1 Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2009, Instructional Planning Activity Types as Vehicles for Curriculum-Based TPACK Development JUDI HARRIS AND MARK HOFER College of William & Mary, USA Teachers knowledge is situated, event-structured, and episodic. Technology, pedagogy and content knowledge (TPACK) one form of highly practical professional educational knowledge is comprised of teachers concurrent and interdependent curriculum content, general pedagogy, and technological understanding. Teachers planning which expresses teachers knowledge-in-action in pragmatic ways -- is situated, contextually sensitive, routinized, and activity-based. To assist with the development of teachers TPACK, therefore, we suggest using what is understood from research about teachers knowledge and instructional planning to form an approach to curriculum-based technology integration that is predicated upon the combining of technologically supported learning activity types within and across content-keyed activity type taxonomies. In this chapter, we describe such a TPACK development method. TPACK Successful technology integration is rooted in curriculum content and students content-related learning processes primarily, and secondarily in savvy use of educational technologies. When integrating educational technologies into instruction, teachers planning must occur at the nexus of standards-based curriculum requirements, effective pedagogical practices, and available technologies affordances and constraints. The specialized, highly applied knowledge that supports content-based technology integration is known as technological pedagogical content knowledge, abbreviated TPCK or TPACK (Koehler & Mishra 2008). TPACK is the intersection of teachers knowledge of curriculum content, general pedagogies, and technologies (see Fig. 1). It is an extension of Shulman s (1986) pedagogical content knowledge the specialized knowledge required to teach differently within different content areas--which revolutionized our understanding of teacher knowledge and its development.
2 100 Harris and Hofer Figure 1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Koehler & Mishra 2008). In the same ways that TPACK (appearing in the center of Fig. 1) is knowledge that results from teachers concurrent and interdependent content, general pedagogy, and technology understanding, it is comprised, in part, by three particular aspects of that knowledge that are represented by the other three intersections depicted. These are: Pedagogical Content Knowledge: How to teach particular content-based material Technological Content Knowledge: How to select and use technologies to communicate particular content knowledge Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: How to use particular technologies when teaching Each and all of these types of teacher knowledge are shaped by a myriad of contextual factors, such as culture, socioeconomic status, and school organizational structures. Thus, TPACK as it is applied in practice draws from each of seven interwoven and interdependent aspects of teachers knowledge, making it a complex and highly situated educational construct that is not easily applied, learned or taught. Still, as professional knowledge, it can be developed over time, and the educational technology community is beginning to explore ways to help teachers to build and use TPACK. Koehler & Mishra have tested a collaborative learningby-design approach in which educators work with content and technology specialists to plan instruction, each building TPACK concurrently, yet in different ways (2005; Koehler, Mishra & Yahya 2007). Niess (2005) advocates a contentbased modeling approach to developing TPACK, in which use of educational technologies supports content-based instructional strategies that are modeled for teacher-students by teacher educators. Dawson s (2007) and Pierson s (2008) teaching inquiry approaches suggest that TPACK can be developed when educational technologies become one of the foci of teachers reflective action research. Our TPACK development strategy (Harris 2008; Harris & Hofer 2006), described below, draws upon the literature about teachers planning practices to suggest an activity-based, curriculum-keyed approach to planning instruction that incorporates systematic and judicious selection of technologies and teaching/learning strategies. Instructional Planning Teachers knowledge is situated, event-structured, and episodic (Putnam & Borko 2000). Wilson, Shulman, and Richert (1987) describe it in pedagogical content knowledge terms, saying In teaching, the knowledge base is the body of understanding, knowledge, skills, and dispositions that a teacher needs to perform effectively in a given teaching situation, e.g., teaching mathematics to a class of 10 year olds in an inner-city school or teaching English literature to a class of high school seniors in an elite private school (p. 106).
