IncrEase: A Tool for Incremental Planning of Rural Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Networks

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1 InrEs: A Tool or Inrmntl Plnning o Rurl Fix Bron Wirlss Ass Ntworks Giomo Brnri n Mhsh K. Mrin Shool o Inormtis Th Univrsity o Einurgh, UK Frnso Tlmon n Dmitry Rykovnov EOLO L NGI SpA, Miln, Itly Astrt Th ovrg ootprint o most Bron Wirlss Ass (BWA) ntworks is not st in ston ut vris ovr its litim, usully y xpning inrmntlly s nw trnsmissions sits r roll out or y ing pity s mn hngs n inrss. W thus propos th inrmntl plnning prigm s n tiv strtgy or plnning n ploying BWA ntworks, suh s thos oprt y WISPs or ommunity orgnistions. W liv inrmntl plnning llows to ntiipt rturn o invstmnt n to ovrom th limit ntwork inrstrutur (.g., khul ir links) in rurl rs. Our InrEs tool lorts vri st o oprtionl mtris to gui th oprtor in intiying th rgions tht woul nit th most rom ntwork upgr, utomtilly suggsting th st o movs (.g., nw trnsmission sits to ploy) tht ls to th st long trm strtgy. W nhmrk th omputtion tim o our tool n vlut it using t rom lrg-sl ISP ntwork with ss to ovr 8,900 trnsmission towrs. I. INTRODUCTION Ami n inustry or myri o sotwr tools or wirlss ntwork plnning. Broly spking, thir im is to intiy th st lotions or trnsmission towrs n/or to pln thir intronntion to th rst o th ntwork. Howvr, ths tools r otn unvill or unsuitl to ommunitis n smll Wirlss Intrnt Srvi Provis (WISPs), whih otn rsort to n -ho pproh towrs ntwork plnning. Our ous is on th ns o WISPs oprting in rurl rs, whih r with th uniqu hllng o xtning thir ovrg on tight invstmnt ugt in n nvironmnt o limit proitility. Th ky, or suh orgniztions, is to intiy th most ost-tiv ploymnt strtgy or plnning thir or ntwork whil tking usr ovrg into onsirtion. Th sign o rurl ix Bron Wirlss Ass (BWA) ntworks is signiintly irnt rom moil ron ntworks (.g., 3G), n its plnning pross n nit rom th ollowing two osrvtions: Only outoor propgtion is rlvnt, s lint vis (Customr Prmiss Equipmnt, or CPE) r typilly instll on rootops. Tking this notion into ount hlps in riving own osts (or inrss ovrg or th sm ost) us o th lowr pth loss s signl os not hv to pntrt wlls. Svrl rnt mrkt stuis, suh s [1], onlus tht th us o outoor CPEs is th most ost tiv hoi to rh th inl thir o th popultion rsiing in rurl rs. Usrs r ix: thr is rrly ny n to support nomi or moil srvis. Thr is no n to provi lnkt ovrg or ovrlp in ovrg twn lls, sin no hnovr is rquir. Th plnning pross n onntrt only on rsintil lotions whr outoor CPEs will pl, thry simpliying th ovrg plnning spt o th prolm. In omprison, moil ntwork plnning sotwr typilly lults ovrg ovr gri o qully sp points, rquiring h o thm to ov thrshol signl lvl. Th ntwork mol o rurl ix BWA ntworks lmost invrily ollows two-tir mol: n ss tir ompos o point-to-multipoint (PMP) twn trnsmission towrs n ustomrs; n khul tir orm o point-to-point (PTP) links typilly or xlusivly wirlss, s it wir links r slom vill in rurl rs. Whil wirlss ntwork plnning is tritionlly vry tiv r o th rsrh ommunity, th ous o rsrh litrtur is minly on moil ron ntworks n wirlss lol r ntworks, suh s [2] [5]. Mor importntly, th ntwork plnning ormultion is im t ll-t-on ploymnt, lrgly s on mthmtil optimiztion mthos n mt-huristis lik [6] [10]. As w rgu low, this is n imprtil pproh to ploymnt or rurl WISPs n ommunity orgniztions. Limit rsrh hs so r ous on th rurl omin, whih lso ollows th ll-t-on ploymnt pproh. An xmpl is [11], whih proposs our-stp shm to trmin th ntwork topology, towr hights, ntnn typs n rio trnsmit powr lvls. Th ppr provis svrl intrsting sign onsirtions to minimiz osts, suh s th rution in towr hights s thy otn rprsnt th lrgst invstmnt or rurl ISP. [12] tkls similr prolm: onstruting topology or intrvillg rurl msh ntworks n prsnts solution s on gry pproximtion lgorithms. W inst vot th importn o inrmntl plnning, sign mthoology tht guis WISPs spilly thos oprting in rurl snrios in plnning thir growth y xtning thir ovrg. Our pproh is s on th ollowing osrvtions: Rurl ploymnts r typilly ovrg-rivn, rthr

2 thn pity-rivn 1. A rson is tht low popultion nsity o rurl rs plys positiv tor in kping th rquir pity o ll low. Anothr rson is tht ISPs otn oprt on tight ugt, so thy n to ntiipt rturn on invstmnt rom th rly stg o roll-out. Evn mor, in n nvironmnt o limit proitility suh s rurl rgions, thir priority is to rh th lrgst numr o potntil ustomrs s rly s possil in th ploymnt phs y ousing on rs whr usrs r lustr (.g., lrgr towns n villgs lking ron ss). A similr rsoning is lso pplil to ommunity or ounil ntworks, whr prt or ll th popultion o rgion ns to ovr. Ntwork inrstrutur (.g., ir links or khuling) is otn limit or unvill in rurl rs, whih mns tht th oprtor hs to roll-out its own (wirlss) khul tir s it xpns, ntiling n itionl ploymnt ost. Limiting th gogrphil xtnt in whih th ISP initilly oprts is tivly wy to kp nillry oprtionl osts (.g., ustomr support) low. Byon th initil ploymnt stg, th ntwork oprtor n tk two tions to xtn its usinss: to inrs th ntwork ovrg, or to improv it in rs lry ovr. In ithr ss, its movs r likly limit y ugt n only smll sust o th potntil tions n rss. Our im in this ppr is to systmtilly intiy, n suggst to th ntwork oprtor, squn o tions tht rsults in th st long trm ploymnt strtgy. Towrs this n, w vlop n opn-sour tool ll InrEs tht nls th inrmntl plnning prigm in prti. InrEs supports two oprtionl mos, prsnt in Stion II: (1) Trgt Inrs, whr th oprtor slts spii rgion to ovr s prt o ntwork xpnsion; n (2) Strtgy Srh, whr th tool guis th oprtor in iing th ploymnt orr o trnsmission sits in th nr to long-trm horizon s on xpt proitility. In Stion III, w vlut th tool on rl-worl snrio o ovr 8,000 vill towrs n nhmrk its omputtion tim. To vlit th qulity o its output, w pos smpl st o plnning snrios to xprin wirlss nginrs t lrg WISP. W thn ompr thir nswrs with th ploymnt strtgis propos y InrEs, otining similr or ttr rsults in most ss. Evn though th trm inrmntl hs n us lswhr in th ntwork plnning litrtur (.g., [13], in th ontxt o pity plnning or ix lins) this is, to th st o our knowlg, th irst ppr onsiring th inrmntl plnning pproh or rurl ix BWA ntworks. II. THE INCREASE TOOL InrEs is n opn-sour sotwr, implmnt s ross-pltorm sktop pplition in Jv. It is s on th 1 Th numr o s sttions is trmin ithr y th siz o th rgion to ovr ( ovrg-rivn ) or y th totl tri tht ns to rri ( pity-rivn ) Inputs: Outputs: Oprting mos: Lyrs: Covrg rqusts Covrg mn htmp? x Instlltion ilurs Instlltion ilurs htmp Dts o possil movs Comin htmp Lotion n prormn o urrnt