Afar. Ocean History. from. Interior Secretary Hopes for Common Ground with New Congress. Inland Water Gas Exchange. AGU Awardees and Prize Winner

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1 VOL. 96 j NO. 21 j 151 FEB JAN 2015 Earth & Space Science News Ocean History from Afar Interior Secretary Hopes for Common Ground with New Congress Inland Water Gas Exchange AGU Awardees and Prize Winner

2 Recognize The Exceptional Scientific Contributions And Achievements Of Your Colleagues Union Awards Prizes Fellows Medals Awards Ambassador Award Edward A. Flinn III Award Charles S. Falkenberg Award Athlestan Spilhaus Award International Award Excellence in Geophysical Education Award Science for Solutions Award Robert C. Cowen Award for Sustained Achievement in Science Journalism Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism Features David Perlman Award for Excellence in Science Journalism News Prizes Climate Communication Prize NEW The Asahiko Taira International Scientific Ocean Drilling Research Prize Medals William Bowie Medal James B. Macelwane Medal John Adam Fleming Medal Maurice Ewing Medal Robert E. Horton Medal Harry H. Hess Medal Inge Lehmann Medal Roger Revelle Medal Fellows Scientific eminence in the Earth and space sciences through achievements in research, as demonstrated by one or more of the following: breakthrough or discovery; innovation in disciplinary science, cross-disciplinary science, instrument development, or methods development; or sustained scientific impact. Nominations Deadline: 15 March

3 Earth & Space Science News Contents 1 FEBRUARY 2015 VOLUME 96, ISSUE 2 FEATURE 6 Two- and Four-Year Colleges Team Up to Support Science Students Faculty from community colleges play increasingly important roles in promoting science, technology, engineering, and math. What can faculty from 4-year colleges and universities do to collaborate? 3 NEWS Common Ground with New Congress Sought by Interior Secretary At the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, Sally Jewell called for working constructively with Congress and even with those who hold strong ideological views. MEETING REPORT 12 COVER Reading History from Afar A look at the sedimentary record in northern Ethiopia tells the story of oceans past and maybe future. Measurements, Modeling, and Scaling of Inland Water Gas Exchange 5 Earth & Space Science News // 1

4 Contents DEPARTMENTS On the Cover 27 The otherworldly landscape of Ethiopia s Dallol Basin, a volcanic caldera in the Afar Triangle, shows sulfur mounding on brine pools. What did this landscape look like tens of thousands of years ago? Analysis of sediments yields clues. See page 12. Photo by Achilli Family, CC BY 2.0, AGU News 25 Citations for and responses from the 2014 AGU awardees and prize winner who were honored at the Fall Meeting in December Research Spotlight Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide Hit a Minimum 5000 Years Ago; How Solar Wind May Affect Weather and Climate; Warming Hiatus Periods to Become Increasingly Unlikely; Satellite Imaging Improves Study of Sinking River Deltas; Ancient Earthquakes Made an Island Rise and Fall Positions Available Current job openings in the Earth and space sciences. Inside Back Cover: Postcards from the Field Sunrise in the Amazon: the view from a 50-meter tower north of Manaus. Editor in Chief Barbara T. Richman: AGU, Washington, D. C., USA; eos_ Editors Christina M. S. Cohen: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., USA; José D. Fuentes: Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., USA; Editorial Advisory Board M. Lee Allison, Earth and Space Science Informatics Lora S. Armstrong, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Michael A. Ellis, Earth and Planetary Surface Processes Arlene M. Fiore, Atmospheric Sciences Nicola J. Fox, Space Physics and Aeronomy Steve Frolking, Biogeosciences Edward J. Garnero, Study of the Earth s Deep Interior Michael N. Gooseff, Hydrology Kristine C. Harper, History of Geophysics Keith D. Koper, Seismology Robert E. Kopp, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism John W. Lane, Near-Surface Geophysics Wendy S. Gordon: Ecologia Consulting, Austin, Texas, USA; David Halpern: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., USA; Carol A. Stein: Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA; Xin-Zhong Liang, Global Environmental Change Jian Lin, Tectonophysics Figen Mekik, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Jerry L. Miller, Ocean Sciences Michael A. Mischna, Planetary Sciences Thomas H. Painter, Cryosphere Sciences Roger A. Pielke Sr., Natural Hazards Michael Poland, Geodesy Eric M. Riggs, Education Adrian Tuck, Nonlinear Geophysics Sergio Vinciguerra, Mineral and Rock Physics Earle Williams, Atmospheric and Space Electricity Mary Lou Zoback, Societal Impacts and Policy Sciences Staff Production: Faith A. Ishii, Program Manager; Liz Castenson, Editor s Assistant; Valerie Bassett and Travis Frazier, Electronic Graphics Specialists Editorial: Randy Showstack, Senior Writer; Mohi Kumar, Science Writer/Editor; JoAnna Wendel, Writer; Marketing: Angelo Bouselli and Mirelle Moscovitch, Marketing Analysts Advertising: Christy Hanson, Manager; Tel: ; American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Material in this issue may be photocopied by individual scientists for research or classroom use. Permission is also granted to use short quotes, figures, and tables for publication in scientific books and journals. For permission for any other uses, contact the AGU Publications Office. Eos (ISSN ) is published semi-monthly, on the 1st and 15th of the month except the 1st of January 2015 by the American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20009, USA. Periodical Class postage paid at Washington, D. C., and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Member Service Center, 2000 Florida Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20009, USA. Member Service Center: 8:00 a.m. 6:00 p.m. Eastern time; Tel: ; Fax: ; Tel. orders in U.S.: ; Use AGU s Geophysical Electronic Manuscript Submissions system to submit a manuscript: Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect official positions of the American Geophysical Union unless expressly stated. Christine W. McEntee, Executive Director/CEO 2 // Eos 1 February 2015

