2 Flood Disaster in Homes Preparedness Response Safety First Entry Recovery Clean up Mitigation
3 Water Damage Resources Sources of portions of information: North Dakota State Univ.: K. Hellevang, P.E. FEMA: FloodBldg.pdf Design Manual for Retrofitting Flood-prone Residential Structures FEMA-114 Answers & Questions About Substantially Damaged Buildings - FEMA Repairing Your Flooded Home - FEMA 234
4 Water Damage Resources Red Cross Repairing Your Flooded Home files/documents/pdf/preparedness/file_cont 333_lang0_150.pdf
5 Controlling Molds... EPA Guidelines: remediation.html Am. Conference of Gov. Industrial Hygienists: Bioaerosols: Assessment & Control www. acgih.org
6 Disaster Preparedness Notebook each county No extras left Resources Order CIT From Moisture and Mold to Healthy Homes - Basics for Consumers DVD249 $9.00
8 First Entry of a Flooded Home What to do: 1) Precautions on First Entry 2) Make a record of damage & losses. 3) To extent you are able, prevent further damage to home Source: FEMA
9 1. Precautions on First Entry Shut off or have shut off Gas at gas meter, tank or? Electricity shut off at pole or main breaker panel or fuse box DO NOT enter water or stand on wet surfaces to do this!
10 Know how. Know now. Inspect Structure for Safety? Ridge & eaves straight? Walls are vertical & straight? Building shifted on foundation, twisted, moved? Water & gas lines, electrical circuits may be damaged May not be safe to enter. Consult with building contractor or engineer if damage seen
11 Inspect Electrical Have electrician inspect wiring Electrical outlets, switches, breaker or fuse boxes may need replacement Check electrical circuits, insulation for wetness & other water damage (electricity OFF) Do not turn on power to flooded structure until inspected & determined safe by a qualified person
12 Know how. Know now. 2. Make Record of Losses & Damage For filing insurance claims & documenting losses for other purposes - tax deductions Take photos inside & out Show structural damage, Furnishings, items of value Record serial numbers of appliances, equipment, etc. thrown out Record damage & items: Don t haul away unless record made & insurance adjustor OK to dispose
13 3. Prevent Further Damage If roof or walls have been damaged, temporary or permanent repairs should be arranged as soon as possible.
14 3. Prevent Further Damage Remove floodwaters, mud & silt Open doors to allow water to exit Arrange to have basement pumped out slowly Only do this when certain that the earth around the building is no longer saturated! Water pressure may collapse basement walls as the basement is drained.
15 Basement Flooded More than 6 in. of water Don't be in hurry to pump it out Damage caused by pumping water out too soon Water inside basement helps brace walls against extra pressure from exterior water & saturated soils Water pressure Photo Source: Red Cross
16 Basement Flooded Pumped too soon - floors may push up & walls cave in Photo Source: ISU T. Greiner
17 Basement Flooded Don't pump until water around house recedes Pump out about 1/3 of water each day Empty well away from house Photo Source: ISU
18 Basement Flooded Use gas powered pump or one connected to outside line, not the house electrical system While pumping out dirty water, wash off walls with clean water & remove mud while it is wet Source:
19 Allow building to dry out Reduce or prevent mold growth Done quickly, usually in 48 hrs. or less???? Wood floors: Remove a board every few feet to reduce warping, buckle Some warped wood flooring is repairable Plywood/particle board usually separates (de-laminates) from excessive moisture.
20 Clean Water vs. Contaminated? Open up wall cavities if walls were/are wet Remove above water line Photo Source: Red Cross
21 Allow building to dry out In high moisture conditions: Heat source or some type of mechanical drying equipment will be needed Remove mud & silt Secure building when not present Portable valuables removed to a secure location
22 Heirlooms & Items of Special Value Specific treatments & procedures Contact local/area museums or search the Web sites provided below American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works us.org/index.cfm? fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid=597 Caring for Water-Damaged Family Heirlooms & Other Valuables Salvaging Water-Damaged Textiles Saving Photographs After Flood
23 Salvage Valuable Items First Important documents & family treasures. Clean off mud & allow items to dry in shade or indoors another location Paper records spread out & air-dried Preferably on blotting paper Frozen in plastic bag?
