1 ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT RATES BY AGE, GENDER, AND TIME OF DAY BASED ON THE 1990 NATIONWIDE PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION SURVEY Dawn L. Massie and Kenneth L. Campbell February 1993 FINAL REPORT The L'n~versity of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, Michigan
2 1990 NPTS This work was supported by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The opinions, finhngs, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
3 Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. UMTRI Government Accbssion No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Analysis of Accident Rates by Age, Gender, and Time of Day Based on the 1990 Nationwide Personal' Transportation Survey 7. Author($) Dawn L. Massie and Kenneth L. Campbell 9. Performing Organlzatlon Name and Addrbsr The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan Sponsoring Agency Name and Address Insurance Institute for Highway Safety 1005 N. Glebe Rd. Arlington, Virginia Report Dale February Pe*Orming Organization Code 8. Performing Organization Report No. UMTRI Work Unit No. 11. Contract or Grant NO Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report 14. Sponsoring Agency Code IS. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract Passenger-vehicle travel data from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) are combined with accident data from the 1990 Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and the 1990 General Estimates System (GES) to produce accident involvement rates per vehiclemile of travel. The same data sources are also used to generate rates per driver and per capita. Analyses are conducted according to the age and gender ofthe driver for fatal involvements, injury involvements, and all police-reported accidents. Elevated mileage-based rates of fatal involvements were observed for drivers and 75 and over. The youngest drivers had 3.0 times the overall risk offatalinvolvement per mile driven, while the oldest drivers experienced 3.8 times the overall risk. Considering accidents of all levels of severity, drivers had the highest rate per mile in 1990, experiencing 3.3 times the risk of drivers of all ages. Drivers 75 and older recorded a rate 2.0 times the overall. Gender-related differences were observed in the 1990 accident involvement rates. Per mile driven, men had about 1.5 times the risk of women of experiencing a fatal accident. However, the difference in the fatal rate between men and women was most extreme among the younger age groups, and by age 60, the rates for men and women were essentially identical. For non-fatal accidents, a different picture emerged. Per mile driven, women were found to have a 26% higher injury involvement rate and 16% higher rate in all police-reported accidents compared to men. Women had hqher rates of non-htal acdden ts than men the same age for every age group 25 and over. 17. Key Words Travel, accident rates, age, gender I8 Dfslrlbullon Statement Unlimited 19. Securlty Classif. (01 lhls report) YO Socur~tv Class~t (01 th~s pogb) 21. No. of Pages 22. Pricb None None 90
4 1990 NPTS Acknowledgment The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge the sponsor of this research, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, and in particular the contributions of Allan Williams and Paul Zador.
5 Executive Summary Every seven or so years, the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NTPS) is conducted to collect data on the type and amount of personal travel that occurs in the United States. The most recent NPTS was conducted in 1990 by Research Triangle Institute under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and four other agencies of the U.S. Department of Transportation. The random sample survey was carried out by means of telephone interviews. Respondents provided detailed information on all personal trips they made over a particular 24-hour period. This information included the purpose, time of day, mileage distance, and means of transportation for each trip. Weighting the raw data in the NPTS file yields national, annual estimates of personal travel. This report uses the 1990 NPTS data to calculate accident involvement rates in passenger vehicles. The objective is to compare the risk of accident involvement among different groups of people, defined by age and gender. Risk is measured by calculating the number of collisions per some unit of exposure. NPTS supplies three measures of exposure that are used in this report. The primary measure is vehiclemiles of travel. A mileage-based rate is calculated for a group by dividing the number of involvements they experienced by the number of miles they drove. Mileage-based rates directly assess risk while driving. The two other measures of exposure used are number of licensed drivers and number of persons, Calculating rates per driver and per capita allow one to assess a group's contribution to the overall traffic accident problem. Groups that drive relatively few miles will have a relatively low accident rate per driver, and groups with a low percentage of licensed drivers will have a relatively low rate per capita, compared to other groups with the same risk per mile. The accident data come from two sources. The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) supplies