Reflections on the Internal Operating Mechanism of Scientific and Technological Innovation of Colleges

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1 Reflections on the Internal Operating Mechanism of Scientific and Technological Innovation of Colleges SUN Yan Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan, China, Abstract:With the development of the integration process of scientific and technological economy, the scientific and technological innovation of colleges and universities is playing a direct role in economic activities, increasingly highlighting its economic functions. Facing with increasingly fierce challenges from the era of knowledge economy and the competition of the scientific and technological innovation, every country government and community are highly concerned with the capability of the scientific and technological innovation colleges and universities. The government and the industry of every country urgently require colleges and universities to provide talents, knowledge and technology and so on, so as to promote the economic and social development much better. Key words:knowledge-based economy, scientific and technological innovation capacity of colleges and universities, Operating mechanism, Build 1 Introduction This article holds that we should build and improve the high-tech innovation and the ability of running the internal mechanism,and enhance the capacity of scientific and technological innovation of colleges and universities, from three aspects: the optimization of the internal management system of technological innovation, the innovation of technology innovation management system, the improvement of the scientific and technological evaluation system, the innovation of scientific and technological innovation mechanisms of cultivating talents and the sharing mechanisms of human resources. Today, the 21st century, our mankind has entered the era of knowledge-based economy. Taking the scientific and technological innovation as a basic strategy, improving the scientific and technological innovation capability increasingly, forming strong competitive advantage, building an innovative country are the whole world's leading development and the mainstream. Facing with the fierce international competition and the challenges of a knowledge-based economy, our government has successively put forward the strategy of economic development through science-technology and education, the strategy of building up the strength of the country with talented people, building an innovation-oriented country. And the scientific and technological innovation of colleges and universities -- an important component of national innovation system has played the leading and basic role in the implementation of the strategy of economic development through science-technology and education, the strategy of building up the strength of the country with talented people, and building an innovation-oriented country. Chinese national innovation system is the system composed of the four parts: knowledge innovation systems, the technological innovation systems, knowledge-spread systems and knowledge-application systems. Colleges and universities undertake the important tasks of talent fostering, knowledge innovation, and social services; they are the important innovation sources and knowledge spreading points, having become the subsystems of the country s innovation system. In February 2006, the People's Republic of China State Council promulgated The National Scientific and Technological Planning Framework of Development and Medium-and-long-term ( ), making it clear that building a national innovation system with Chinese characteristics at this stage focuses on five aspects, three of which are involved in colleges and universities scientific and technological innovation, with much concern and attention. As we all know, in developed countries, enterprises, the main body of technological innovation, is the 153

2 core of the national technology innovation system and knowledge application systems. In our country, as a result of their own strength, will and a number of other reasons, enterprise has not assumed the function of technological innovation. Institutions assume the production, dissemination, and the transferring of the knowledge, technological innovation and personnel training of functions and tasks, which role is mainly embodied in the knowledge innovation systems, knowledge-spread systems and technological innovation systems. Currently, colleges and universities at home and abroad have made much research on the importance capability of scientific and technological innovation, as well as the linkages between elements of the scientific and technological innovation capacity, but a little and non-inherent about how colleges and universities build and improve the operational mechanism for scientific and technological innovation. This paper views scientific and technological innovation from a philosophical and innovative point and puts forward the reflections on how to build and improve the internal operational mechanism of scientific and technological innovation. 2 Text 2.1 View the Scientific and Technological Innovation and the Universities Scientific and Technological Innovation from a Philosophical Perspective and the Perspective of Innovation Systems The scientific innovation defined the first time in the philosophy of science is by Toulmin (S. Toulmin). Toulmin said: "All major scientific innovation (scientific innovation)... is intended to use the concept of new experience for us to make a new interpretation..." [1] Therefore, we can say that technological innovation is a complex human thinking activity to explore. Scientific and technological innovation began in the human impetus to strive to solve all the confusion of things. The concept of scientific innovation, in a high degree of the philosophy of science is a general guidance. Scientific and technological innovation system of colleges and universities is a big system, including many sub-systems and its operation mechanism. A good mechanism can promote innovation activities, and is an important resource in scientific and technological innovation of colleges and universities. The scientific and technological innovation mechanism of colleges and universities is a systematic project. Operational mechanism of colleges and universities in scientific and technological innovation refers to various innovative elements (including human resources, disciplines, team, funding, bases, books, scientific equipment, papers, monographs, patents, science and technology awards, the signing of the results and objectives, structure, systems, government, science and technology intermediary, the environment, markets, etc.) which not only promote each other and relate to one another for the completion of a certain combination of features, according to certain rules and procedures of the principle of co-ordination and operation mode. 2.2 Build and Improve the Scientific and Technological Innovation Capacity of Colleges and Universities in the Internal Operational Mechanism The capacity usually refers to the ability or skills to complete certain activities. The scientific and technological innovation capacity of colleges and universities is using their own resources, following the basic law of the scientific and technological innovation and market economy, through a variety of scientific and technological innovation activities such as personnel training, knowledge, innovation and technological innovation, outputs high-level scientific and technological innovations, and forming a competitive advantage and innovation of technology in the comprehensive capacity characteristics. This article holds that building and improving the operating mechanism capacity of scientific and technological innovation of colleges should be mainly including three aspects: first, colleges and universities should enhance the quality of internal management of scientific and technological innovation system, innovate and technology innovation management system; second, colleges and universities should improve science and technology evaluation system; third, innovation colleges and universities should foster technological innovation mechanism and share human resources. 2.3 Innovation of Internal Technology Management System of Colleges and Universities 154

