioREFINE-2G Workshop: Bioplastics from 2nd Generation Biorefineries York, June 5, 2015 Process evaluation of industrial strains Gunnar Lidén, Lund University This project is co-funded by the European

### Biorefinery concepts in the paper industry

Biorefinery concepts in the paper industry Graziano Elegir, Tullia Maifreni, Daniele Bussini Innovhub, Paper Division Azienda Speciale della Camera di Commercio di Milano OUTLINE General aspects on the

### Ethanol from lignocellulose overview. Neue Krafstoffe Berlin, 6. Mai 2008

Ethanol from lignocellulose overview Neue Krafstoffe Berlin, 6. Mai 2008 Content I. Introduction II. Ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks i. Pretreatment ii. Enzymatic hydrolysis iii. Fermentation III.

### Continuous ethanol fermentation using membrane bioreactors (MBR)

Continuous ethanol fermentation using membrane bioreactors (MBR) Johan Thuvander Department of Chemical Engineering, LTH, Lund University Abstract Continuous ethanol production using membrane bioreactors

### INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. Production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization

Selection of production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization Karl Rumbold (karl.rumbold@tno.nl) INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Industrial Biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing

### Sustainable production of biogas and bioethanol from waste

Sustainable production of biogas and bioethanol from waste Waste - Resources on the wrong way Jens Ejbye Schmidt Head of programme NRG Biomass & Bioenergy Biosystem Division Risø The Technical University

### FERMENTATION INHIBITORS

A NOVOZYMES SHORT REPORT: FERMENTATION INHIBITORS KATE BRANDON SUTTON ASSOCIATE SCIENTIST Novozymes Tel. +4544460000 Krogshøjvej 36 2880 Bagsværd Denmark bioenergy@novozymes.com Novozymes is the world

### FAO Symposium on. The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bio-energy in developing countries"

FAO Symposium on The role of agricultural biotechnologies for production of bio-energy in developing countries" ETHANOL PRODUCTION VIA ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SUGAR-CANE BAGASSE AND STRAW Elba P. S. Bon

### Process Technology. Advanced bioethanol production and renewable energy generation from ligno-cellulosic materials, biomass waste and residues

Process Technology Advanced bioethanol production and renewable energy generation from ligno-cellulosic materials, biomass waste and residues The INEOS Bio process technology produces carbon-neutral bioethanol

### Production of Butanol from Switchgrass using a Novel Detoxification Process

Production of Butanol from Switchgrass using a Novel Detoxification Process Niblack Research Scholar B.S. in Biosystems Engineering, Oklahoma State University Graduation Date: May 09, 2015 jonathan.overton@okstate.edu

### HYPE. High Efficiency Consolidated Bioprocess Technology for Lignocellulose Ethanol

October 2011 HYPE High Efficiency Consolidated Bioprocess Technology for Lignocellulose Ethanol Volume 1, Issue 1 Project overview Fuels from lignocellulose biomass have a high potential to reduce GHG

### Factors Effecting Ethanol Fermentation Via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

Factors Effecting Ethanol Fermentation Via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation A study to determine the optimal operating conditions to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol during enzymatic

### Using Straw and MSW for Biorefineries in Denmark Technical Developments and Demonstration Activities

FACULTY OF SCIENCE Using Straw and MSW for Biorefineries in Denmark Technical Developments and Demonstration Activities Henning Jørgensen Department of Geosciences and Nature Ressource Management Faculty

### MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY AND MATERIAL RECOVERY FROM WASTE. Tomáš Rohal, Business Development CEEI 10-Oct-2013

MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY AND MATERIAL RECOVERY FROM WASTE Tomáš Rohal, Business Development CEEI 10-Oct-2013 1 Who We Are Central Europe Engineering & Investment (CEEI) offers the state-of-the-art

### Preliminary Design for Cellulosic Ethanol Production Facility Capable of Producing 50 MMgal/yr

Preliminary Design for Cellulosic Ethanol Production Facility Capable of Producing 50 MMgal/yr The goal of this project was to develop a complete preliminary design for a cellulosic ethanol facility with