data on all fatal accidents occurring on public roads in the U.S. The source for accidents of all levels of severity is the General Estimates System (GES), a probability-based sample of police-reported accidents in the U.S. When accident rates are calculated per mile driven, elevated rates are observed among the youngest and oldest dnvers. For example, drivers had 3.0 times the overall risk of fatal involvement, and drivers 75 and over had 3.8 times the overall risk in Considering all police-reported accidents, teenage drivers had 3.3 times the overall risk, and the oldest drivers had 2.0 times the overall risk per mile. When other measures of exposure are used, however, a different view of the elderly emerges. Because this group drives relatively few miles each year per person, their fatal involvement rate per licensed driver is only slightly above the overall rate. Furthermore, because a relatively low percentage of people over 74 have driver licenses at all, their per capita fatal involvement rate is lower than the overall rate. For non-fatal accidents, the per dnver and per capita rates for this age group are even lower relative to younger people. Thus, people 75 and over experience a high risk of accident involvement when they drive, but they are involved in a relatively low number of acc~dents because their driving is limited relative to younger people. Analyses are also conducted according to the gender of the driver. Per mile driven, men had about 1.5 times the risk of women of experiencing a fatal accident
6 1990 NPTS in The difference in rates between men and women the same age was most pronounced among the younger age groups. By age 60, the fatal rates for men and women were essentially the same. In contrast, women were found to have a 26% higher injury involvement rate and a 16% higher rate in all police-reported accidents per mile driven compared to men. Women had higher rates of non-fatal accidents than men the same age for every age group 25.and over. NPTS travel data contain the starting time and duration in minutes of every trip. By defining daytime as 6 AM to 9 PM and nighttime as 9 PM to 6 AM, trip mileage may be classified as occurring during the day or at night. By categorizing accidents in a similar manner, daytime and nighttime rates per mile driven can be calculated. In general, the risk of accident is higher at night than during the day. Per mile dnven, the nighttime fatal involvement rate for drivers of all ages was 4.6 times the daytime rate. The difference varied with age of the driver, however. Among drivers 20-24, the nighttime fatal rate was 6.1 times the daytime rate, but among drivers 75 and over, the nighttime rate was only 1.1 times the daytime rate. Comparisons are also made using the 1983 NPTS, the last year the survey was conducted. Comparing 1983 and 1990 rates provides an encouraging view of traffic safety trends in the 1980s. Passenger vehicle travel increased dramatically, rising 41% between the two years, but the rate of accidents per vehicle-mile travelled declined. The fatal involvement rate dropped 21%, the injury involvement rate fell 34%, and the rate of involvement in all police-reported accidents declined 23%. Lower accident rates were enjoyed by dnvers of all ages and by men as well as women.
7 Contents Executive Summary... v List of Tables... ix List of Figures... xi 1 Introduction Data Sources Accident Rates Rates by Age Group Rates by Single Year of Age Mileage-Based Accident Rates 5 3 Comparison of Accident Rates by Mileage. Licensed Drivers. and Population Fatal Rates Per Licensed Driver and Per Capita Injury and All Rates Per Licensed Driver and Per Capita Mileage-Based Rates for Men and Women Rates by Age and Gender Travel and Licensure by Age and Gender Discussion of Accident Rates for Men and Women Discussion of Rates by Light Condition... 5 Mileage-Based Rates by Light Condition Fatal Rates by Day and Night Injury and All Rates by Day and Night Changes in Travel and Hates Between 1983 and Travel Licensure Rate and Average Annual Mileage Fatal Rates Injury and All Rate% Summary of Accident Involvement by Age and Gender References Appendix A: Tables...-59
8 1990 NPTS
9 Tables Table 4-1: Mileage and Accident Distributions by Gender Table 4-2: Distribution of Involvements by Land Use and Gender Table 4-3: Table 5-1: Table 7-1: Table 7-2: Table 7-3: Table 7-4: Table 7-5: Table 7-6: Involvement Rates Per 100 Million Miles by Collision Type and Gender Involvement Rates Per 100 Million Miles by Collision Type. Gender. and Light Condition Age Distribution of Exposure and Involvement Categories and Relative Risk Based on Three Exposure Categories and Age Distribution of Exposure and Involvement Categories. Males Only and Relative Risk Based on Three Exposure Categories. Males Only 1983 and Age Distribution of Exposure and Involvement Categories. Females Only and Relative hsk Based on Three Exposure Categories. Females Only 1983 and Table A-1: Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles Table A-2: Injury Involvements Per Million Miles Table A-3: All Involvements Per Million Miles Table A-4: Fatal Involvements Per Lcensed Driver Table A-5: Fatal Involvements Per Capita Table A-6: Licensure Rate by Age Table A-7: Average Annual Mileage Per License Holder Table A-8: Injury Involvements Per Licensed Driver Table A-9: Injury Involvements Per Capita Table A-10: All Involvements Per Licensed Dnver Table A-11: All Involvements Per Capita Table A-12: Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles. Males vs. Females