5 NEWS Gary Wagner Common Ground with New Congress Sought by Interior Secretary U.S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell delivers the Union Agency Lecture at the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting. Republican control of both houses of Congress could lead to constructive measures moving forward in the best interests of the American people, according to Sally Jewell, secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Elected officials in the previous Congress spent a lot of effort shooting down those things that are put on the table, Jewell said at a news briefing at the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. You are going to see in this coming Congress more responsibility to see that things actually get accomplished that are in the best interest of peoples constituencies. DOI focuses on a wide variety of concerns related to the management of natural resources. During Jewell s briefing, the Union Agency Lecture, and a student forum on 18 December, she called for working constructively with Congress and even with those who hold strong ideological views. Jewell emphasized the need to move forward creatively on climate change and other issues at a time when there are fiscal challenges. She also noted the fundamental importance of scientific integrity to the agency and DOI s recently revised scientific integrity policy. At the briefing, Jewell said that she has reached out proactively to members of the House and Senate to find out their goals and what they are trying to Jewell called for working constructively with Congress and even with those who hold strong ideological views. accomplish. Those meetings are enormously helpful. If you are sitting here shooting bombs at each other from different parts of the ideological spectrum, you don t have the awkwardness of a personal relationship, she noted. With the Interior Department having an equity in most congressional districts, she said there is that common ground we can find [that] I think will move productive things forward. Dealing with Ideological Opposition Jewell underscored the need to find common ground and work with those who hold strong ideological opinions about climate change. She said that although some people may not agree on the origins of climate change, there could be agreement on how to deal with threats such as drought, wildfires, sea level rise, and the encroachment of salinity into freshwater supplies. Those concerns are things that everybody can relate to because they are facts that are not refutable, Jewell said. She added that building resilience to climate change could be one area of mutual interest. She noted the importance of finding that common ground and not really duking it out over things where you re probably never going to move their ideology. She also emphasized the need to expose ideologically driven scientists whom she said leverage media to cast doubt on sound scientific data about climate change and other matters. She referenced Merchants of Doubt, a book and movie about this topic. Merchants of doubt scientists [who] make a profession out of creating doubt need to be exposed for what they are doing because it impacts all people, she said. A New Moonshot Jewell, 58, recollected in her keynote speech the significance of the space race during her childhood. The moonshot we need to take now is on climate change. She said it is the defining issue of our time and something to which younger generations are paying tremendous attention. She pointed to recent administration efforts, including the recently released White House National Climate Assessment and the U.S.-China joint announcement about reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Just as [President] Kennedy did [in focusing on the Moon], presidential leadership is now driving action again, she said. The Value of Thoughtful Regulations In the Union Agency Lecture, Jewell stressed that sound science and data need to be transparent and readily available so that [they] can be used in decisions that impact people and the environment without regard to political boundaries. She also argued forcefully for the value of key environmental regulations, including the Clean Air Act, federal automobile emissions standards, and proposed regulations on methane emissions from industrial sources. She said these and other actions not only are good for the environment but also can help to create jobs and opportunities for industry. Earth & Space Science News // 3

6 NEWS Tami Heilemann, Department of the Interior Sally Jewell (center) spent 1.5 hours talking with students in a special forum at the AGU Fall Meeting. U.S. Geological Survey acting director Suzette Kimball is at left. There is thoughtful regulation that has changed the face of this world, and certainly this country, particularly for environmental protection, she noted. Challenges for the Scientific Community Jewell called on the scientific community to leverage scarce financial resources by working together to expand public and private partnerships. None of us have the money we would like to have. We re not back in the space race where the federal government is going to pay for everything, she said. In addition, Jewell urged scientists to take credit for their work and to share the importance of their work with friends, neighbors, and elected officials. She added that scientists need to take responsibility for engaging the next generation so that they have similar opportunities. The Next Generation During Jewell s 1.5-hour forum with 13 students, she talked about the importance of science within DOI, science communication, how to get members of Congress concerned about science issues, scientific ethics and integrity, and other issues raised by the students. Annie Tamalavage, a graduate student at Texas A&M University, was one participant. Tamalavage, formerly a geochemistry research assistant with ConocoPhillips, is a student representative on the AGU Council. She asked Jewell how scientists can best apply their skills, which may be useful both for the exploitation of natural resources and for understanding ecosystems and potential environmental impacts. Jewell, who was trained as a petroleum engineer, said that scientists have the ability to know that there can sometimes be ethical dilemmas and to think about them. Being a scientist enables you to think through those things and not be a purist, she said, noting that DOI is responsible for the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and natural resources as well as leases for areas such as the outer continental shelf for oil and gas activities. How to reconcile those things? I think the answer is, you use science to understand them, and you use the most current information you can to understand what s going on, she said. She added that the use of thoughtful regulations is a way to begin to reconcile those things. By Randy Showstack, Staff Writer 4 // Eos 1 February 2015