### PEGRES project. Paper, bioenergy and Green chemicals from nonwood RESidues by a novel biorefinery. Juha Tanskanen

Paper, bioenergy and Green chemicals from nonwood RESidues by a novel biorefinery A Nonwood Biorefinery Paper, bioenergy and green chemicals from nonwood residues by a novel biorefinery Leader of the consortium

### Extracting Valuable Lignin for Biorefinary Production and Replacement of Fossil Fuels

Extracting Valuable Lignin for Biorefinary Production and Replacement of Fossil Fuels Extrayendo valiosa lignina para Producción en Biorefinería y sustitución de Combustibles Fósiles Anders Larsson Martin

### Cultivation of seaweed biomass for nutrients and energy

Marine Ingredients Conference, Oslo 23-24.September 2013 Cultivation of seaweed biomass for nutrients and energy Jorunn Skjermo, Silje Forbord, Ole Jacob Broch, Kjell Inge Reitan, Roar Solbakken, Kristine

### EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION December 9, 2006 Maximum points for problem is 40

A. Introduction EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION December 9, 2006 Maximum points for problem is 40 The following experiment deals with the phenomena of respiration, especially fermentation, in living organisms.

### Municipal Solid Waste Used as Bioethanol Sources and its Related Environmental Impacts

International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water Documenting the Cutting Edge of Environmental Stewardship Volume 1 Issue 1 Article 5 7-14-2008 Municipal Solid Waste Used as Bioethanol Sources and its

### Ethanol production by Mucor indicus using the fungal autolysate as a nutrient supplement

Department Ethanol production by Mucor indicus using the fungal autolysate as a nutrient supplement 1 Reihaneh Asachi 1,* 1 2, Keikhosro Karimi, Mohammad J. Taherzadeh of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan

### Two-stage Gasification of Untreated and Torrefied Wood

A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 50, 2016 Guest Editors: Katharina Kohse-Höinghaus, Eliseo Ranzi Copyright 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-41-9; ISSN 2283-9216 The

### Renewable Energy. The Ethanol Production Process Dry Mill Flow Meters and Controls. Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases

Renewable Energy The Ethanol Production Process Dry Mill Flow Meters and Controls Direct Reading Flowmeters For Liquids and Gases Ethanol- How it s made... There are three main uses for ethanol (industrial,

### 20 TWh biodrivmedel genom jäsning - bioteknik. 2011-10-26 KSLA Seminarium Jan Lindstedt SEKAB E-Technology

20 TWh biodrivmedel genom jäsning - bioteknik. 2011-10-26 KSLA Seminarium Jan Lindstedt SEKAB E-Technology The SEKAB Group www.sekab.com SEKAB E-Technology SEKAB BioFuel Industries SEKAB BioFuels and Chemicals

### The LignoRef project; - A national research initiative to enhance biorefinery process developments in Norway -

The LignoRef project; - A national research initiative to enhance biorefinery process developments in Norway - Nasjonalt Seminar Industriell Bioteknologi, Oslo, 06.06.2013 Karin Øyaas, Kai Toven 1, Ingvild

### Fuel From Seaweed Project supported by the INTERREG IVA Programme managed by SEUPB

Fuel From Seaweed Project supported by the INTERREG IVA Programme managed by SEUPB Michele Stanley Coordination Centre SAMS, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Argyll, Scotland T: 01631559000 F: 01631559001

### BIOVALUE PROJECT 2 ANDERS PETER S. ADAMSEN AARHUS UNIVERSITY HEALTH 04 JUNE 2015

BIOVALUE PROJECT 2 ANDERS PETER ADAMSEN CONTENT Protein work KU Effekt of time lag between harvest and processing Flow sheeting Pilot plant OLIGOSACCHARIDES - A Upgrading of C5 oligomers Structural composition

### GCE Environmental Technology. Energy from Biomass. For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014

GCE Environmental Technology Energy from Biomass For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014 Energy from Biomass Specification Content should be able to: Students should be able

### Bio-oil for the Future

Bio-oil for the Future Fast Pyrolysis Liquids as Energy Carriers Technology supplied by Integrated Fast Pyrolysis VTT Technology The first integrated industrial plant will be the demonstration by Fortum

### Techno-economic and ecological evaluation of a wood biorefinery

Techno-economic and ecological evaluation of a wood biorefinery Martina Haase 1, Magnus Fröhling 1, Jörg Schweinle 2, Birgit Himmelreich 3 1) Industrial Production, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) 2) Johann