10 1990 NPTS Table A-13: Injury Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-14: All Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-15: Miles Driven by Age and Gender Table A-16: Licensure Rate and Average Annual Mileage Per License Holder Table A-17: Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles. Day vs. Night Table A-18: Daytime Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-19: Nighttime Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-20: Injury Involvements Per Million Miles. Day vs Night Table A-21: Daytime Injury Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-22: Nighttime Injury Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-23: All Involvements Per Million Miles. Day vs. Night Table A-24: All Daytime Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-25: All Nighttime Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-26: Miles Driven by Age Group and Table A-27: Miles Driven by Age Group. Males Only and Table A-28: Miles Driven by Age Group. Females Only and Table A-29: Licensure Rate and Average Annual Mileage Per License Holder and Table A-30: Percentage of Overall Travel by Age Group and Table A-31: Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles Table A-32: Fatal Involvements Per 100 Million Miles. Males vs. Females Table A-33: Injury Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females (77 Table A-34: All Involvements Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females
11 Figures Figure 2-1: Fatal Crashes Per 100 Million Miles Figure 2-2: All Crashes vs. Injury Only Rates Figure 2-3: Mileage-Based Crash Rates by Driver Age... 7 Figure 2-4: Fatal Crashes Per 100 Million Miles (single year of age)... 8 Figure 2-5: Injury Crashes Per Million Miles (single year of age)... 8 Figure 2-6: All Crashes Per Million Miles (single year of age)... 9 Figure 3-1: Fatal Crashes Per Licensed Driver Figure 3-2: Fatal Crashes Per Capita Figure 3-3: Fatal Crashes by Driver Age Figure 3-4: Licensure Rate and Average Annual Mdeage Figure 3-5: Injury Crashes Per Licensed Driver Figure 3-6: Injury Crashes Per Capita Figure 3-7: Injury Crashes by Driver Age Figure 3-8: All Crashes Per Licensed Driver Figure 3-9: All Crashes Per Capita Figure 3-10: All Crashes by Driver Age Figure 4-1: Relative Risk of Involvement. Males vs Females Figure 4-2: Fatal Crashes Per 100 Million Miles. Males vs Females Figure 4-3: Injury Crashes Per hlillion Miles. Males vs. Females Figure 4-4: All Crashes Per Million Miles. Males vs. Females Figure 4-5: 1990 NPTS Tmvel by Age and Cender Figure 4-6: Licensure Rate by Age and Gender Figure 4-7: Average Annual Mileage by Age md Gender Figure 4-8: Regression of Average Annual Mileage and Rates Figure 5-1: Fatal Rates: Day ve. Night by Age Figure 5-2: Fatal Rates: Day vs. Night by Gender
12 1990 NPTS Figure 5-3: Daytime Fatal Rates by Gender Figure 5-4: Nighttime Fatal Rates by Gender Figure 5-5: Injury Rates: Day vs. Night by Age Figure 5-6: Injury Rates: Day vs. Night by ~ender Figure 5-7: Daytime Injury Rates by Gender Figure 5-8: Nighttime Injury Rates by Gender Figure 5-9: All Crashes: Day vs. Night by Age Figure 5-10: All Crashes: Day vs. Night by Gender Figure 5-11: Daytime Overall Rates by Gender Figure 5-12: Nighttime Overall Rates by Gender Figure 6-1: Driver Travel by Age and Figure 6-2: Driver Travel by Gender and Figure 6-3: Driver Travel by Age. Males Only and Figure 6-4: Driver Travel by Age. Females Only and Figure 6-5: Licensure Rate by Age and Figure 6-6: Average Annual Mileage by Age and Figure 6-7: Percentage of Overall Travel by Age and Figure 6-8: Fatal Crashes Per 100 M~ll~on h11les and Figure 6-9: Fatal Crashes Per 100 hllll~on Miles by Gender and Figure 6-10: Fatal Crashes Per 100 S11111on Miles, Males Only and Figure 6-11: Fatal Crashes Per 100 Mllllon Mll~s. Females Only and Figure 6-12: Injury Crashes Per Milllon MlIes. XIRIPS Only and Figure 6-13: Injury Crashes Per >11111on hlrltfi. Females Only and Figure 6-14: All Crashes Per Mill~on 511les.,\.Iales Only and Figure 6-15: All Crashes Per Mill~on 5111es. Females Only and
13 1 Introduction In evaluating the contribution of different factors to traffic safety issues, two types of information are useful. One is prevalence and the other is risk. Prevalence is simply the proportion of accidents involving a particular factor, such as nighttime or an alcohol-involved driver. Countermeasures aimed at a factor associated with a large proportion of accidents have greater potential benefit than those aimed at something that occurs only rarely. Risk is the likelihood of experiencing a collision involving a particular factor per unit of exposure to that factor. The identification of high-risk factors is also useful when determining where to channel collisionreduction efforts. There are different measures of exposure to accidents, each more suited to particular purposes. In this report, rates are calculated for groups of people according to three different measures of exposure: vehicle-miles of travel, number of licensed drivers, and number of people. The rate that most directly reflects risk is the mileage-based