usrs Strtgy Srh Support rqusts htmp Suggst inrmntl ploymnt strtgy Support rqusts Avill Towrs Towrs lyr Currnt ntwork topology Ntwork ovrg lyr Trgt Inrs Suggst rout to ovr slt r Ar sltion Fig. 1: Exmpl o inormtion low in th InrEs tool. NASA Worl Win Jv 2 opn-sour GIS lirry n th No4J 3 grph ts. It llows th ntwork ownr to import, mol n lort ustomr-rlt sttistis rom th BWA ntwork in orr to systmtilly intiy th strtgy tht st improvs n xtns th ntwork ovrg. An xmpl o suh inormtion low is prsnt in Fig. 1. A st o XML ils ontining ntwork sttistis is r n prs. In th urrnt implmnttion, w onsir thr sours o t. Th irst is ovrg mn: th list o rqusts or ovrg riv (.g., on th ISP wsit) y potntil usrs living in unsrv rs. Th son is th st o tils rgring thos nw usrs tht il instlltion stg u to insuiint ovrg. Finlly, w lso import th log o support lls to th WISP hlpsk n th lotion o xisting usrs. Extr t sts n import to ptur othr inluning tors (.g., vilility o DSL, 3G ovrg, mogrphis, t.). InrEs lorts h sour o t to orm i-imnsionl rry ovring th gogrphil rgion o intrst, with h ll vlu rprsnting how mny itms (.g., urrnt usrs) r ontin in th lls rgion. Cll vlus r thn normliz s rtion o th ll ontining th most itms. InrEs visully prsnts th thr 2D rrys on th mp s htmps, n omins thm into on s wight vrg, whr wights r onigur oring to h mtri s rltiv importn to th oprtor. Suh omin htmp provis gln viw o th rs tht woul nit th most y ntwork upgr. In this sns, ht (i.. high lls vlus in th 2D rry) is n inition o inqut wirlss ovrg, whih n rmov y nw trnsmission towr or irtiv stor. Htmps r stor in mmory, n n zoom, shown or hin y slting th pproprit GUI lmnts. InrEs n import list o itionl towrs vill

3 to ploy. Suh n invntory oul inlu towrs tht xist lry (.g., vill or rnt rom towr oprtor) or suitl lotions whr nw ons oul uilt. An XML sription o th urrnt ntwork topology, inluing th lotion n hight o h towr n onigurtion n numr o th stor ntnns n lso import into InrEs. Suh inormtion is us to gnrt ntwork ovrg lyr y prorming, with onigurl grnulrity, lin-osight lultion rom h xisting towr n onsiring zimuth n tilt o xisting stors n mximum istn prmtr spiying th missil rng or ss-tir wirlss links. W in th ollowing nottion or th rminr o th ppr: T : is th st o ll th towrs (ploy n vill) N: sust o T ontining only th towrs urrntly in us in th ntwork topology. h(t): is th totl mount o ht or towr t T, in s th sum o th htmp ll vlus ovr y th towr. (t): is th ploymnt ost o th towr t. At lunh, th sotwr prorms pr-lultion stp to stor th mmory struturs n t ltr stgs. Th most importnt is G, n intr-visiility unirt grph, in whih vrtis r lmnts o T. Two towrs t 1,t 2 T r onnt y n g i thy r in lin o sight n not rthr prt thn th mximum llow istn or pointto-point links. As G is r rom omplt grph, w sv G on n intrnl grph ts whih llows or iint storg o sprs grphs, n us th LOS lultion is omputtionlly intnsiv, th grph ts is prsistntly stor on isk, sving tim t ollowing lunhs. Bs on th t inrstrutur sri, th tool ors two oprtionl mos: (A) Trgt Inrs; n (B) Strtgy Srh. W sri ths two mos in th ollowing sustions. A. Trgt Inrs Htmps r visul i or th ntwork oprtor to s th rs tht woul nit th most y n improvmnt in ovrg. Th trgt inrs oprtion mo provis th lightst lvl o utomtion vill in InrEs, kping th humn in th loop