3 Science and technology are primary productive forces. Management science is the superstructure of the productive forces of science and technology. Whether the scientific management is good or bad depends on the quality of managers. Management system innovation is the internal cause and the key for colleges and universities to construct high-level talents and build scientific and technological innovation The Innovation of the Concept The concept of innovation is a prerequisite to innovate management system. Under the new situation, the work of science and technology management should change their ideas,make innovation, conscientiously study the latest management theories and methods of science and technology, continuously broaden their knowledge, study scientific and cultural knowledge, understand what you control, continuously improve the management level, do a good job in IT management innovation; strive to improve themselves and enhance their own sense of innovation and innovation capacity; walk out of the original model, consciously become the initiator of major IT projects, the leading person, coordinator and participants of the linkman and managers from science and technology projects Enhance the Driving Force of Innovation Firstly, subjects are the basic unit of training, the source of scientific and technological innovation, the fertile ground for economic growth [2]. The courses are the key to the realization of scientific and technological innovation. Only by strengthening the construction of colleges and universities, enhancing the competitiveness of courses, we can remain the driving force for technological innovation. In response, colleges and universities should highlight the dominant and the distinctive subjects; make use of cross-disciplinary and emerging courses advantages; integrate the advantage of the rich intellectual resources; use different forms, different types of cooperation, and optimize the related scientific and technological strength of major projects in accordance with the requirement, and reorganize strategically the scientific and technological personnel; form new cooperation groups of scientific and technological; carry out the battle involving large corps in order to achieve significant scientific research, to enhance the school's ability to project and enhance our competitiveness. Secondly, we must fully exploit the resources of scientific and technological innovation, opening up new areas of research and direction, to continue technological innovation and achieve scientific and technological resources, information sharing, the establishment of interdisciplinary research centers; and make a new breakthrough through enhancing the capacity of scientific and technological innovation of a team, enhancing the scientific and technological innovation capacity of colleges and universities Mechanisms and Environmental Innovation At first, we must rationalize the relationships between the teaching and scientific research, academic and administrative in the colleges and universities within a reasonable allocation of the management functions of various organizations; reform the drawbacks of the separation of the courses and resources; and establish both independent and combined vertical and horizontal management structure of academic and administration, teaching and scientific research. Second, it is necessary to establish and improve the academic decision-making system: teaching, scientific research institutions and their uncertainties of executive-level management positions; rationalizing the academic decision-making system; constraining and combining the administration and supervision of the management mechanism. Third, we should improve the scientific management mechanism, and strengthen the management of scientific research institutions; particularly the colleges and universities should strengthen the building of the National Engineering Technology (Research) Center and Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education and strengthen the building of the "open, mobile, joint, competition" the operating mechanism. Fourth, we should innovate technology management, strengthen the reporting process of research management, build the dynamics track management of the innovation; the National Engineering Technology (Research) Center and Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education strengthen the inspection and supervision, coordination and services of the technology competent authorities. 2.4 Promote the Evaluation of High-tech System, Accelerate Well-developing of the Innovation Activities At home and abroad technology evaluation widely used in science and technology projects, scientific 155