3 Instructional Planning Activity Types 101 Similarly, teachers planning is situated (Clark & Dunn 1991) and contextually sensitive (Brown 1990). It is also routinized and activity-based (Yinger 1979). Arguably the pre-eminent researcher on instructional planning, Yinger asserts that all of teachers planning could be characterized as decision making about the selection, organization, and sequencing (p. 165) of routinized activities. More recent studies of teachers planning (e.g., McCutcheon & Milner 2002; Tubin & Edri 2004) have reached similar conclusions, while calling for research into instructional planning that incorporates use of digital technologies. Though planning instruction that is facilitated by use of digital tools and resources can be complex, with each decision determining aspects of other decisions already made or yet to be determined (as the TPACK model above illustrates), our work suggests that planning a particular learning event can be described as the end result of five basic instructional decisions: Choosing learning goals Making practical pedagogical decisions about the nature of the learning experience Selecting and sequencing appropriate activity types to combine to form the learning experience Selecting formative and summative assessment strategies that will reveal what and how well students are learning Selecting tools and resources that will best help students to benefit from the learning experience being planned Since research on teachers planning has established it to be activity-based and content-keyed (Wilson et al. 1987), planning for effective instruction in which educational technologies are well-integrated should be similarly curriculumspecific and activity-focused. Thus, our approach to helping teachers to develop TPACK is to suggest that they use curriculum-specific, technology-enhanced learning activity types as the building blocks for instructional planning. Developing TPACK Using Learning Activity Types Learning activity types function as conceptual planning tools for teachers; they comprise a methodological shorthand that can be used to both build and describe plans for standards-based learning experiences. Each activity type captures what is most essential about the structure of a particular kind of learning action as it relates to what students do when engaged in that particular learning-related activity (e.g., group discussion; role play; fieldtrip ). Activity types are combined to create lesson plans, projects and units. They can also serve as efficient communication tools for educators wanting to share their plans for students learning with each other, as science education lesson study research in Japan has shown (Linn, Lewis, Tsuchida, & Songer 2000). After teachers are familiar with a complete set of technology-enriched learning activity types in a particular curriculum area, they can effectively choose among, combine, and use them in standards-based learning situations, building their TPACK in practical ways while doing so. This differs substantially from how teachers typically learn to integrate educational technologies into their teaching. In most cases, the technologies particular educational affordances and constraints are examined, and then curriculumbased goals are chosen. In the activity types approach, educational technology selections are not made until curriculumbased learning goals and activity designs are finalized. By selecting the technologies that best serve learning goals and activities last, both students learning and maximally appropriate educational technology uses are assured, with the emphasis remaining upon the former. By focusing first and primarily upon the content and nature of students curriculumbased learning activities, teachers TPACK is developed authentically, rather than technocentrically (Papert 1987), as an integral aspect of instructional planning and implementation. Though teachers already use activity types in educational parlance (e.g., KWL activities ), comprehensive sets of content-specific activity types that incorporate appropriate uses of the full range of digital technologies in each predominant curriculum area have not been published, to our knowledge. At the present time, our work is focused upon collaborative development and vetting of learning activity type taxonomies in six curriculum areas K-12: elementary literacy, secondary English, mathematics, science, social studies, and world languages. Plans for similar taxonomy development in the arts, physical education, and early childhood education have also been made. The first curriculum area to be addressed was the social studies. The resulting taxonomy of 42 social studies learning activity types appears below to help to illustrate our content-keyed, activity-based TPACK development strategy.