7 MEETING REPORT Measurements, Modeling, and Scaling of Inland Water Gas Exchange Advancing the Science of Gas Exchange Between Fresh Waters and the Atmosphere Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station, Korkeakoski, Finland, September 2014 Flickr user Fc Nikon, CC BY-SA 2.0 Terrestrial inputs of carbon and nutrients, as well as within-water physical and biological processes, conspire to produce signifi cant but highly variable emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from inland waters. Inland waters generate significant emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent papers have estimated that these emissions could offset a large fraction of the terrestrial carbon sink. However, published estimates rely nearly exclusively on extrapolation of point-in-time observations made over limited regions. To foster improvement of GHG aquatic emissions quantification and incorporation of new measurement technologies and approaches in aquatic ecology, more than 60 ecologists, limnologists, and micro meteorologists, including early- career scientists, attended an inaugural freshwater gas exchange workshop. The workshop brought together researchers studying the cutting edge of measurements and modeling of processes relevant to aquatic fluxes at research sites from the tropics to the poles. Expertise included flux measurements in lakes, streams, and wetlands; hydrodynamics; biogeochemistry, including microbial processes; and modeling. Greenhouse gas emissions from inland waters could offset a large fraction of the terrestrial carbon sink. The workshop was timely because its goals tied closely to the need to define specifications for inland water GHG observations in the Global Lake Ecosystem Observatory Network (GLEON), the International Research Staff Exchange Scheme (IRSES) Greenhouse Gas Lake Project, and the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). The group agreed that networks similar to ICOS are needed in multiple regions. Over 4 days, participants focused on the current understanding of GHG emissions, measurement and model limitations, and needs for database and synthesis development. Keynote and research talks reviewed the importance of inland systems to landscape carbon cycling; the role of stream transport of organic, inorganic, and gaseous carbon; the complexity of modeling methane mixing across sediment, in water, and in atmospheric interfaces; and the difficulties in scaling chamber and eddy covariance flux measurements from point to lake to landscape. Regional synthesis and upscaling of aquatic emissions found significant spatial and temporal variability in all components of the carbon budget, with advances made in understanding key biological and physical processes that drive this variation. Poster presentations emphasized the importance of next-generation flux measurement and modeling techniques, including the use of over-water eddy covariance and automated flux chambers, high-resolution in-water profiling including turbulence, and improvements to one- and three- dimensional models of aquatic systems and their atmospheric exchanges. Two-day breakout sessions discussed in-water biogeochemical, physical, and microbial observations; direct flux measurement approaches, including incorporation of the dynamic atmospheric boundary layer in flux calculations; and required improvements for coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models. Two additional discussions motivated new syntheses. In one, an inland water GHG flux forum was initiated to facilitate communications and support collection of comparable data. In the other, a synthesis manuscript on eddy covariance flux tower observations of lake carbon and energy exchanges was begun. Other outcomes included identifying minimum and ideal required measurements for sites conducting over-lake flux measurement, initiating a review paper on observational and modeling needs to improve numerical models incorporating methane biogeochemistry, and synthesizing gas transfer coefficients. Researchers interested in contributing observations or approaches to the evolving eddy covariance synthesis and the GHG flux forum should contact Malgorzata Golub and David Bastviken A photo of the participants and a list of workshop organizers can be found at bit. ly/ inlandh2oghg. By Ankur Rashmikant Desai, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison; Timo Vessala, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland; and Miitta Rantakari, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki Earth & Space Science News // 5

8 Two- and Four-Year Colleges Team Up to Support Science Students By Janet Hodder, R. Heather Macdonald, and Jude K. Apple 6 // Eos 1 February 2015

9 UGA College of Ag & Environmental Sciences - OCCS, CC BY-NC 2.0, eldclass Much has been written about how the United States faces a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals despite the national goal to provide 1 million additional STEM degrees by 2022 [e.g., President s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012]. What is not immediately clear, however, are the steps educators need to take to overcome the shortage and meet that goal. The success of several new projects suggests that 2-year colleges, community colleges, technical colleges, and junior colleges ( collectively 2YCs) a group new to the STEM reform movement can help lead students into career pathways involving science and math [Boggs, 2010; National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council, 2012]. In turn, these projects have increased awareness among professional societies and staff at 4-year colleges and universities (4YCUs) about the importance of 2YCs in the preparation of students for STEM careers. Some 4YCU faculty, particularly those who did not attend a 2YC as part of their education, may be unfamiliar with the culture, needs, and realities of the 2YC faculty and their students. Here we provide insights into the community colleges missions, students, faculty, and curriculum and present specific strategies to promote successful partnerships between 2YC and 4YCU faculty and institutions. In doing so, we hope to assist the growing number of 4YCU faculty who desire to partner with 2YC faculty to improve STEM education and achieve a broader impact for their disciplinary research. Profile of Community Colleges 1132 public and private community colleges in the United States play a crucial role in undergraduate STEM education. They enroll 12.8 million students annually, approximately 45% of all U.S. undergraduates [American Association of Community Colleges, 2014]. (See box on page 10.) Nearly one half of Americans who receive bachelor s degrees in science and engineering and one third of recipients of science or engineering master s degrees attended a community college at some point in their education [Tsapogas, 2004]. Community colleges are also important for teacher preparation, with 40% of the nation s teachers including those in STEM fields completing some of their mathematics or science courses at community colleges [Shkodriani, 2004]. Community colleges are diverse in size and location, ranging from multicampus districts in large urban settings to small, rural colleges in remote areas. Their departmental and governance structures vary within and among states. Teaching at a Community College Teaching is the primary responsibility for 2YC faculty (see box on page 11), and thus their reward structure is often different from those at many 4YCUs. Generally, research in their discipline is not expected; it may even be discouraged because it could interfere with time dedicated to Earth & Space Science News // 7