### Efficient conversion of starch and cellulose from co-products of food industry and agriculture to ethanol

Efficient conversion of starch and cellulose from co-products of food industry and agriculture to ethanol Detmold, April 25-26, 2006 Johan van Groenestijn & Doede Binnema 3 projects Ethanol from starch

### Ethanol Production Using Organic Waste

Ethanol Production Using Organic Waste Daewon Pak, Jun Cheol Lee, Jae Hyung Kim Graduate School of Energy and Environment Seoul National University of Technology Research Background Bioethanol in Korea

### Business strategy: dal progetto Pro.E.Sa agli investimenti per la realizzazione degli impianti

Business strategy: dal progetto Pro.E.Sa agli investimenti per la realizzazione degli impianti Business strategy: from the Pro.E.Sa project to the investments for plants constructions Ing. Dario Giordano,

### BioFuels: Cellulose Lab Teacher Guide

BioFuels: Cellulose Lab Teacher Guide Driving Question: How is biomass processed to become a biofuel? In this activity your students will: 1. Investigate how to prepare a biofuel source for conversion

### Lesson 6. BioMara gratefully acknowledges the following funders: Content Section - How Algae can be used to produce Biofuel.

Lesson 6 Content Section - How Algae can be used to produce Biofuel. From lesson 5 you have discovered that there are many uses for algae. You also have discovered that algae can be used to produce biofuels.

### Torrefaction and Fast Pyrolysis

Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Lecture 10 Torrefaction and Fast Pyrolysis Adriaan van Heiningen University of Maine Montevideo, May 15 th, 2012 Biomass; Difficult Energy Source Jaap Kiel, IEA Bioenergy workshop

### HYDROLYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW HEMICELLULOSE AND DETOXIFICATION OF THE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

HYDROLYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW HEMICELLULOSE AND DETOXIFICATION OF THE HYDROLYSATE FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION Junping Zhuang, Ying Liu, Zhen Wu, Yong Sun, and Lu Lin * Xylitol can be obtained from wheat straw hemicellulose

### Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Resources TU München - R&D activities -

Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Resources TU München - R&D activities - Chair of Chemistry of Biogenic Resources Schulgasse 18, 94315 Straubing, Germany Sieber@tum.de www.rohstoffwandel.de Locations Freising

### RENEWABLE CO 2 FLOWS FROM BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE FIELDS: EXISTING AND FUTURE ETHANOL MILLS

RENEWABLE CO 2 FLOWS FROM BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE FIELDS: EXISTING AND FUTURE ETHANOL MILLS Larissa Noel, VTT Work Package 3 NEO-CARBON RESEARCHERS S SEMINAR Outline Brazilian Sugarcane Biorefineries Objective

### Basics of Kraft Pulping & Recovery Process. Art J. Ragauskas Institute of Paper Science and Technology Georgia Institute of Technology

Basics of Kraft Pulping & Recovery Process Art J. Ragauskas Institute of Paper Science and Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Outline History Goals Process Overview Kraft Pulping Process Kraft

### Integrated Process for Production of Succinic Acid from Biomass

Integrated Process for Production of Succinic Acid from Biomass BIO World Congress June 17, 2013 Allen Julian Chief Business Officer, MBI Who we are: Not-for-profit, founded in 1981, subsidiary of MSU

### Flexibility in wheat bioethanol plants - Conditions for conversion to lignocellulosic feedstock

Flexibility in wheat bioethanol plants - Conditions for conversion to lignocellulosic feedstock Hanna Nilsson Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University March 2008 Abstract Bioethanol is mostly

### Anaerobic digestion fundamentals II Thermodynamics. Dr Yue Zhang

Anaerobic digestion fundamentals II Thermodynamics Dr Yue Zhang Lecture 2, Monday 12 th August 2013 Course RE1: Biogas Technology for Renewable Energy Production and Environmental Benefit, the 23 rd Jyväskylä

Chemical Analysis and Testing Laboratory Analytical Procedures Table of Contents (as of 09-23-98) Issue Date: Procedure Number: 11-01-94 Standard Method for Determination of Total Solids in Biomass...