24 Salvage Valuables First If photos & books cannot be immediately dried, clean off mud, place in plastic bags in someone s freezer Separate items - foil, plastic wrap or slick surface between layers These items can be frozen & dried later
25 Reducing Losses Rapid response Microbiological, structural, health issues Excess water removal
26 Know how. Know now. Loss Assessment & Evaluation Materials affected, degree & quantity affected, available ventilation & etc. Water migration: Water moves. Lateral Gravity Wicking Intrusion Can materials be decontaminated or must be discarded Porosity, degree of contamination, occupant health, feasibility of cleaning & disinfecting
28 Evaluating Components Walls Plaster or wallboard Paneling Insulation Glass fiber, cellulose Polystyrene or closed cell rigid Ceilings Crawlspace HVAC
29 Clean, Salvage or Toss? Hard non-porous materials & building components not damaged can be dried out & salvaged If mold, cleaning may require more labor than item is worth Flood waters contaminated Generally soft, porous or absorbent materials should be discarded
30 Reducing Losses Rugs or other items that can be laundered or thoroughly cleaned may be salvaged Unless absorbent materials dried out within 48 hours, mold growth may make cleaning impossible Longer if temperatures are cool Sooner if temperatures are warm
31 Categories of Water Clean Water Category 1 Broken water pipes, rainwater direct entry, etc Gray Water Category 2 Contains contamination & microorganisms Toilets with urine, sump pump, dishwashers, laundry Black Water Category 3 (Floods) Contains pathogenic agents Sewage, surface water flooding, pesticides, run off with chemicals, biologicals, bacteria, etc.
32 Clean Water Restoration Health & Safety Do occupants need to be relocated? Nature of contamination & occupants Children Water source elimination stop source Protect structure & contents Initial water removal Pumps, wet-vacuums, scoop, broom, etc.
33 Clean Water Restoration Floor coverings Dry carpet by extracting water, removing, stretching & moving air on both sides (time is important) Use appropriate procedures to dry Air circulated around carpet
34 Clean Water Restoration Remove wet unsalvageable materials Expose all materials needing to dry Thoroughly dry all materials Use drying resources Heating or AC system, exhaust fans, windows, dehumidifiers, etc
35 Contaminated Water Restoration Personal Protective Equipment Respirator with HEPA & organic vapor cartridges Rubber gloves Eye protection Protective clothing Shoes, boots
36 Know how. Know now. Protection in inspecting/repair Long gloves rubber, neoprene, nitrile Goggles Fit, closed Air Filter - respirator N-95 or N100 HEPA Half face Full face respirator with HEPA filter Protective clothing & shoes, boots Photos: UNL. S Niemeyer
37 Evaluation Tools Moisture meter materials 4 to check out -TCD Dept. Hygrometer - Humidity gauge or meters Moisture in air Boroscope Hard to get at places Hygrometer Photos: UNL. S Niemeyer
38 Tools Minimum N-95 Moisture Meters Wood moisture content should be less than 15-19% HEPA Filter Mask Photos: UNL. S Niemeyer
39 Moisture Meters Photos: UNL. S Niemeyer Photo: NDSU K. Hellevang P Moisture Meter Tests... walls, carpet, wood, concrete etc. HEPA Filter Minimum N-95 Photos: UNL. S Niemeyer
40 Contaminated Water Restoration Isolate contaminated area Isolate HVAC system - Temperorily turn off and seal ducts Polyethylene enclosure Negative air pressure Protect contents Remove excess water & organic material
41 Use negative pressure in work area to avoid spread of mold or contaminates Seal off area?
42 Contaminated Water Restoration Dispose Carpet cushion Absorbent stuffed fabrics Saturated absorbent materials Ceiling tile, dry wall, paper, etc.