10 teaching. Teaching loads are heavy, and 2YC faculty commonly teach four to five courses per term. In many programs, faculty are expected to teach courses beyond the primary discipline of their academic degrees. For example, a solid Earth geophysicist may be assigned to teach introductory oceanography. Some faculty teach during the summer, others teach night classes, and some instruct online courses, which are increasingly being taught at 2YCs. The heavy teaching load means that 2YC faculty may find it difficult to engage in activities beyond their instructional duties and to take time away from their courses to participate in professional development. Teaching assistants are almost nonexistent, and laboratory preparatory staff are uncommon; 2YC faculty are generally responsible for teaching all parts of a course. Many community college faculty have chosen careers focused on teaching and are committed to improving learning opportunities for students. Many have considerable experience with student-centered learning, developing teaching materials, and employing pedagogical innovations. Others participate in educational research such as that associated with student assessment or effective learning strategies. Many community college faculty may become isolated from their academic discipline and thus may not be involved in disciplinary professional societies. When available, professional development opportunities provided by 2YC institutions focus primarily on teaching and supporting student success, with less emphasis on advances in disciplinary knowledge. The curriculum at 2YCs focuses on lower-division courses. Some 2YC STEM courses fulfill general education requirements, whereas others meet general education requirements as well as specific degree requirements of 4-year STEM programs. Other courses are specifically designed for the STEM workforce as part of a certificate or applied associate s degree. State regulations, institutional governance, and curricular demands at individual 2YCs can restrict or limit curricular reforms and new initiatives, creating a barrier to curricular change [Macdonald et al., 2011]. In many cases, the curriculum at 2YCs is constrained because of articulation agreements with 4YCUs. Partnerships Between 2YCs and 4YCUs Recognizing that many 2YC students later enroll at 4YCUs, faculty from both 2YCs and 4YCs are working together to instill student interest in science and math. A few joint efforts stand out. One is the Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) Pacific Partnerships program (http:// www. coseepacificpartnerships. org). COSEE has provided opportunities for 2YC faculty and students to work with ocean scientists through a series of workshops and research internships. The goals of this project are to increase the quality of ocean science instruction at 2YCs, to improve ocean literacy of both faculty and students, and to develop an increased awareness of potential STEM career pathways (see Figure 1). In particular, the COSEE Pacific Partnerships project seeks to move professional development for 2YC faculty beyond learning new teaching methods to updating disciplinary knowledge. Through the program, 2YC faculty work closely with geoscientists to translate current geoscience research and knowledge into course content and other approaches to engaging 2YC students in the practices of science. Another joint effort is the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in 2YCs (SAGE 2YC) project (http:// serc. carleton. edu/ sage2yc/ index. html). SAGE 2YC has provided 2YC faculty with resources to improve their teaching and support students in their career development through geotechnician preparation programs or by preparing students for college transfer. Several other projects bring 2YC students to 4YCUs. For example, the Community College at Sea project (http:// at the University of Oregon provides 2YC students opportunities to participate in oceanographic research cruises [Livelybrooks, 2013]. Chapman University provides summer undergraduate research fellowships for selected 2YC students in Orange County, Calif., who are studying Earth and environmental sciences, with support from the U.S. National Science Foundation s Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. How to Develop 2YC-4YCU Partnerships From our experiences as 4YCU faculty working with 2YC STEM faculty on COSEE Pacific Partnerships and SAGE 2YC, we have developed a broader understanding of issues to consider when developing a 2YC-4YCU partnership for education, research, or faculty professional development. Through our collective projects, we have identified five factors to consider in establishing partnerships. Include the 2YC faculty in the initial planning of a project. Successful partnerships include a common understanding of relationships and roles. Performance expectations should be clear, and everyone should benefit from participation. Including 2YC faculty at the beginning of a project makes them more invested in the project s success and Heavy teaching loads mean that 2-year college faculty may find it difficult to engage in activities beyond their instructional duties 8 // Eos 1 February 2015

11 Jan Hodder allows them to contribute to project planning. One perception, based on the experience of many 2YC faculty with whom we have worked, is that they are included in many projects as a token, as an afterthought, or only as a way to boost the possibility of obtaining funding. Understand the institutional mission, policies, and the true capacity of the partner 2YC. Some 2YCs do not have a grants office and may have limited support for administrative functions related to external funding. Timing of activities related to the proposed project may need to fit the often more constrained 2YC schedule. Some 2YC faculty will have difficulty leaving their institution during the academic year and may need to provide replacement instruction, sometimes from their own resources, because they cannot cancel classes. Be aware of the target student s profile and the 2YC s profile. Projects that involve students need to take into account student needs and constraints (e.g., families; jobs; barriers to moving that prevent, say, participation in off-campus internships), the assets they bring (e.g., life experiences, strong community ties), and the culture of a 2YC. Fig. 1. Community college faculty testing underwater microphones (hydrophones) that they constructed during a Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) sponsored workshop held at the Oregon Institute of Marine Biology. Credit: Janet Hodder For example, in developing the COSEE Promoting Research Investigations in the Marine Environment (PRIME) internship program (http:// students/), which provides 2YC students with a summer research opportunity at a marine laboratory, we had to work with 2YC faculty to identify students who would benefit from this early-career research internship. Without faculty intervention, 2YC students rarely consider applying for summer research experiences because they do not see themselves as being qualified for these opportunities. The more diverse nature of the 2YC student body makes it necessary for program developers to think beyond the needs of the 18- to 22-year-old student cohort. For example, projects involving, say, fieldwork may need to provide accommodations for accompanying family members or may need to connect participants with child-care options. Projects could also follow the example of AGU s Unique Research Experiences for Earth & Space Science News // 9