4 102 Harris and Hofer Sample Activity Types Taxonomy Of the forty-two social studies activity types that have been identified to date, thirteen are focused upon helping students build their knowledge of social studies content, concepts, and processes. Twenty-nine provide students with opportunities to express their understanding in a variety of ways. Six of these knowledge expression activity types emphasize convergent learning and twenty-three of these activity types offer students opportunities to express their understanding in divergent ways. The three sets of activity types (knowledge building, convergent knowledge expression, and divergent knowledge expression) are presented in the tables that follow, including compatible technologies that may be used to support each type of learning activity. As the table of knowledge building learning activity types below (Tab. 1) shows, teachers have a variety of learning activity options available to assist students in building social studies content and process knowledge. They are able to determine what students have learned by reviewing their expressions of knowledge (Tabs. 2-7) related to the learning goals targeted. Opportunities for students to express their knowledge can be incorporated during a unit of study (as part of formative assessment) or at the conclusion of a unit (as a summative assessment). At times, social studies teachers deem it appropriate for all students to come to a similar understanding of a course topic. This kind of understanding is expressed by engaging in convergent knowledge expression learning activities (Tab. 2). While in many cases teachers may want their students to express similar understandings of course content, at other times they will want to encourage students to develop and express their own understandings of a given topic. The twentythree written, visual, conceptual, product-oriented, and participatory divergent knowledge expression learning activity types (Tabs. 3-7) afford students opportunities to each share unique understandings of a topic or concept. Table 1 Knowledge Building Activity Types Web sites, electronic books Read Text Students extract information from textbooks, historical documents, census data, etc.; both print-based and digital formats View Presentation View Images Listen to Audio Group Discussion Field Trip Simulation Debate Students gain information from teachers, guest speakers, and peers; synchronous/ asynchronous, oral or multimedia PowerPoint, Photostory, imovie, MovieMaker, Inspiration, videoconferencing Students examine both still and moving PowerPoint, Word, Photostory, (video, animations) images; print-based or Bubbleshare, Tabblo, Flickr digital format Podcasts ( Great Speeches Students listen to recordings of speeches, in History, etc.), Audacity, music, radio broadcasts, oral histories, and Garageband, Odeo, Evoca, lectures; digital or non-digital Podcast People In small to large groups, students engage in dialogue with their peers; synchronous/ asynchronous Students travel to physical or virtual sites; synchronous/asynchronous BlackBoard, discussion in Wikispaces, e-boards Virtual fieldtrips, Photostory to develop their own virtual tours Civilization, Revolution!, Students engage in paper-based or digital Fantasy Congress experiences which mirror the complexity of the real world Students discuss opposing viewpoints; formal/informal; structured/unstructured; synchronous/asynchronous BlackBoard, discussion in Wikispaces, e-boards
5 Instructional Planning Activity Types 103 Research Conduct an Interview Artifact-Based Inquiry Data-Based Inquiry Historical Chain Students gather, analyze, and synthesize information using print-based and digital sources Digital archives, Google Notebook, Inspiration to structure Audacity, MovieMaker, imovie, Face to face, on the telephone, or via digital camera students question someone on a chosen topic; may be digitally recorded and shared Digital archives Students explore a topic using physical or virtual artifacts Using print-based and digital data available CIA World Factbook, Thomas, online students pursue original lines of census data, Excel, Inspire inquiry Data Students sequence print and digital documents in chronological order Bubbleshare, Photostory, Moviemaker Historical Weaving Students piece together print and digital documents to develop a story Word, Scrapblog, Google Pages, Historical Scene Investigation (HSI) Historical Prism Students explore print-based and digital Wikispaces, Google Pages, documents to understand multiple perspec-inspiratiotives on a using links topic Table 2 Convergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types Answer Questions Students respond to questions using traditional question sets or worksheets, or through the use of an electronic discussion board, or chat Inspiration, Word, Black- Board, e-boards Create a Timeline Create a Map Complete Charts/Tables Complete a Review Activity Take a Test Students sequence events on a printed or electronic timeline or through a Web page or multimedia presentation Timeliner, Photostory, Word, Bubbleshare Students label existing maps or produce PowerPoint, Google Earth their own; print-based materials or digitally Students fill in teacher-created charts and tables or create their own in traditional ways or using digital tools Students engage in some form of question and answer to review content; paper-based to game-show format using multimedia presentation tools Students demonstrate their knowledge through paper-based, traditional format to computer-generated and scored assessments Word, Inspiration, Power- Point PRS systems, Jeopardy (or other games) on Power- Point, survey tools like SurveyMonkey Scantron forms