y sking th oprtor to visully slt on mp th gogrphil rgion whr ovrg shoul improv. InrEs thn utomtilly intiis whih is th hottst ll in th rgion, in s th on with th highst vlu in th omin htmp lyr. Th pplition trmins th st o losst towrs (i.., 20 in th urrnt ult sttings) rom st T N tht r in lin-o-sight o th hottst ll to orm th st o nit lotions tht will ovr th hotspot. Consiring multipl sour towrs llows sltion rom mong lrgr numr o potntil khul pths, ompr to ousing only on th singl towr losst to th hotspot. Th sotwr ins th st wy to onnt h o thos towrs to th xisting ntwork topology (i.., th st N) y Fig. 2: A srnshot o th InrEs pplition showing th rsults o Trgt Inrs qury. trvrsing links in th G grph. Th st solution is th rout tht provis th lowst vlu or th (t) h(t) irn or h towr t trvrs. In this lultion, w rully voi ounting multipl tims th ht ssoit with ll tht my in lin-o-sight with irnt towrs, s it woul is th rsults. W onsir ht or suh lls only on. For pthining ovr th G grph, InrEs uss th A* (A-str) lgorithm. A* uss st-irst srh, s on istn-plus-ost huristi untion, to in th lst-ost pth rom n initil no to gol no. Our implmnttion hs two slight hngs with th originl A* lgorithm. First, it tks s input st o strt nos (losst towrs to th hottst ll in th slt rgion) n st o gol nos inst o singl strt/n nos, s th khul pth oul strt rom ny o th nit lotions n trmint t ny o th xisting towrs. Son, in th G grph, osts r ssoit with th vrtis (i.., towrs) rthr thn gs, so w onsir th ost o n g (i,j) to tht o th prting no i [14]. A* rquirs n huristi untion tht is th miniml lowr oun o possil pth ost (.g., or trvling twn two itis, it is istn y stright lin), so in our s w n to sign n stimt o th st (t) h(t) hivl or th rst o pth rom givn towr to th gol towrs. W opt (l/) min s suh huristi, whr l is th strightlin istn twn th urrnt towr ing nlyz n ny on o gol towrs, th mximum istn llow or pointto-point links (oth in km), n min th miniml (t) h(t) o ll towrs. Finlly, w introu two moiitions to th ost untions prsnt ov. As A* rquirs non-ngtiv g osts, w sum n ritrry onstnt lrg positiv vlu to ll (t) h(t) vlus. Lstly, to lt th usr ln th importn o sving mony n xtning ovrg, w llow two vril oiints 0 n h 0 n in ost s 0 (t) h 0 h(t). Th srh rsult or th st pth is prsnt s pth on th mp togthr with txt inition o whih towrs to ploy n thir orr, s shown in Fig. 2.

4 () () g g 55.3 h 20 h 18.1 root l 6 m 25 l 5.7 m 60.0 k 8 i 15 k 6.9 i 0.9 j 5 j 11.4 () () () n n n Fig. 4: Nt Prsnt Vlu s sor justmnt on n xmpl ntwork () in Strtgy Srh mo: inrsing th isount vlu, C, rom 0% () to 5% () hngs th grinss o th sltion. () root m 60.0 g Fig. 3: Dt struturs us in th Strtgy Srh oprtion mo. () G grph. () R grph. () L list. B. Strtgy Srh Whil trgt inrs is smi-utomti mo tht rquirs th oprtor to slt rgion, th strtgy srh oprtionl mo intiis n suggsts th st ntwork xpnsion strtgy. W ssum th ntwork topology to volv ovr ritrry isrt intrvls o tim (.g., wks, months) n th pitl invstmnt ugt o th WISP to limit y isrt prmtr tht trmins how mny movs (i.., towr instlltions) n prorm in h tim intrvl. Th ovrll im o th strtgy srh is thn to suggst th st tions tht th WISP shoul tk uring th nxt intrvl o tim. An ovious prtil limittion is th soll horizon t: s in mny rtiiil-intllign gms, th numr o possil stts