rate. It is calculated by dividing the number of accidents experienced by drivers in the group over the course of a year by the number of miles that group drove in the same year. The second type of rate is the licensed driver rate. This is calculated by dividing the number of driver involvements in a group by the number of licensed dnvers in that group. The third type of rate is the per capita rate, calculated by dividing the number of driver involvements in a group by the total number of people in the group. These three different rates yield different information. If one is interested in the risk of accident involvement once a person is behind the wheel of the car, the mileage-based rate should be used. Sometimes when comparing groups, however, one wants a measure of exposure that combines the risk per mile with the amount that people drive. Two groups of dnvers may have the same involvement rate on a per-mile basis, but the group that drives fewer miles per person will have the lower rate per driver. In this sense, the licensed driver rate combines the risk per mile and the average number of miles per driver, risk x --- miles - risk mile dnver dnver ' Similarly, the per capita mtc includes non-drivers (unlicensed people) as well as licensed drivers, so the per capita rate combines the risk per mile, miles per driver, and licensed drivers per capita, - risk miles drivers - risk X --- x mile dnver capita capita ' Of the three types of rates, the mileage-based rate most directly assesses risk because it reflects the likelihood of experiencing an accident when actually driving.1 The licensed driver and per capita rates are more useful from a public health standpoint, where the contribution of a group to the overall problem is often of interest. For example, expressing nsk per capita allows the comparison of disparate phenomena, such as trafilc fatdit~es, homicides, and cancer deaths. l0f course, the risk nf accldent ~nvnlvrrncnt per m~le IS not constant. Risk varies from mile to mile with factors such as rnad class. 11 ht cnndlt~nn, ruravurban, and traffic density. Some of these differences will be discussed later in SIB repnrt.
14 1990 NPTS In this report, exposure data derived from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) are combined with data from two national accident files to produce rates of driver involvements in accidents. Three different levels of accident severity are considered, and rates are presented according to driver age and gender and time of day. While 1990 rates are the main emphasis, comparisons are made with rates from 1983, the previous NPTS data year. 1.1 Data Sources The purpose of the NPTS is to provide comprehensive and nationally representative data on personal travel in the United States. The survey gathered information on all types of personal trips conducted for any purpose, using any mode of transportation except boat or ship. The 1990 NPTS was conducted by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and four other agencies of the U.S. Department of Transportation. This marks the fourth appearance of the NPTS; earlier surveys were conducted in 1969, 1977, and RTI contacted a random sample of households by telephone and collected information on all trips taken by household members during a designated 24-hour period, called the travel day (RTI, 1991). Household members over age 13 were interviewed directly, while older members reported travel information for children 5 to 13 years old. Respondents provided information such as the purpose, time of day, mileage distance, and means of transportation for each trip. All personal trips, including trips to and from work, were reported in the survey. Trips made as an essential part of work were excluded, but respondents estimated their average weekly work travel. The NPTS survey was conducted from March 2, 1990 through March 24, The household response rate was 8452, and within survey households, trip information was collected for 87% of eligible respondents (household members 5 and older). Sample coverage included all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The sample was stratified according to geography, time of year, and day of week to ensure uniform data collection. The completed survey contains records for 22,317 households, 48,385 persons, and 149,546 travel day trips. Weight factors applied to the raw data in the NPTS file yield national, annual estimates of personal travel. The source of fatal accident data in this report is the 1990 Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS). FARS is a census of motor-vehicle accidents involving at least one fatality and occurring on public roads in the United States. The states report data for FARS to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in a standard format. NHTSA then constructs the FARS data file for each year. Also developed by NHTSA, the General Estimates System (GES) is a probability-based sample of police-reported accidents of all levels of severity. The data for GES are coded from police reports. Each state has its own accident reporting system, and data elements vary from state to state. One purpose of GES is to provide a reasonably large, nationally representative set of accident data in a common format. This report uses GES for data on injury accidents and accidents of all severities.