6 104 Harris and Hofer Table 3 Written Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types Write an Essay Write a Report Generate an Historical Narrative Craft a Poem Create a Diary Students compose a structured written response to a prompt; paper and pencil or word processed; text-based or multimedia Students author a report on a topic in traditional or more creative format using text or multimedia elements Using historical documents and secondary source information, students develop their own story of the past Students create poetry, paper and pencil or word processed; text-based or multimedia Word, Inspiration, Wikispaces (to track contributions from multiple authors) Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Google Pages Word, Wikispaces or Google Docs (to track contributions from multiple authors), blogs Photostory, Moviemaker, imovie, PowerPoint, VoiceThread Students write from a first-hand Blogs, Word, Google Docs, perspective about en event from Google Pages the past; paper and pencil or digital format Table 4 Visual Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types Create an Illustrated Map Students use pictures, symbols, graphics to highlight key features in creating an illustrated map Google Earth, PowerPoint Create a Picture/Mural Draw a Cartoon Students create a physical or Paint, Photoshop virtual image or mural Students create a drawing or cari-comicature using a paper and pencil digital cameras Creator, DFILM video, or digital format
7 Instructional Planning Activity Types 105 Table 5 Conceptual Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types Inspiration, PowerPoint, Word, Using teacher or student created webs, students organize Imagination Cubed Develop a Knowledge Web information in a visual/spatial manner; written or digital format Generate Questions Develop a Metaphor Students develop questions related to course material/ concepts Students devise a metaphorical representation of a course topic/idea Word, Wikispaces or Google Docs (to track contributions from multiple authors) Wikispaces (to track contributions), Inspiration Table 6 Product-Oriented Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types Imaging tools Produce an Artifact Students create a 3D or virtual artifact Build a Model Design an Exhibit Create a Newspaper/News Magazine Create a Game Create a Film Students develop a written or digital mental model of a course concept/ process Students synthesize key elements of a topic in a physical or virtual exhibit Inspiration, PowerPoint, InspireData Wikispaces, PowerPoint, Scrapblog, Bubbleshare Word, Letterpop, Scrapblog Students synthesize course information in the form of a periodical; print-based or electronic Students develop a game, in paper Word, Puzzlemaker, Imaging or digital form, to help students learn tools, Web design software content Using some combination of still images, motion video, music and narration students produce their own movies Photostory, Moviemaker, imovie
8 106 Harris and Hofer Table 7 Participatory Divergent Knowledge Expression Activity Types PowerPoint, Photostory, Moviemaker, imovie, Audacity Students share their understanding with others; oral or multimedia approach; synchronous or asynchro- Do a Presentation nous Moviemaker, imovie, Audacity, Engage in Historical Role Students impersonate an historical digital camera Play figure; live, video-taped, or recorded Do a Performance Engage in Civic Action Students develop a live or recorded performance (oral, music, drama, etc.) Students write government representatives or engage in some other form of civic action Photostory, Moviemaker, imovie, Audacity Web, , videoconferencing Combining Activity Types As helpful as providing taxonomies of learning activities may be, the true power of utilizing activity types in designing learning experiences for students is realized when combining individual activities into more complex lessons, projects and units. The breadth of a plan for students technology-integrated learning is reflected in the number of activity types it encompasses. Though activity types can be used alone, more types included in a single plan typically help students address more curriculum standards simultaneously and in more varied and engaging ways than when fewer activity types are combined. The parameters of different activity type combinations which reflect the complexity, amount of structure, and types of learning planned are what help teachers to select among them. Combining 1 2 activity types usually produces a class time-efficient, highly structured, and easily repeatable experience, comprised primarily of convergent learning activities. It is completed often in just one or two class periods. Combining 2 3 activity types yields a class time-efficient, yet longer duration learning activity that is more flexibly structured, and is comprised often of more divergent learning activities. Combining 3 5 activity types produces a medium-term, somewhat structured, both convergent and divergent exploration of curriculum-based content and process. Combining 5 8 activity types forms a learning experience of variable length that is a somewhat structured, yet flexible, and usually mostly divergent exploration of content and process. Combining 6 10 activity types creates a learning experience of rather flexible duration, structure, and content and process goals. It is the longest and most complex of these combinations, and therefore would be planned relatively infrequently for use in most classrooms. It should be noted here that in practice, the nature of instructional plans that are structured by activity type combinations of different sizes are typically distinguished more by the learning needs and preferences of the students they were designed to serve than the number of activity types used. We provide the information above only to help our readers to better understand this aspect of the activity types approach to instructional planning.