12 Two-Year College Faculty and Students (URECAS) project, which has instituted virtual poster sessions as a lowcost way for 2YC and other students to present their research at national meetings. Collaborative projects need to reflect faculty members individual needs. In the SAGE 2YC project, which has both 2YC and 4YCU faculty as principal investigators (PIs), buyout from teaching for one of the 2YC PIs enabled full participation in the project during the academic year. However, not all 2YCs allow teaching buyout. In some instances, faculty will need stipends for transportation, registration fees, and subsistence to attend project activities and meetings. For some adjunct faculty, the phrase free is too expensive resonates, highlighting the need for additional funding to support hidden costs of participation. Projects should reflect the realities of 2YC-4YCU course articulation. For curricular projects to work, they need to mesh with goals of 2YCs and 4YCUs. For example, the COSEE Pacific Partnerships project completed a comprehensive assessment of curricular needs with STEM faculty from several 2YCs before planning faculty professional development activities. The Need for More Partnerships Four-year institutions and faculty have only just started to play a significant role in partnering with community colleges to increase the capacity of both types of institution to support undergraduate engagement in STEM. In the geosciences, we have only just begun to see if these efforts will pay off. Qualitatively, 2YC faculty who have participated in partnership projects reported increased student learning gains and engagement in their geoscience courses, although very few studies have measured whether interest in STEM persists through the students lives. Nonetheless, an evaluation of 2YC students who participated in the COSEE internship program supports the idea that undergraduate research attracts and retains talented students to careers in science [Lopatto, 2007]: Compared with the average community college student who transferred to a 4-year institution, the interns Who Are Community College Students and Faculty? Developing successful partnerships between 2-year colleges (2YCs) and 4-year colleges and universities (4YCUs) to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) requires that 4YCU faculty have a working knowledge of the 2YC students and faculty whom they hope to serve. Below are general profiles of these groups. Students Thirty-six percent of 2YC students are firstgeneration college students [American Association of Community Colleges, 2014], many of whom have limited knowledge of what is required for success in higher education. Open admission policies mean that some students need developmental courses to prepare for college-level work. Many 2YC students have constraints on participation in extracurricular activities because they may be place bound or juggling employment and childcare. The open admission policy at most 2YCs results in a student body that is generally more diverse, in many measures, than that of a 4YCU. A higher percentage of minorities underrepresented in the STEM fields attend 2YCs than 4YCUs. Nationally, 59% of Native American, 56% of Hispanic, and 48% of black undergraduates are enrolled in 2YCs. The average 2YC student is a 28-year-old woman in a class that is 57% female; she is attending college part time, along with 60% of her classmates, and is working full or part time, along with 68% of her fellow students. Her tuition is considerably lower than that at most 4-year institutions, and she, along with 58% of her classmates, is receiving some type of financial aid [American Association of Community Colleges, 2014]. The average 2YC student, along with many of her classmates, is unlikely to be thinking of a career in the geosciences. In 2010, only 20% of all U.S. bachelor s degrees were awarded to underrepresented minorities, and fewer than 7% of bachelor s degrees in geoscience were awarded to underrepresented minorities (see raw National Center for Education Statistics data, https:// Of all of the STEM fields, the geosciences remains some of the least diverse. 10 // Eos 1 February 2015

13 demonstrated a high persistence and success in STEM postsecondary education. The most transformative projects will likely be those that specifically offer professional development for 2YC faculty, improve STEM education of 2YC students, provide research opportunities for 2YC faculty and students, and increase 2YC student transfer success rates to 4YCUs. More projects that focus on 2YC faculty and students should provide us with information on successful strategies for broadening the diversity of the geoscience workforce and recruiting more students into STEM careers. References American Association of Community Colleges (2014), AACC fact sheet, report, Washington, D. C. [Available at AboutCC/ Pages/ fastfactsfactsheet.aspx.] Boggs, G. R. (2010), Growing roles for science education in community colleges, Science, 329, Coalition on the Academic Workforce (2012), A portrait of part-time faculty members: A summary of findings on part-time faculty respondents to the Coalition on the Academic Workforce survey of contingent faculty members and instructors, report. [Available at Knapp, L. G., J. E. Kelly-Reid, and S. A. Ginder (2010), Employees in postsecondary institutions, fall 2009, and salaries of full-time instructional staff, , report, Natl. Cent. for Educ. Stat., U.S. Dep. of Educ., Washington, D. C. [Available at pdf.] Knapp, L. G., J. E. Kelly-Reid, and S. A. Ginder (2012), Employees in postsecondary institutions, fall 2011 and student financial aid, academic year : First look (provisional data), Rep. NCES rev, Natl. Cent. for Educ. Stat., U.S. Dep. of Educ., Washington, D. C. [Available at Livelybrooks, D. (2013), Community college at sea, Earth Mag., 58, Lopatto, D. (2007), Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning, CBE Life Sci. Educ., 6(4), Macdonald, R. H., R H. Blodgett, and J. Hodder (2011), Building a diverse geoscience workforce, Eos Trans. AGU, 93(50), 526, doi: /2012eo National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council (2012), Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit, Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, D. C. President s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2012), Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates With Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Washington, D. C. Shkodriani, G. (2004), Seamless pipeline from two-year to four-year institutions for teacher training, report, Educ. Comm. of the States, Denver, Colo. Tsapogas, J. (2004), The role of community colleges in the education of recent science and engineering graduates, InfoBrief , Div. of Sci. Resour. Stat., Natl. Sci. Found., Arlington, Va. Author Information Janet Hodder, Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Department of Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene; R. Heather Macdonald, Geology Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va.; and Jude K. Apple, Shannon Point Marine Center, Western Washington University, Anacortes Faculty One distinctive feature of 2YCs is the makeup of the faculty. Nationally, 68% of faculty members in the 976 public community colleges in the United States are part time [Knapp et al., 2012]. From 2003 to 2009, the number of part-time faculty increased by about 10%, whereas the number of full-time faculty grew by only 2% [Knapp et al., 2010]. The number of permanent full-time faculty who teach STEM subjects at 2YCs varies by institution. Some are tenured or tenure eligible; however, some states (e.g., Texas) have no tenure system, and permanent, fulltime faculty are employed on multiyear contracts. Faculty titles at 2YCs are not always consistent with those at 4YCUs. Although some systems have assistant, associate, and full professors, others use terms such as lecturer for full-time permanent faculty. In STEM fields, 22% of full-time 2YC faculty have doctorates and 62% have master s degrees, compared with 12% and 51% of part-time faculty, respectively [American Association of Community Colleges, 2014]. Some faculty members at 2YCs are nonacademic professionals who teach specialized courses associated with certificate or applied associate degree programs. At many institutions, adjunct or contingent faculty who are commonly employed on a year-to-year or term-toterm basis do the majority of the teaching. These full-time or part-time adjunct faculty members are diverse and include graduate students who want to gain teaching experience, people attempting to secure permanent positions in academia who may teach several courses each term at multiple institutions, and people with specific technical knowledge who teach a single course at one institution. Some 2YC faculty members, whether by choice or circumstances, spend their entire career in adjunct positions. One notable feature of having regular and adjunct faculty is the disparity in pay and benefits between the two. Many adjuncts are paid by the course. The median pay for a three-credit course taught by a 2YC adjunct faculty member in fall 2010 was US$2235 [Coalition on the Academic Workforce, 2012]. In addition, adjuncts do not typically have access to professional development opportunities or discretionary funds, rarely participate in institutional governance, and may not even be listed on the college website. Earth & Space Science News // 11