15 Introduction 1.2 Accident Rates This report compares 1990 accident involvement rates for drivers by age and gender. The following section contains mileage-based rates by age group and by single year of age. Section 3 presents per driver and per capita rates by age and compares them to the mileage-based rates. Section 4 compares rates per mile for men and women, and Section 5 expands the analysis to daytime versus nighttime rates. Section 6 discusses some of the changes in travel and accident rates between 1983 and The report concludes with a discussion of the contribution of different groups of drivers to the overall problem of motor-vehicle accidents.
16 1990 NPTS
17 2 Mileage-Based Accident Rates This section contains 1990 involvement rates based on miles driven. The procedure is to divide the number of 1990 involvements by drivers of a particular age by the total number of miles driven in 1990 by all persons the same age. The rates pertain only to travel and involvements in passenger vehicles (cars, vans, pickup trucks, utility vehicles). Involvements are categorized according to the maximum injury severity sustained by any person involved in the accident. FARS data supply the number of fatal involvements, that is, driver involvements in accidents where at least one person died. GES data are used for injury involvements (including fatal injuries) and involvements of all severities (including property-damage-only accidents). Driver mileage data come from two parts of the NPTS dataset. Personal travel was derived from driver-reported trips in the NPTS travel day file. Travel made as an essential part of work was derived from an estimate in the person file of weekly miles driven as part of work. Personal and work travel were summed, and the appropriate weights were applied to arrive at annual travel estimates. Personal miles account for about 87% of the NPTS passenger vehicle travel. 2.1 Rates by Age Group Overall there were 3.03 fatal involvements per 100 million vehicle-miles of travel (VMT) in 1990 (Table A-1). The youngest age group, drivers 16-19, had a rate of The rate declined with each older age group to a low of 1.75 for the group. The rate then rose with each age group, reaching a high of for drivers 75 and older (Fig. 2-1). Based on miles driven, teenagers had 3.0 times the risk of being in a fatal accident compared to all drivers, and persons over 74 had 3.8 times the overall risk. U) - Q L 15- S,,.- k d b' - z Fatal Crashes Per 100 Million Miles FARS and NPTS * * a i I I I I I G Mcrap Figure
18 1990 NPTS Similar rate curves are shown for injury involvements and all police-reported accidents in Figure 2-2. In 1990 there were 2.04 injury involvements per million VMT (Table A-2) and 6.08 involvements of all severities per million VMT (Table A- 3). These rate curves share the general U-shape of the fatal curve, with one notable difference. While all three curves rise among the older age groups, the rate for the oldest group does not exceed the rate for the youngest group among all involvements or injury involvements, as it does among fatal involvements. For both injury and all accidents, teenagers had 3.3 times the risk of involvement compared to drivers overall, while drivers 75 and older had 2.0 times the risk of involvement. This pattern is likely related to the increased probability of fatality among the elderly given a crash of a particular severity (Evans, 1988; Pike, 1989). 25 All Crashes vs. In'u Onl Rates 1990GESan 19 b% Y NP S $ 520 t.5 \ \ - \ 5 \ \ \ k E *, \ 5 \ -. AlCrashes-)). IryuryOnly I \ / \ / * I / rn #4* h.- d --* C K-. *en ' w--w-*.-*-*-*-*--w,a+-* * e rcul W54 6M res- Figure 2-3 shows the mte cunlw for fiitd. injury, and all involvements together. All the rates are plotted ywr m~ll~on miles, with injury and all involvements plotted against the ltbft v-iims rind fiital ~nvolvements against the right. The graph reinforces the general shape shard by these curves, with elevations at either end of the age spectrum.
