Fall Protection Susan Harwood Grant Training Program 2013 Wood Frame Construction

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1 WRONG BETTER Fall Protection Susan Harwood Grant Training Program 2013 Wood Frame Construction

2 Learning Objectives Understand how OSHA defines residential construction Understand the proper use of guardrails during framing operations Identify best practices during roof truss installation Understand the proper use of personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) during roofing activities

3 Your Rights Under OSHA You have the right to: A safe and healthful workplace Know about hazardous chemicals Information about injuries and illnesses in your workplace Complain or request hazard correction from employer Training Hazard exposure and medical records File a complaint with OSHA Participate in an OSHA inspection Be free from retaliation for exercising safety and health rights 3

4 Employer Responsibilities Provide a workplace free from recognized hazards and comply with OSHA standards Provide training required by OSHA standards Keep records of injuries and illnesses Provide medical exams when required by OSHA standards and provide workers access to their exposure and medical records Not discriminate against workers who exercise their rights under the Act (Section 11(c)) Post OSHA citations and abatement verification notices Provide and pay for PPE 4

5 Complain or Request Corrections Workers may bring up safety and health concerns in the workplace to their employers without fear of discharge or discrimination, as long as the complaint is made in good faith. Workers may file a complaint with OSHA if they believe a violation of a safety or health standard, or an imminent danger situation, exists in the workplace. OSHA regulations protect workers who complain to their employer about unsafe or unhealthful conditions in the workplace. 5

6 Fall Fatalities in Residential Construction FATALITIES TOTAL FALLS FALLS FROM ROOFS Source: BLS CFOI Data

7 OSHA s Fall Protection Rule and OSHA Instruction STD Compliance Guidance for Residential Construction (b)(13) states workers engaged in residential construction activities 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system. or, by alternative fall protection measures allowed under (b) for particular types of work. Addressed further under OSHA s STD Compliance Guidance for Residential Construction

8 Greater Hazard If the employer can demonstrate that it is infeasible or creates a greater hazard to use the required fall protection systems, the employer must instead develop and implement a written site specific fall protection plan in accordance with 29 CFR (k). OSHA does not consider "economic infeasibility" to be a basis for failing to provide conventional fall protection. There is a presumption that it is feasible and will not create a greater hazard to implement at least one of the fall protection systems. OSHA expects that the fall protection methods listed in (b)(13) can be used without significant safety or feasibility problems for the vast majority of residential construction activities.

9 Definition of Residential Construction In order to be classified as residential construction, two elements must be met: The end-use of the structure being built must be as a home, i.e., a dwelling; and The structure being built must be constructed using traditional wood frame construction materials and methods. The limited use of steel I-beams to help support wood framing does not disqualify a structure from being considered residential construction.

10 Deck Protection All open edges and holes must be protected Guardrails or other forms of fall protection must be provided Protect the Edge Protect the Hole

11 Guardrail Systems Here we see a floor perimeter completely protected by a guardrail system.

12 Guardrails for Edges These guardrails were set in a way that the walls could be set without removing them.

13 Fall Hazard Stud walls with 24 OC studs for non-load bearing walls must have guardrails. Any opening over 19 wide must be guarded Stud walls on 16 centers are acceptable.

14 Other Work Methods Here is a guardrail system still in place that allows installation of dry wall and painting before installing the permanent handrail and removing the guardrail.

15 Fall Hazards Stairways must have railings before they can be used. Floor holes must be protected immediately as decking is constructed around the hole. Not Good!!

16 Guardrail Systems

17 Guardrail Systems Brackets and boots are available for guardrail systems that can either be side mounted or deck mounted. Employers should look to the manufacturer s instructions for proper installation..

18 Window Guard Rails Window openings less than 39 high must be guarded

19 Stay Off Top Plates These workers are standing on the top plates of the walls to install trusses. Workers should instead work from scaffolds or ladders.