14 A look at the sedimentary record in northern Ethiopia tells the story of oceans past and maybe future. Reading History from Afar 12 // Eos 1 February 2015

15 he Afar Triangle in northern Ethiopia is one of the harshest, most remote environments on Earth. This tectonically active area contains a record of continents breaking apart; episodes of seas flooding the continent; and the remains of coral reefs, microbial mats, and other saltwater deposits as seas periodically desiccated into brine pools and dry land. Past investigations have uncovered evidence that this region might become the youngest ocean on Earth. Understanding the sedimentary records in this region may hold clues to the future floodingand carbonate formation in extreme environments. In October 2013, scientists from Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), the University of Fribourg (Switzerland), and Ghent University (Belgium) teamed up to learn more about the history of the Danakil Depression in the northern part of the Afar Triangle. Specifically, the team examined sediments, including ancient fringing coral reef terraces and fossilized microbial mats that were covered by brine deposits (evaporites) formed from evaporating oceans and lakes. Since then, the team has worked to examine and understand this sequence of sedimentary rocks and the past environments that formed them. To the team s knowledge, this is the first revisiting of northern Afar s carbonate deposits in almost half a century. As a result of this expedition, the Afar Carbonate Research Consortium was formed as a platform for further research on the sediments in the region. An important follow-on field expedition began in late January Afar: A Geological Laboratory The Danakil Depression is bordered to the west by the Ethiopian Plateau and to the east by the Danakil Horst, a raised block of land bounded by normal faults. In the depression s southern part lies the famous Erta Ale range, which contains one of the only lava lakes in the world. The depression features the remote Dallol Basin one of the lowest land elevations on Earth, By Balemwal Atnafu,Tesfaye Kidane, Anneleen Foubert, David Jaramillo-Vogel, Jean-Charles Schaegis, and Jean-Pierre Henriet Earth & Space Science News // 13

16 breakup between Arabia and Africa [e.g., Baker et al., 1972]. After an initial breakup phase, continued rifting in the triangle formed several basins that later closed up and became filled with sediments. The faults, volcanoes, and magma dikes in the northern part of the triangle run parallel to the regional tectonic trend of the Red Sea [Varet and Gasse, 1978; Wright et al., 2006; Ayele et al., 2007]. They also contain a record of magnetic anomalies similar to those observed along oceanic spreading ridges [Bridges et al., 2012]. Geoscientists project that the region is on its way to becoming the youngest ocean on Earth. Fig. 1. Location of the study area. MER, Main Ethiopian Rift; D, Dallol region. Black lines represent escarpment bouaries [Keir et al., 2013]. 130 meters below sea level (see Figure 1). The basin also has year-round temperatures that are among the hottest on the planet. The remnants of a volcanic caldera, Dallol is dotted with hot springs that bubble with brine, as well as geysers, mounds of sulfur, salt pillars, and acid pools. In the 1960s and 1970s, potash mining operations and coordinated studies of France s Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Italy s Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche preliminarily mapped the sedimentary characteristics of the Danakil Depression [Holwerda and Hutchinson, 1968; Bannert et al., 1971; Barberi et al., 1972]. Since then, geoscience research has largely focused on tectonics, volcanology, and geophysics rather than analytical studies of the basin that integrate tectonics and sedimentation. This focus on earthquakes and volcanoes is not surprising: Afar is one of the only locations on Earth where rifting at the bottom of an early ocean is creeping up onto land. Ever since the early days of the continental drift theory, geologists have used the Afar Triangle as a field laboratory where the onset of continental and, potentially, oceanic rifting could be studied in detail. Previous research has pieced together a rough history of this rifting. About 30 million years ago, lava oozed out of cracks in the Earth, blanketing the land and heralding the Records of Early and Episodic Marine Flooding Analysis of sedimentary samples collected during the 2013 field study suggests that the Dallol area was covered by the Red Sea during some time in the past few hundreds of thousands of years. As seawater repeatedly flooded the region, diverse carbonate-rich units were deposited along the edges of the Danakil Depression, covering volcanic rocks below. In the center of the basin are 1000-meter-thick successive evaporite sequences, testimony to the constant evaporation and desiccation of brine pools. Specifically, the team studied intergrowths of coral and algae called coralgal reefs, relics of the periods when the region was covered by the open Red Sea. Other layers rich in evaporites, microbial reef deposits, and hot spring carbonates show that the same region was covered by hypersaline lakes (brine pools) at different time periods (see Figure 2). Between the coralgal and microbial reefs, shell deposits of only one species of bivalve and one species of gastropod were found, signs that this region alternated between periods of restricted and open marine conditions. The marine deposits studied by the team consist of at least four superimposed coralgal units. The team found evidence of periods when fringing reefs formed (see Figure 3), separated by eroded layers, suggesting long episodes when no new deposition occurred and possible exposure to the air. Extensive evaporate deposits interspersed between reef carbonates provide further evidence that the oceans periodically dried up in this region. Preceding page: Pillars made of alternating layers of salt and thin films of clay represent deposition of salt from brine pools. Individual salt layers likely represent an annual cycle of evaporation. Samples from these and other sediments help scientists understand the history of the Dallol Basin. Photo by Achilli Family, CC BY 2.0, ly/dallolsalt Fig. 2. Fringing coralgal reef deposits overlain by evaporites. Fribourg University 14 // Eos 1 February 2015