9 Instructional Planning Activity Types 107 EXAMPLE UNIT What does an instructional plan identified by its component activity types look like? An example created and used by local teachers with whom we have collaborated can illustrate an end result of the activity types planning process. In the Civil War Voice Wall project (Bray, Russell & Hofer, 2006) teachers Julie Bray and Darlene Russell challenged their sixth grade history students to develop short documentary films about a person or key event from the U.S. Civil War. The purpose of the project was to engage students more deeply in their study of the Civil War, enabling them not only to learn key factual content, but also to understand the multiple perspectives of different people who lived through the war. The teachers agreed that having the students develop a story about their chosen person in narrative form (as opposed to using a standard report format) might be more engaging for the students, encouraging them to go beyond creating an electronic encyclopedia entry. To this end, throughout the research and writing phases, the teachers continually emphasized finding the defining moment for the chosen characters, challenging the students to work from that focus. The teachers divided the project into three phases: research, writing, and production. During the research phase, students had access to a range of print materials as well as selected Web sites that the teacher had bookmarked prior to beginning project work. The students collected appropriate images for their documentaries both by scanning pictures from books and via image searches online. They used a standard format and index cards to capture their research notes. During the writing phase, students created sections of the script (e.g. the opening; the defining moment, etc.) one at a time in their notebooks. The students took their notebooks home and received feedback on each section from their parents. During each class period devoted to project work, the teachers circulated and provided feedback on students writing. At the end of this phase, each student had developed a complete script for a film. During the production phase, the students paired their scripts with images to develop a paper-based storyboard for their films. In this process, they also identified any music, sound effects, titles, and transitions they wanted to incorporate in their films. Once complete, they used the storyboards as the blueprint to develop their documentaries using Microsoft s Moviemaker software. They used the scripts to record their narration and arranged the images and other elements into a complete Ken Burns-style film. They then screened all of the films in class to prepare for their exam on the Civil War. The teachers combined eight different activity types to form this project, including reading text, viewing images, researching, answering questions, historical weaving, creating a diary, engaging in historical role play, and creating a film. The combination and sequencing of these activity types moves the project beyond a typical research report by incorporating historical weaving and role play to develop a documentary film. Both digital and nondigital tools and resources were used, based upon the practicalities of students equitable access both during class and at home. While many of these activities were assessed formatively (e.g. research; answer questions), the final documentary films provide rich, summative assessments of the nature and depth of students learning. CONCLUSION Planning for students curriculum-based learning that integrates appropriate and pedagogically powerful use of the full range of educational technologies is challenging. Considerably detailed and deliberate planning decisions need to be made, based upon multiple decision points, and chosen wisely from among a full range of possible educational activities that incorporate technologies in powerful ways. Unfortunately, many teachers wishing to incorporate educational technologies into curriculum-based learning and teaching begin with selecting the digital tools and resources that will be used. When instruction is planned in this way, it becomes what Seymour Papert (1987) calls technocentric focused upon the technologies being used, more than the students who are trying to use them to learn. Technocentric learning experiences rarely help students to meet curriculumbased content standards, because those standards did not serve as a primary planning focus. Accompanying pedagogical decisions (including the design of the learning experience) often focus more upon use of the selected technologies than what is most appropriate for a particular group of students within a particular educational context. Alternatively, if learning goals have been selected well, if pedagogical decisions have been made according to students instructional and contextual realities, and if activity types and assessment strategies have been selected to address those goals and realities, then choices of instructionally appropriate tools and resources to use in the learning experience being planned are more obvious and straightforward. This is true as long as the teacher doing the planning is familiar