43 Contaminated Water Restoration Discard carpet & pad saturated with Category 3 Flood, sewage, run off Category 2 water - carpet contamination may be cleaned with hot water extraction & biocide
44 Remove floor if water reached subflooring Subflooring must be cleaned, disinfected, dried or disposed of Photos: NDSU K. Hellevang
45 While possible to salvage household appliances, heaters, etc., Discard in general Very difficult to dry & remove mud & silt from inner workings, insulation Consult with appliance repair professional or manufacturer. Electrician do safety check before starting items that had contact with water motors, electronics, wiring etc.
46 Before Biocide - Disinfecting Clean surfaces Household cleaners for materials Borax & water solution according to label or non-phosphate HH detergent May need multiple cleanings
47 Biocide kill microorganisms Must be used according to label (specific application) Label is the law Must be applied to cleaned surface Must have required exposure time min. Must use personal protective equipment & communicate
48 Biocide Know how. Know now. Carefully follow instructions on label. Use plenty of fresh air when applied, & keep people out of area or structure. Common biocides Phenolic - phenol appears as part of ingredients. Sodium hypochlorite (generally 5.25%) - chlorine bleach Quaternary ammonium compounds Pine-oil DON T MIX!! Other: Idophors Iodine, Alcohol, Hydrogen peroxide
49 Use of Biocides Biocides toxic to animals & humans Generally provide short term kill of microbe Organic matter interferes with some Dirty surfaces - bleach can get spent oxidizing the organics & not get a chance to penetrate mold structure enough to kill it.
50 Disinfectant - destroys or inhibits microorganisms Bleach recommended per gallon of water varies Range: 1/4 cup bleach for a clean surface 1 1/2 cups/gal. of water for surfaces that could not be thoroughly cleaned. Remain wet for about 15 to 30 minutes to allow to work For hard, non-porous, non-metallic & color-fast items after cleaned
51 Flush the air. After cleaning and disinfecting, air out building. Use fans in windows to pull mold spores to the outdoors. Dry all wet materials as quickly as possible Air condition or heat, run fans & use a dehumidifier, if possible. Some materials may wrap or delaminate (wood, etc.) If there is no power, keep windows open if lower humidity outside
52 Know how. Know now. Drying Process Consist Of... Evaporation Circulate air - Fans Dehumidification Open system: Ventilation Closed system: Mechanical dehumidifiers Temperature Control Evaporation, dehumidification, microorganism growth - below 72º F Water Removal Extraction units Pumps
53 Structural Drying Open enclosed areas Reduce indoor relative humidity to (less than) <40% Ambient temperature (less than) <72 F Circulate air across drying surfaces - fans Drying may take several days or longer maybe months Monitor with moisture meters Monitor relative humidity
54 Drying Equipment Air Moving Equipment Air movers Axial fans Structural cavity drying equipment
58 Structural Drying Open up walls & leave open for weeks to several months until DRY. Remove baseboard, trim work, Remove wall board, insulation Increase air circulation
59 Open up wall cavities
60 Inside wall problems Water in interior walls: roof, blown in, structural damage? Photo: NDSU K. Hellevang
61 Floors open up? Photo. UNL. S. Niemeyer
62 Air handling ducts cleaned? If submerged in water
63 Strategies Long-Term Prevention Any remediation attempt that does not include long-term plans to maintain systems & prevent re-occurrence is short-sighted & destined to fail. (ACGIH) There is no one-time complete cure to microbial contamination. Continued oversight part of control plan... (ACGIH)
64 Water Damage Restoration Questions Discussion
65 Conditions for Growth... Nutrients - Molds grow on organic substances Once living materials wood, paper, carpet, wallboard, insulation etc. etc. almost anywhere their is soil or films Moisture
66 Problem Solving & Alternatives? Interior Flooding or leaks? - Open up & dry cavities COMPLETELY. Use Moisture meter.
67 Roof materials Roof leaks Decking, shingles not secure? Underlayment?
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