17 Fig. 3. Satellite image of the Danakil Depression superimposed on a digital elevation model. Credit: ASTER GDEM METI and NASA Landsat 7 & Landsat ETM+. Future Studies Previous dating studies based on carbon-14 (δ 14C ) and isotopic ratios of uranium and thorium ( 230 Th/ 234 U) of corals and bivalves from the study area suggested that these fossils are between 230,000 and 24,000 years old [Lalou et al., 1970; Bonatti et al., 1971; Bannert et al., 1971]. New radioisotopic age determination results will help constrain the timing of the alternation between restricted and open marine conditions at higher resolutions and will link this record to relative sea level changes. In addition, microbial mat deposits small stromatolites and thrombolites have been found not only in reef slope environments and in coralgal reef cavities but also at the margins of ancient and more recent hypersaline lakes. Hot spring carbonates rimming the lake and brine pool deposits suggest that hydrothermal activity influenced the region during the closure of the depression. Studying these well-exposed microbial deposits will allow the team to better understand how microbial processes mediated carbonate precipitation in both open marine and hypersaline settings. Integration of field data with geophysical observations will provide a basin-wide understanding of how environmental fluctuations influenced the deposition of sediments and how these sediments were influenced by tectonic and magmatic events. Acknowledgments We thank the University of Fribourg, Ghent University, and the European Science Foundation s Coldwater Carbonate Reservoir Systems in Deep Environments- European Research Network (COCARDE-ERN; for their support. We also thank Addis Ababa University s School of Earth Sciences for facilitating the fieldwork. References Ayele, A., E. Jacques, M. Kassim, T. Kidane, A. Omar, S. Tait, A. Nercessian, J.-B. de Chabalier, and G. King (2007), The volcano-seismic crisis in Afar, Ethiopia Starting September 2005, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 255, Baker, B. H., P. Mohr, and L. A. J. Williams (1972), Geology of the eastern rift system of Africa, Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., 136, Bannert, D., J. Brinckmann, R. Jordan, M. Kürsten, G. Ochse, H. Ries, and F. Schmid (1971), Beiträge zur Geologie der Danakil-Senke (NE-Äthiopien), Beih. Geol. Jahrb., 116, Barberi, F., S. Borsi, G. Ferrara, G. Marinelli, R. Santacroce, H. Tazieff, and J. Varet (1972), Evolution of the Danakil Depression (Afar, Ethiopia) in light of radiometric age determinations, J. Geol., 80, Bonatti, E., C. Emiliani, G. Ostlund, and H. Rydell (1971), Final desiccation of the Afar Rift, Ethiopia, Science, 172, Bridges, D. L., K. Mickus, S. S. Gao, M. G. Abdelsalam, and A. Alemu (2012), Magnetic stripes of a transitional continental rift in Afar, Geology, 40, Holwerda, J. G., and R. W. Hutchinson (1968), Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia, Econ. Geol., 63, Keir, D., I. D. Bastow, C. Pagli, and E. L. Chambers (2013), The development of extension and magmatism in the Red Sea rift of Afar, Tectonophysics, 607, Lalou, C., H. V. Nguyen, H. Faure, and L. Mareira (1970), Datation par la méthode uranium- thorium des hauts niveaux de coraux de la dépression de l Afar (Éthiopie), Rev. Geogr. Phys. Geol. Dyn., 12, 3 8. Varet, J., and F. Gasse (1978), Geology of central and southern Afar (Ethiopia and Djibouti Republic), 124 pp., Cent. Natl. Rech. Sci., Paris. Wright, T. J., C. Ebinger, J. Biggs, A. Ayele, G. Yirgu, D. Keir, and A. Stork (2006), Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode, Nature, 422, Author Information Balemwal Atnafu and Tesfaye Kidane, School of Earth Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Anneleen Foubert, David Jaramillo-Vogel, and Jean-Charles Schaegis, Department of Geosciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; and Jean-Pierre Henriet, Renard Centre of Marine Geology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Earth & Space Science News // 15