is so lrg tht it is only sil to srh smll portion o ll th potntil movs within th tim horizon. Th srh lgorithm ns to l to ut own th numr o possil strtgis to nlys, whil limiting th risk o xluing potntilly goo ons. Blow w sri th strtgy srh lgorithm, whih is triggr vi th rlult strtgis utton in th InrEs usr intr. Stp 1. A multipl-sour lowst-ost pth srh lgorithm is run on th intr-visiility grph G to intiy th lowst-ost pths, with osts ing (t) h(t) s or, rom h o th nos in th st T N (.g., th vill towrs) to ny o th nos in N. Th output is tr R, whih intuitivly provis th st pth rom th xisting ntwork to h vill towr. To gnrt R, InrEs s itionl zro-ost root towr onnt to vry towr in l 5.7 N n runs Dijkstr s lgorithm rom suh root to h no o th grph G. An xmpl is provi in Fig. 3, whr () shows th intr-visiility grph G with sh nos ing thos lry ploy n () th rsulting R pths tr Dijkstr is run. Stp 2. Grph R is trvrs pth-irst strting rom th root no n, whil oing so, towrs r tgg with th sor: h(r) (r) (1 + C) istn(r) whr istn(r) is th ount o nwly-ploy towrs tht hv to trvrs to go rh r rom th root on R (.g., towrs tht n irtly onnt to th ntwork hv istn = 0). As not ll towrs n immitly onnt to th ntwork, to gin th ovrg nits ssoit ny on o thm, othrs my hv to ploy irst to srv s k-huling rlys. To wight utur ovrg nits to th prsnt y w ring in th innil onpt o Nt Prsnt Vlu (NPV), whih pplis onstnt isount rt C (.g., 5% ing 0.05) to rvnus tht will hppn in th utur. An xmpl is provi in Fig. 4(). Hr, two towrs n oul instll n irtly onnt to th xisting mst n. Nos n h ring h(t) (t) nit o, whil ll othr towrs provi signiintly lowr nits. Prmtr C is msur o th grinss o th sltion: i w wr to pik twn n s on th totl nit tht thy n thir snnts oul ring, w woul i to instll towr s in Fig. 4(). Howvr, i w inrs th vlu o C to 5%, oms mor ttrtiv (Fig. 4()). NPV ontrols how r it is worth going or instlling proitl towrs, llowing th ntwork ownr to tun th urtion o th nit ly. Stp 3. R is trvrs gin, this tim rom lvs to th root. Whil oing so, w upt th sor o h no r to th sum o its own sor n tht o its snnts. Fig. 4() n 4() tully show th sors otin tr stp 3.

5 Finlly, t h lik on th suggst nxt movs utton o th UI, InrEs sks or th numr o movs (towrs to ploy). It thn gnrts sort list L (Fig. 3()) whih inlus th towrs tht oul immitly ploy orr y rsing nit sor s lult t th n o stp 3; xtrts th top nos rom L; n prsnts thm on th mp s rsults. III. EVALUATION W hv implmnt prototyp o InrEs tht implmnts oth oprtion mos sri in th prvious stion. It is ing us y NGI SpA, lrg Itlin ISP oprting ix n wirlss ss ntwork. Th srvi ovrs Northrn Itly, inluing oth mtropolitn itis, towns n smll rurl villgs. As ISPs ommonly o, NGI hs grmnts with moil oprtors n TV/rio rostrs in orr to quir sp on xisting towrs, rsulting in ovr 8,900 towrs vill or immit instlltion. Th xisting ntwork spns ovr 513 trnsmission sits, mostly onnt ovr wirlss point-to-point (PTP) links o up to 7km in lngth. For trmining ovrg, NGI uss simpl lin-o-sight (LOS) ritri with 20km mximum llow istn, sin th ss tir oprts on th Ghz sptrum with outoor CPEs typilly on ustomrs rootops. NGI s ntwork is typil BWA ntwork, so w us it s rprsnttiv snrio to nhmrk InrEs n monstrt its usulnss. A lrg st o prormn mtris hs n otin inluing ovrg rqusts rom prosptiv