### Assignment 8: Comparison of gasification, pyrolysis and combustion

AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY KE-40.4120 Introduction to biorefineries and biofuels Assignment 8: Comparison of gasification, pyrolysis and combustion Aino Siirala 309141 Assignment submitted

### Example: 2. Solution. Provide depth D = 1.5 m. Sewage flow = 10000 x 170 x 0.80 x 10-3 = 1360 m 3 /d. Now, 0.182(1+. = 1.562. Q L = 2.

Example: 2 Design low rate trickling filter for secondary treatment of sewage generated from 10000 persons with rate of water supply 170 LPCD. The BOD 5 after primary treatment is 110 mg/l and BOD 5 of

### Bacterial Contaminants of Fuel Ethanol Production

USDA - ARS - National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research Bacterial Contaminants of Fuel Ethanol Production Kenneth M. Bischoff Bioproducts and Biocatalysis Research Bacterial Contaminants of

### Briefing Paper: What are Conversion Technologies? November 2011 Primary Author: Bob Barrows

Briefing Paper: What are Conversion Technologies? November 2011 Primary Author: Bob Barrows What are conversion technologies? The term conversion technology encompasses a broad range of technologies used

### Biofuels for Transportation. Dr Kate Haigh, Prof Johann Görgens, Process Engineering

Biofuels for Transportation Dr Kate Haigh, Prof Johann Görgens, Process Engineering Why Biofuels? Besides electricity, transport is the biggest CO 2 emitter in South Africa Due to Sasol s coal processes

### From Biomass. NREL Leads the Way. to Biofuels

From Biomass NREL Leads the Way to Biofuels The Wide World of Biofuels Fuel Source Benefits Maturity Grain/Sugar Ethanol Biodiesel Corn, sorghum, and sugarcane Vegetable oils, fats, and greases Produces

### TANNIC ACID. SYNONYMS Tannins (food grade), gallotannic acid, INS No. 181 DEFINITION DESCRIPTION

TANNIC ACID Prepared at the 71 st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 39 th JECFA (1992), published in the combined Compendium of Food

### WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY.

WASTE TO ENERGY TECHNOLOGY. Introduction. The Holistic Waste To Energy Process as portrayed on our flow sheet for the conversion of organic wastes into gaseous and liquid fuels, electrical power, fertiliser

### Papapostolou 1, E. Kondili 1, J.K. Kaldellis 2

Technological and Environmental Impacts Evaluation of Biomass and Biofuels Supply Chain Papapostolou 1, E. Kondili 1, J.K. Kaldellis 2 1 Optimisation of Production Systems Lab 2 Soft Energy Applications

### APPLICATION SHEET. Novozymes Spirizyme products for use in saccharification and fermentation

FUEL ETHANOL APPLICATION SHEET Novozymes Spirizyme products for use in saccharification and fermentation The Spirizyme product range offers a wide variety of possibilities to optimize yields, throughput,

### THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER COURSE CONTENT 1. Define matter and state of matter 2. Properties of solids, liquids and gases 3. Changes in matter Physical and chemical changes Phase changes of

### SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE

SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE Prepared at the 28th JECFA (1984), published in FNP 31/2 (1984) and in FNP 52 (1992). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 55 th JECFA (2000). An ADI not specified

### SPATIAL VARIATION IN THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SACCHARINA LATISSIMA

SPATIAL VARIATION IN THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SACCHARINA LATISSIMA Bruhn A, Nielsen MM, Manns D, Rasmussen MB, Petersen JK & Krause-Jensen D 4 TH NORDIC ALGAE CONFERENCE GRENÅ 2014 BIOCHEMICAL VARIATION

### From solid fuels to substitute natural gas (SNG) using TREMP

From solid fuels to substitute natural gas (SNG) using TREMP Topsøe Recycle Energy-efficient Methanation Process Introduction Natural gas is a clean, environmentally friendly energy source and is expected

### The sunliquid process - cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues. Dr. Markus Rarbach Group Biotechnology Biofuels & Derivatives

The sunliquid process - cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues Dr. Markus Rarbach Group Biotechnology Biofuels & Derivatives 2 A globally leading company in specialty chemicals 6 116 235 4 Sales

### May 3, 2011. Claudia Stamme, Andreas Scheidig, Klaudija Milos

Enzymatic algae processing Claudia Stamme, Andreas Scheidig, Klaudija Milos Direvo Industrial Biotech In 2008 Direvo Industrial Biotech was spun out of Direvo AG which pharmaceutical applications was sold

### Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

### Fermentative Hydrogen Production by a Newly Isolated Mesophilic Bacterium HN001

Fermentative Hydrogen Production by a Newly Isolated Mesophilic Bacterium HN001 Hiroki NISHIYAMA, Shigeharu TANISHO b Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University

### Ricardo-AEA. Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technology overview. Presentation to New Energy Forum Event. Biofuels, where next?