20 Fall Hazards All sites have unprotected sides or floor holes at some point during construction. If these sides and holes are not protected, injuries from falls can happen. There s no reason to work like this

21 Installing Roof Trusses Workers installing roof trusses from interior bracket scaffolds or ladders.

22 Wall or Bracket Scaffolds Here are examples of a wall bracket or top plate, scaffold systems.

23 Other Work Methods These workers are working from bracket/top plate scaffold systems. Guardrails must be able to support 200 pounds in all directions.

24 Climbing on Trusses Workers installing trusses should not stand on truss cords, especially while the truss is still supported on a crane. Employees should work from ladders or scaffolds or work platforms installed in the trusses.

25 Working on Trusses Workers on trusses must be protected from falling. Fall protection must be established to protect workers The stability of the truss system must be addressed before any fall arrest system is attached.

26 Trusses as Fall Arrest Anchors Single Trusses CANNOT be used as fall arrest anchors unless the anchorage is approved by a qualified person. NOTE: Most single trusses CANNOT support a fall arrest load

27 Collapses can occur from failure to adequately brace or from an overload. Collapse of the truss system can result in serious injuries or death Truss Collapse

28 Alternate Access Use of lifts or scaffolds keeps workers off of areas where the use of fall arrest is difficult. Proper set up is required.

29 Use of Guardrails Engineered guardrail systems allow easy access for sheathing, roofing and utility installation. Multiple trades can be protected by these kinds of systems.

30 Pre-Assembly of Truss Sections Flying pre-assembled structures into place can minimize worker exposure to fall hazards. Assemble as many parts of the building as possible on the ground. But proper engineering and crane issues must be addressed. Properly assembled and braced IAW the manufacturer s instruction and the BCSI guide

31 Fall Arrest System Anchors For Wood Frame Wood members must be evaluated to assure that can support the forces imposed by fall arrest anchors

32 Anchors An example of a spreader attached to roof trusses. Manufacturer s requirements must be met. NOTE: Truss systems and individual members must be evaluated to assure that they can support the forces imposed by fall arrest anchors

33 Guardrails for Roofing Guardrails in place during reroofing activities. Note: The picture on the right lacks protection for the rake edge so some means of protecting this worker (guardrail, safety nets or PFAS) must be used.

34 Personal Fall Arrest Systems on Roofs PFAS in use during roofing and re-roofing activities.

35 Personal Fall Arrest System Anchor Point Anchors must be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee attached for fall arrest, or must be designed and used: As part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two. Or under the supervision of a qualified person. Employers should look to the manufacturer s instructions or the recommendations of a properly qualified person for proper installation. This is a 900 lb. Anchor

36 Roof Anchors

37 Permanent Fall Anchorage on Roof Workers can attach a safety rope to the anchors. One worker per anchor. Anchors must be inspected before use. Anchors

38 Roof Fall Restraint Workers are restrained from reaching the edge. If they can reach the edge, full fall arrest must be implemented

39 Use of Retractables Anchorage must be able to support at least 3,000 lbs. Retractables CANNOT be used in a restraint set.

40 Shingle Demolition or Tear-off Fall protection is required during all roof operations Incomplete Fall Protection

41 Wood Frame Fall Anchors These anchor straps are installed during framing and available for use during roofing and siding. NOTE: Wood members must be evaluated to assure that they can support the forces imposed by fall arrest anchors

42 Ladder Jack Scaffolds Platforms shall not exceed a height of 20 feet. Workers on ladder jacks must use a PFAS. Fall arrest must be tied-off above. Ladders used to support ladder jacks shall be placed, fastened and equipped with devices to prevent slipping.

43 Pump-jack Scaffolds Pump jacks are safer than ladder jacks. There are fall issues when anchoring pump jack poles.

44

45 Additional Information Additional information can be obtained from the Reference Files located on the included CD. Additional material can be found at websites such as: OSHA NIOSH National Association of Home Builders AGC of America

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