lints, tils o ustomrs tht oul not onnt to th ntwork us o insuiint ovrg, th log o support rqust riv t NGI s hlpsk, n th gogrphi lotion o ll urrnt usrs. W import this t st in InrEs to gnrt htmps n riv th inrmntl plnning pross, s outlin in Fig. 1. Th irst stp to visully ssss rs tht woul nit th most y n improvmnt in ovrg is to lult th urrnt ovrg xtnt. Fig. 5 shows th tim tkn to lult n isply on mp th r in LOS with ny o th towrs in th xisting ntwork ovr n r o 273,000 squr kilomtrs. Th ovrg lultion onsirs th typ, orinttion n numr o stor ntnns instll on h towr. In NGI s ntwork, thr r normlly 3 stors pr towr, xpt smll towrs in mountin rs ompos y singl omniirtionl ll, n w ritil sits whr up to 20 stors hv n instll to pity. Bnhmrking rsults, tkn on 2.7Ghz ul-or CPU, vlit our implmnttion y showing stritly qurti tim omplxity on th mp rsolution (in points pr ltitu/longitu gr), whih is xpt s th numr o points in th rgion hs powr o two rltionship with th rsolution. Computtion tim or uiling th intr-visiility grph G (Fig. 6) shows linr omplxity with th numr o vill towrs in th ntwork, tking minut to omput G with 8,900 vill towrs: w gt this rsult y ompring th LOS pth o only thos towr pirs tht r within th Covrg lyr rsolution 400x x200 x 50x50 Covrg omputtion tim Sons Fig. 5: Bnhmrking th omputtion tim o th ovrg lyr on ntwork o 513 towrs on n r ovring th whol o Northrn Itly. Numr o towrs Grph G omputtion tim Sons Fig. 6: Tim tkn to lult th intr-visiility grph G, pning on th numr o vill towrs. mximum llow istn onigur or PTP links (7km in our xprimnts). It is importnt to not tht oth th ovrg lyr n G r prsistntly sv in th intrnl grph ts n r romput only i n. A. Trgt Inrs Trgt Inrs ssists th ntwork oprtor in ining th st strtgy to ovr givn gogrphil rgion n to uil st o suitl k-huling onntions to link it k to th xisting ntwork. InrEs provis suggstion in rl tim, y xploiting A* huristis to nvigt th intrvisiility grph G. W ssss th qulity o th propos solutions with th ollowing omprtiv stuy. Th lotions o vill n xisting towrs wr givn to iv irnt wirlss nginrs t NGI, with th rqust to ovr iv givn smll gogrphil rs n to propos vli khuling strtgis. Enginrs oul us ny tool or thniqu to work thir solution. W thn rn th sm snrios on InrEs, n ompr th rsults in trms o numr o nw towrs ploy n totl ht rmov rom th mp. Rsults r prsnt in Fig. 7: () in 4 ss out o 5, th strtgy suggst y InrEs rquirs wr or qul numr o towrs to ploy thn solutions provi y wirlss nginrs; n () in ll ss ttr in trms o qulity in trms o totl ht ollt. Rsults monstrt tht Trgt Inrs is l to in routs twn towrs tht nginrs my ovrlook. Also, in Snrio 3 InrEs suggsts to

6 Mnul pproh vs. Trgt Inrs Mnul pproh vs. Trgt Inrs 14 12% Numr o towrs ploy Improvmnt in totl ht ollt 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0 Snrio 1 Snrio 2 Snrio 3 Snrio 4 Snrio 5 0% Snrio 1 Snrio 2 Snrio 3 Snrio 4 Snrio 5 () Mnul pproh Trgt Inrs () Trgt Inrs Fig. 7: Comprison, in trms o () vrg numr o nw towrs ploy (rs shows st n worst s) n () totl ht ollt, twn mnully plnning iv ploymnt snrios n y using th Trgt Inrs mo in InrEs. Numr o towrs Strtgy Srh timing rkown Sons Stp 1: Dijkstr lultion Stp 1: Builing R tr Stp 2: Sor lultion Stp 3: Upting sors Button: Suggst nxt mov Fig. 8: Proiling o th Strtgy Srh oprtion