10 108 Harris and Hofer with available tools instructional affordances and constraints, which is an aspect of technological pedagogical knowledge. As we hope has become apparent, the activity types approach to instructional planning and preparation is focused squarely upon students standards-based, curriculum-related learning processes and outcomes, rather than upon the technologies that can assist in their creation. The approach is designed to help teachers to plan effective, efficient, and engaging learning experiences for their students. The process is based upon a series of deliberate, balanced, and well-informed pedagogical choices, which, when taken together, can result in an instructionally effective plan for students learning that incorporates digital and non-digital tools and resources in appropriate ways. Activity-based instructional planning strategies are not new. Aligning learning activities with compatible educational technologies, and developing comprehensive, curriculum-keyed taxonomies of activity types that incorporate content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge, along with all of their intersections, is the unique contribution of this TPACK development method. Like the patterns of teachers instructional planning processes, from which this method was derived and with which it is designed to assist, this approach to TPACK development is a quintessentially pragmatic thought process. Why? As pragmatist philosophers have asserted, the primary function of thought is to guide action. References Bray, J., Russell, D., & Hofer, M. (2006). Civil War voice wall project. Retrieved October 17, 2008, from org/examples/voicewall/ Brown, D. S. (1990). Experienced teachers planning practices: A US survey. Journal of Education for Teaching, 16 (1), Clark, C. M., & Dunn, S. (1991). Second-generation research on teachers planning, intentions, and routines. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Effective teaching: Current research (pp ). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishing Corporation. Dawson, K (2007). The role of teacher inquiry in helping prospective teachers untangle the complexities of technology use in classrooms. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24 (1), Harris, J.B. (2008). TPACK in inservice education: Assisting experienced teachers planned improvisations. In AACTE Committee on Innovation & Technology (Eds.). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge for educators (pp ). New York, NY: Routledge. Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2006, July). Planned improvisations: Technology-supported learning activity design in social studies. Session presented at the National Educational Computing Conference, San Diego, CA. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPACK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation & Technology (Eds.). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge for educators (pp. 3-29). New York, NY: Routledge. Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2005). Teachers learning technology by design. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 21 (3), Koehler, M.J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a design seminar: Integrating content, pedagogy, & technology. Computers & Education, 49 (3), Linn, M., Lewis, C., Tsuchida, I., & Songer, N. (2000). Beyond fourth-grade science: Why do U.S. and Japanese students diverge? Educational Researcher, 29 (3), McCutcheon, G., & Milner, H.R. (2002). A contemporary study of teacher planning in a high school English class. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8 (1), Niess, M. L. (2005). Preparing teachers to teach science and mathematics with technology: Developing a technology pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, Papert, S. (1987). A critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future. Retrieved October 17, 2008, from Pierson, M. (2008). Teacher candidates reflect together on their own development of TPCK: Edited teaching videos as data for inquiry. In K. McFerrin et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2008 (pp ). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. Putnam, R. T. & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29 (1), Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), Tubin, D., & Edri, S. (2004). Teachers planning and implementing ICT-based practices. Planning and Changing, 35 (3&4), Wilson, S. M., Shulman, L. S., & Richert, A. E. (1987). 150 different ways of knowing: Representations of knowledge in teaching. In J. Calderhead (Ed.), Exploring teachers thinking (pp ). London: Cassell Educational Limited.
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