19 Mileage-Based Accident Rates 25 Mileage-Based Crash Rates by Driver Age $20 - u s.5-5 B 4 a: y \ \ \ \ 1 *, \ I + All -M - Injury + Fatal \ \ / \ * \\ d/ * \ h.,fo* \ *-----*--*--d M ' \>-w-*=*-we - 1 k. a--k. - - r Age Group Figure E.. V) r a [r 2.2 Rates by Single Year of Age Figure 2-4 is a plot of fatal rates by single years of age, from age 16 to age 75. The two rightmost ticks on the x-axis represent ages and age 80 and over. The ends of this curve are steeper than the curve in Figure 2-1, which indicates even higher rates among the very youngest and oldest drivers compared to their aggregate rates. For example, the rdte for the group was 9.2 involvements per 100 million VMT, but dnvers age 16 had a rate of 16.7, close to twice the rate of the teenage group as a whole. The rate was 12.5 for drivers age 17, 7.9 for age 18, and 7.2 for age 19. At the other end of the age spectrum, the fatal rate rises from 5.4 for drivers age 75, to 9.5 for age 76-79, to 19.3 for drivers 80 and above.
20 1990 NPTS V) -(D 20- Fatal Crashes Per 100 Million Miles 1990 FARS and NPTS... 0 z > w ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t r ~ ~ 4 r ~ t ' 8 - ~ ~ r ~ - o 3 l ~ T - ~ ~ - ~ Driver Age Figure 2-4 Injury rates show the same elevation among the youngest drivers, but not so much among the oldest (Fig. 2-5). The overall teenage rate was 6.7 involvements per million VMT. Drivers age 16 had a rate of 14.7, which is 2.2 times higher than for all teenagers. The rate was 10.2 for drivers age 17,5.3 for age 18, and 4.7 for age 19. Drivers age 80 and over had a rate of 6.4, which is 3.1 times the rate for drivers of all ages. In contrast, the rate for drivers age 16 was 7.2 times the overall rate. 15- Injury Crashes Per Million Miles 1990 GES and NPTS - 8 s b d g 1... o ~ ~ 25 ~. v r~ T r 3 u 35 ~ T!. ~ 45 ~. ~ 55 ~ T T. T. - ~ u - P ~. h A e e Figure
21 Mileage-Based Accident Rates The rate curve for all police-reported crashes (Fig. 2-6) is very similar to the injury rate curve. The rate for all drivers was 6.1 involvements per million VMT. Drivers age 16 had a rate of 43.2, which is 7.1 times the overall rate. Drivers age 17 had 5.0 times the overall rate. The oldest drivers, age 80 and above, had a rate 2.9 times the overall. 50 All Crashes Per Million Miles 1990 GES and 1990 NPTS 07 - P) & C 0.- : P 9 m * * *... O ~ ~ s ~ v r m q Dnvet Age tt.7t~nvtr.-y.vt~~~r~r..r~~t3 lo,oatn,, u ~ - ~ 1 ~ ~, ~ l Figure 2-6
22 1990 NPTS
23 3 Comparison of Accident Rates by Mileage, Licensed Drivers, and Population This section presents involvement rates per licensed driver and per capita. Both the estimated number of licensed,drivers and the estimated number of persons were derived from the NPTS person file.2 Each respondent to the survey was asked if they had a license, and this information was inflated to produce national estimates of the number of license holders. Similarly, the weighted number of respondents over age 15 in NPTS yields an estimate of the total national driving-age population. Rates were derived by dividing the number of passenger-vehicle involvements by drivers of an age group by the number of licensed drivers or the total number of people in that age group. Licensed driver and per capita rates by age are compared to the mileage-based rates for each of the three levels of accident severity. 3.1 Fatal Rates Per Licensed Driver and Per Capita Figure 3-1 shows the number of fatal involvements per 100,000 licensed drivers. The curve is similar to the mileage-based fatal curve, except there is only a modest upturn in the rate for older drivers. Overall there were about 30 fatal involvements per 100,000 drivers in 1990 (Table A-4). Teenage drivers had the highest rate with The rate then declined with each age group, reaching a low of 18.1 for drivers 55-59, before rising again, reaching a rate of 35.3 for drivers 75 and over. Teenage drivers had a risk of involvement that was 2.2 times the overall risk, while drivers 75 and above had a risk 1.2 times the overall Fatal Crashes Per Licensed Driver FARS and N PTS 5 >,... 2i... vl$ sa 4MO I I t 1 1 I I I PC;rap 2Alternative sources of llcen~d dnvrr and ppulst~nn data were considered. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publishes rtate-rcprted numbers of licensed drivers each ear in Highway Statistics. One difficulty wth these data I* that the states use different age group i rackets in their reporting, which necessitates dlsrrggrcgaunn of the data into common age groups. Another problem is
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