4 and technological institutions, science and technology personnel, scientific and technological achievements, technology awards and the various aspects of science and technology policy, has become an important tool and security of the optimization of scientific and technological resources of today's countries, and promoted the sustainable development of science and technology. We should continue to improve the evaluation system of science and technology, gradually integrate into international standards, in order to advance and innovate science and technology so as to ensure the smooth implementation development of capacity-building objectives and development strategies. And it is an important task of the current high-tech innovation of colleges and universities in scientific and technological innovation. The establishment of a sound evaluation system must be combined with practical work, and reform the scientific evaluation of the current irrational and incentive mechanisms, and establish the evaluation mechanism and incentive mechanism to improve the original level research of colleges and universities By evaluating science and technology, optimizes the allocation of scientific and technological resources such as human sources, finance, material and scientific and technical information achieves the sharing of scientific research, equipments in colleges and universities and more products, more significant innovation, ensure the implementation of capacity-building objectives and development strategies of colleges and universities in scientific and technological innovation. 2.5 Innovate the Talent Nurturing Mechanisms and the Sharing of Human Resources Mechanisms The innovative talents have always been the first elements of science and technology innovation of higher education. Whether the original innovation, integrated innovation, or the digestion and absorption or renovation both require talents holding different knowledge structure and the capacity structure, and emphasize the core function of the innovative talent. Colleges and universities as the cradle of cultivating high-quality personnel and bases cultivate and foster innovative scientific and technological talents, which is incumbent responsibility and mission. Therefore, colleges and universities gather to focus on training and innovative talents, the achievement of shared human resources The Implementation of Scientific and Technological Innovation Team System Top talent and innovation-led team of scientific and technological innovation is the soul of colleges and universities is an important guarantee for efficiency of investment returns in scientific and technological innovation of colleges and universities. Setting up a national team of high-level scientific and technological innovation in colleges and universities needs manpower (the core is academic leaders), and material resources (a national laboratory or research base), finance (generally between million), and integrated resources system [3]. At present, China has strongly supported the innovation teams of colleges and universities by the core of disciplines leaders, focusing on the vector of major research projects or scientific research bases. Colleges and universities according to the actual situation can be formed in three different forms of IT team:. The first one is the stable research institutions setting up independently of the colleges (departments). The second is based on the colleges (departments) and even research subjects. The third is a team compassed of a number of academic leaders as a core strength based on the innovation base (Key Laboratory), a team [4] Speed up the Building of the Teaching Staff, Management Team and Technology Supporting Human resources is the most precious resource. Talented people follow-up is to ensure the long-term scientific and technological innovation. For this reason, firstly, colleges and universities enhance the introduction and training of high-level personnel, improve the age, education, professional structure of the science and technology personnel, and drive the overall level of college talent to upgrade. Second, we must pay attention to the training and the establishment of a considerable scale and quality of science and technology personnel engaging in substantial basic research, applied research and technology development, give adequate protection in the financial support Third, we must encourage and guide the young teachers into the activities of scientific and technological innovation, build a base of young scientific and technological talents, improve the operational level of young teachers by science and technology innovation activities and ensure that colleges and universities have a reserve army of IT personnel Reform of Personnel Management System to Form a Top-notch Talent in Favor of the Incentive 156

5 Mechanism China's top science and technology talent almost distribute in the higher learning institutions, which fully shows that colleges and universities should pay close attention to the cultivation of technological innovation. As an university, at first, it should gradually introduce the teacher appointment system as the core of the full appointment, change posts management to the identity management, break through the life tenure of title and office, and further rationalize the personnel management system, build a competitive, open, mobile, shared employment mechanism providing an institutional guarantee for the rational allocation of human resources and the establishment of scientific and technological innovation talents. Second, we must step by step implement the salary system of setting up posts on-demand ; making salary based on posts ;excellent labor jobs, better benefits; and combining with performance benefits; to actively promote the distribution and reform of the personnel system, implement the management of goal assessment; take the achievement of the positions objective and performance as the main contents, stimulating teaching, research, management, and so on to develop rapidly, especially to continuously enhance the ability of scientific and technological innovation. 3 Conclusion In the era of knowledge economy, the economic functions of the activities of colleges and universities in scientific and technological innovation have become increasingly prominent. Colleges and universities make full use of their resources to strengthen and improve through constant training, knowledge innovation and technological innovation activities and varieties of scientific and technological innovation. We will continue to enhance the capacity of scientific and technological innovation to create more products of high-level scientific and technological innovations, and also bound to effectively promote regional economic development and prosperity effectively, making greater contributions to building an innovation-oriented country and a harmonious socialist society. References [1] S Toulmin. Rationality and Scientific Discover, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 1974 [2]Ling Yongming. On the 211 Project of the Disciplines, China Geological Education, 2000, No.3, page 4(in Chinese) [3]Li Jianhang, Zhou Hongli, Cai Yuan. The Analysis of the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Forming the Team of Colleges and Universities in Scientific and Technological Innovation, Journal of National Acdemy of Educational Administration, 2007,No.10,page 69(in Chinese) [4]Zhou Liping, Su Junhong Peng Yu-li. On the Problems and Reform Faced by Colleges and Universities in Scientific andtechnological Innovation, Innovation Forum, 2007, No.4,page 2,(in Chinese) 157

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