Ricardo-AEA Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technology overview Presentation to New Energy Forum Event Biofuels, where next? Judith Bates London, 10 th July, 2013 www.ricardo-aea.com 2 Biofuels feedstocks

### CLEAN FRACTIONATION OF BIOMASS - STEAM EXPLOSION AND EXTRACTION. Mazlan Ibrahim. Master of Science in Forest Products

CLEAN FRACTIONATION OF BIOMASS - STEAM EXPLOSION AND EXTRACTION Mazlan Ibrahim Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements

### production combination is ethanol (low value) and succinic acid (high value), together with acetic acid and electricity as co-products.

Summary The increasing world energy demand, depletion and unequal distribution of fossil resources, and the dangers caused by climate change are the driving forces for the development of alternative energy

### Production Scale Briquetting of Torrefied Biomass

Production Scale Briquetting of Torrefied Biomass Wolfgang Stelte Danish Technological Institute DTI European Biomass Conference 2013 Copenhagen, 7 th June 2013 Danish Technological Institute Center for

### methane and compost production from organic resources Morten Brøgger Kristensen Chief Technology Officer

Aikan Technology methane and compost production from organic resources Morten Brøgger Kristensen Chief Technology Officer Aikan is innovated from experience Solum has been operating the Danish Aikan plant

Biogas upgrading technologies Swedish Gas Centre IEA Bioenergy Task 37 Energy from biogas and landfill gas Anaerobic digestion 1000 800 kg 600 400 H2O CH4 CO2 VS Ash 200 0 Before AD After AD Biogas cleaning

### Plant Genomic DNA Extraction using CTAB

Plant Genomic DNA Extraction using CTAB Introduction The search for a more efficient means of extracting DNA of both higher quality and yield has lead to the development of a variety of protocols, however

### Hydrotreatment and Compound Identification of Distillate Bio-crude Fractions from Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wood

Hydrotreatment and Compound Identification of Distillate Bio-crude Fractions from Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wood Claus Uhrenholt Jensen Steeper Energy ApS & Aalborg University Denmark Motivation

### The Power of Poop. Methane production through anaerobic fermentation. Lesson 6. Overview. Biology and agriculture concepts

The Power of Poop Methane production through anaerobic fermentation Overview This activity is designed to demonstrate anaerobic fermentation by having students build small-scale anaerobic digesters. The

### Biogas Yield Potential Research of the Wastes from Banana Manufacturing Process under Mesophilic Anaerobic Fermentation

Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 5(19): 4740-4744, 2013 ISSN: 2040-7459; e-issn: 2040-7467 Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013 Submitted: September 28, 2012 Accepted:

### Determination of Acrylamide in Food Simulants

Determination of Acrylamide in Food Simulants WARNING: Acrylamide monomer is toxic and readily absorbed through the skin. The monomer should be handled in a fume cupboard using gloves. 1 SCOPE This method

### 1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

### Module 2: Solid Fossil Fuel (Coal) Lecture 15: Coal Gasification

1 P age Module 2: Solid Fossil Fuel (Coal) Lecture 15: Coal Gasification 2 P age Keywords: Coal preparation, purification, gasification, gasifier, syngas 2.6 Coal gasification Coal gasification technology

### BIOMASS TO BIOGAS IN RURAL AREAS

BIOMASS TO BIOGAS IN RURAL AREAS PhD Carmen MATEESCU National Research and Development Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, Splaiul Unirii no. 313, Bucharest-3, Postal Code 030138, Romania carmen.mateescu@icpe-ca.ro