mo, showing th omputtion tim or irnt stps o th lgorithm. ploy towr mor thn wht nginrs propos in orr to ollt mor ht. Bs on this t, w liv tht without th i o tool lik ours n htmps, plnning th st khul rout my non-ovious, vn or skill thniin, spilly whn lrg numr o towrs r vill. B. Strtgy Srh Th Strtgy Srh oprtion mo nlyss th urrnt ntwork topology n th st o vill towrs to intiy th long-trm strtgy tht ls to th st long-trm rsults. Whn th Rlult Strtgis utton is prss, th thr stps prsnt in Stion II-B r xut. Fig. 8 shows th tim tkn or thir ompltion, whih is lrly linr with th numr o vill towrs. Not tht timing o Stp 1 is split twn our moii Dijkstr lultion n th onstrution o R tr in mmory: th lttr is rltivly mor xpnsiv oprtion s it rquirs th rtion o nw No4J grph strutur, whih is thn popult using Dijkstr s output. Finlly, t h rqust to gt th nxt n st tions, th lgorithm prorms O(1) oprtion y slting th top n lmnts rom orr list L. IV. CONCLUSIONS In this ppr w hv prsnt InrEs, n opnsour tool or inrmntl plnning o rurl BWA ntworks. InrEs prototyp implmnttion iintly hnls lrg t sts n is urrntly on tril t BWA oprtor, whih provi th rl-worl t w us or our vlution, inluing ts o ovr 8,900 rl towrs. In th utur, w intn to improv our tool y inorporting runny in or ntwork topology sign, tim-vrying tri mn pttrns n rlisti propgtion molling. Finlly, s prxisting trnsmission towrs r otn limit in rurl rgions, InrEs oul nhn to intiy suitl lotions (.g., nr ros, ltriity vill, t.) or nw trnsmission towrs n to inorport xtr ttriuts in our mst ost mol (.g., powr, towr hight). REFERENCES [1] Th osts n pilitis o wirlss n stllit thnologis 2016 snpshot, Anlysys Mson, Th. Rp., Otor [2] E. Amli, A. Cpon, n F. Mlulli, Plnning UMTS s sttion lotion: optimiztion mols with powr ontrol n lgorithms, IEEE Trnstions on Wirlss Communitions, vol. 2, no. 5, Spt [3] S. Bosio, A. Cpon, n M. Csn, Rio plnning o wirlss lol r ntworks, IEEE/ACM Trns. Ntw., vol. 15, Dmr [4] E. Amli, A. Cpon, n F. Mlulli, Rio plnning n ovrg optimiztion o 3G llulr ntworks, Wirl. Ntw., vol. 14, [5] M. St-Hilir, Topologil plnning n sign o UMTS moil ntworks: survy, Wirl. Commun. Mo. Comput., vol. 9, July [6] R. Whitkr n S. Hurly, Evolution o plnning or wirlss ommunition systms, in Pro. Hwii Intrntionl Conrn on Systm Sins, Jnury [7] T. Bu, M. C. Chn, n R. Rmj, Dsigning wirlss rio ss ntworks or thir gnrtion llulr ntworks, in Pro. IEEE INFO- COM, Mrh [8] L. Risnn n R. M. Whitkr, Comprison n vlution o multipl ojtiv gnti lgorithms or th ntnn plmnt prolm, Mo. Ntw. Appl., vol. 10, Frury [9] F. Gorjul-Snhz, A. Juttnr, n J. Zhng, A multiojtiv optimiztion rmwork or IEEE ntwork sign n prormn nlysis, IEEE Journl on Slt Ars in Communitions, vol. 27, no. 2, Frury [10] S. Hurly, S. Alln, D. Ryn, n R. Tplin, Molling n plnning ix wirlss ntworks, Wirl. Ntw., vol. 16, April [11] S. Sn n B. Rmn, Long istn wirlss msh ntwork plnning: prolm ormultion n solution, in Pro. WWW, [12] D. Pnigrhi, P. Dutt, S. Jiswl, K. Niu, n R. Rstogi, Minimum ost topology onstrution or rurl wirlss msh ntworks, in Pro. IEEE INFOCOM, April [13] J. Chrzinski n U. Wltr, Optimiz inrmntl ntwork plnning, Pro. IEEE MMB Conrn, Mrh [14] S. S. Skin, Th Algorithm Dsign Mnul. Springr-Vrlg, 1998.

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