### Properties of Carbohydrates : Solubility, Reactivity, and Specific Rotation

EXPERIMENT 5 Properties of Carbohydrates : Solubility, Reactivity, and Specific Rotation Materials Needed About 3-5 g each of Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Ribose, Galactose, Lactose, Sucrose, Starch sodium

### How to build a comprehensive knowledge platform in Norway Opportunities through cooperation Potential for a "Norwegian BIC"

Biorefinery / Biobased Economy How to build a comprehensive knowledge platform in Norway Opportunities through cooperation Potential for a "Norwegian BIC" Realising the potential of Biorefinery related

### Soluble Dietary Fiber generation from Apple Pomace

Soluble Dietary Fiber generation from Apple Pomace Martha Dolores Bibbins-Martínez a, Blanca Enciso-Chávez, Soley Berenice Nava Galicia a, Dalia Castillo Hernández a a CIBA-IPN, Tlaxcala, México (marthadbm1104@yahoo.com.mx)

### Hydrothermal Upgrading of Lignite and Biomass. Dr Bill Rowlands Chief Scientist Ignite Energy Resources & Licella

Hydrothermal Upgrading of Lignite and Biomass Dr Bill Rowlands Chief Scientist Ignite Energy Resources & Licella Advisory Forward looking statements This presentation contains "forward looking statements"

### Basics. Energy from the sun, via photosynthesis in plants

Biomass Basics Energy from the sun, via photosynthesis in plants This is the same energy we use as food This is the same energy that made fossil fuels; fossil fuels are concentrated over time by the heat

### for 2nd Generation Biofuel Technology (Proven Equipment = Easy ScaleS

Fiber and Chemical Division, BusinessB usiness Unit nit BioFuel BioFuel Equipment - derived from Pulp & Fiberboard applications for 2nd Generation Biofuel Technology (Proven Equipment = Easy ScaleS cale-up)

### Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Determination of Insoluble Solids

### Biotechnological Production of Xylitol: Evaluation of Detoxification Process with Residual Lignin Using Response Surface Methodology

A publication of 415 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 38, 2014 Guest Editors: Enrico Bardone, Marco Bravi, Taj Keshavarz Copyright 2014, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-29-7; ISSN 2283-9216

### Integrating a Renewable Energy Degree into an Existing Mechanical Engineering Program

Integrating a Renewable Energy Degree into an Existing Mechanical Engineering Program Corey Jones, Robert Rogers, John Anderson Department of Mechanical Engineering Oregon Institute of Technology Klamath

### Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles stabilized with. intermolecular disulfide bonds. Supporting Information

Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles stabilized with intermolecular disulfide bonds Wentan Wang, Yanbin Huang*, Shufang Zhao, Ting Shao and Yi Cheng* Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University,

### Application Note. Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Fruit Juices by UV Detection. Summary. Introduction. Experimental Sample Preparation

Application Note Determination of Nitrite and Nitrate in Fruit Juices by UV Detection Category Food Matrix Fruit Juice Method HPLC Keywords Ion pair chromatography, fruit juice, inorganic anions AZURA

### Specification and Test Methods

Technical Information EUDRAGIT L 100 and Specification and Test Methods Ph. Eur. Methacrylic Acid - Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer (1:1) Methacrylic Acid - Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer (1:2) USP/NF JPE

### Glycell TM Technology for cost effective sugar intermediates. 12 th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology July 2015

Glycell TM Technology for cost effective sugar intermediates 12 th Annual World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology July 2015 FORWARD looking statements This presentation does not constitute, or form

### Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

### Working With Enzymes. a world of learning. Introduction. How Enzymes Work. Types and Sources of Enzymes

Working With Enzymes a world of learning Presented by Peter J Ball, Southern Biological. For further information, please contact the author by phone (03) 9877-4597 or by email peterjball@southernbiological.com.

### Development of BIOMASS Supply and Demand in the PRIMES Energy Model

Development of BIOMASS Supply and Demand in the PRIMES Energy Model 1. Introduction The work performed so far has involved the following tasks: 1. Specification of the biomass module 2. Development of

### The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

### Global business from research in the BioRefine and Water areas. Dr. Heidi Fagerholm Chief Technology Officer

Global business from research in the BioRefine and Water areas Dr. Heidi Fagerholm Chief Technology Officer November 26 th, 2012 Our purpose: Reducing the gap between global water demand and supply 2 A