18 AGU NEWS Awardees and Prize Winner Honored at 2014 AGU Fall Meeting Katharine Hayhoe Receives 2014 Climate Communication Prize Katharine Hayhoe was awarded the 2014 Climate Communication Prize at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 17 December 2014 in San Francisco, Calif. The Climate Communication Prize is funded by Nature s Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry in Boulder, Colo. The prize honors an AGU member- scientist for highlighting the importance of promoting science literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respect and understanding of science- based values as they relate to the implications of climate change. Citation Katharine Hayhoe is unique among her generation of scientists. She combines incredible scientific productivity with an ability to connect with the people who most benefit from a better understanding of climate science, whether they be fellow scientists, public office holders, or members of the public. Katharine Hayhoe Katharine has worked with scientists outside the climate community to deliver and translate model data they could use to draw meaningful conclusions about local climate change impacts. She has pioneered methods for downscaling climate models and has found ways to apply them to climate assessments. She has demonstrated leadership in conducting widely cited climate assessments and changing, for the better, the way such assessments are done. For example, in 2008 she and Don Wuebbles took leadership roles in assessments for the city of Chicago and the Great Lakes; she has also been a leader in assessments for the Northeast, California, and the Southeast. Her leadership carried through to the U.S. National Climate Assessment, where she has served as a highly motivated member of the author teams of the 2009 and 2014 national assessments. In recognition of her contributions, she was asked by the U.S. Department of the Interior to prepare a primer on climate downscaling for use by the department s Climate Science Centers and related interests. Katharine has also volunteered her services as a scientist on call for AGU s question-and-answer service and is a member of the organization s Publicity Committee. She has demonstrated leadership in public outreach at local town halls, at churches, at universities, and at corporations, plus she has given her time to countless newspaper, radio, and television interviews. She is a communicator who intuitively understands how to connect with audiences on the basis of their perspectives and who accurately conveys her expertise to them. She has done incredible outreach to fellow evangelicals and helped convey climate science through shared community values. Her book A Climate for Change: Global Warming Facts for Faith-Based Decisions has had a large impact on the Christian community. Her widely viewed interview on NOVA for PBS provided powerful insights into the life of a scientist who also is an inspirational woman of faith. Her willingness to experiment and innovate in science and in communicating science, her commitment to making science relevant to decision makers and the public, and her infectious positivity and passion make Katharine Hayhoe a most deserving recipient of the AGU Climate Communication Prize. John E. Walsh, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Donald J. Wuebbles, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana Response I am honored to receive the AGU Climate Communication Prize and, even more, to have the opportunity to walk in the footsteps of the outstanding scientists and communicators who have preceded me. Thank you to AGU, to my colleagues who nominated me, and to Nature s Own for this recognition. Scientists are on the forefront of documenting global change. We are the ones who measure the impacts human activities are having on our planet. We analyze the data, we run the models, and we draw the conclusions. As such, I believe we have a responsibility: to tell people about what we find. The sad reality of our world, however, is that climate change is now the most politically polarizing issue in the United States. Asrar, Hsieh, Mandia, Overland, and Wysession Receive 2014 Ambassador Awards Ghassem R. Asrar, Paul A. Hsieh, Scott Mandia, James E. Overland, and Michael E. Wysession were awarded the 2014 Ambassador Awards at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 17 December 2014 in San Francisco, Calif. The award is in recognition of outstanding contributions to the following area(s): societal impact, service to the Earth and space community, scientific leadership, and promotion of talent/career pool. Citation for Ghassem R. Asrar For more than 20 years, Ghassem Asrar has been a distinguished public servant to the Earth and space community of the highest degree. As chief scientist for the Earth Observing System (EOS) at NASA from 1992 to 1998, Ghassem developed a communication and outreach strategy promoting the EOS program Ghassem R. Asrar to the public, the U.S. Congress, and international scientific organizations that still exists today. From 1998 to 2004, he served as associate administrator for NASA s Office of Earth Science. In this capacity he had overall scientific, technical, programmatic, and organization management responsibility for Earth science, with an annual budget greater than $1.5 billion. During this period, the program developed and successfully launched 15 Earth observing satellites and developed a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data and information system ( EOSDIS) that enabled the use of data from these satellites by more than two million users. Ghassem s last tour of government service was as deputy administrator Credible sources scientists who understand the problem and can connect climate change to our values and the things we care about present a real and dangerous threat to those who would maintain the status quo and deny the reality of climate change. Because of that, any outreach or communication we choose to do may come with a hefty price tag. If we are going to stick our heads out of our ivory towers, we have to be willing to give up our rights to be judged fairly and not misunderstood. We can t control what others say of us; we can only be true to who we are, and to the truth we have been given. That s why it encourages me and fills me with pride when I see how we, as a community, are stepping up to this challenge. Everywhere I go, I hear colleagues discussing effective outreach strategies. New efforts such as University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Climate Voices science speakers network are flourishing. Workshops and webinars offering communication training fill up and overflow. Scientists understand, better than anyone, the magnitude of the problem that confronts us, and we are taking seriously our responsibility to share this information with all affected. So on behalf of every scientist who has ever visited the grade school down the road, sat down for a long chat with a local news reporter, or given a series of talks at the senior citizen s home, thank you, AGU and Nature s Own, for recognizing and appreciating what we do. Katharine Hayhoe, Texas Tech University, Lubbock for the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture from 2006 to 2008, where he was responsible for management and oversight of a $250 million portfolio of environment and natural resources research projects located at numerous laboratories throughout the United States. One of the hallmarks of Ghassem Asrar s scientific leadership has been his commitment to interdisciplinary and international science. During his time as director of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the number of nations participating in the program and their financial and in-kind contributions for WCRP activities increased. For example, for the first time in the 30-year history of the WCRP, an Open Science Conference was held in October 2011 in Denver, Colo., and attracted 2000 scientists from around the world, including 530 early career-scientists, more than 300 of whom were from developing nations and regions. Another attribute of Ghassem s impact on many fields has been his devotion to the next generation of Earth scientists. While at NASA, he established the NASA Earth System Science Graduate Student Fellowship program to attract students with strong math, physics, and basic sciences backgrounds to focus their Ph.D. research and training on the emerging interdisciplinary field of Earth system 16 // Eos 1 February 2015

19 AGU NEWS science. NASA has awarded a total of 150 fellowships each year, the legacy of which has been the successful graduation of several thousands of Ph.D. and postdoctoral students who are now serving as the advisors and mentors of future generations of applicants and recipients. In summary, Ghassem Asrar s leadership and service to the present and future generations of Earth scientists truly embody the spirit of the AGU Ambassador Award. Antonio J. Busalacchi, University of Maryland, College Park Response I am honored to be among the first recipients of the newly established AGU Ambassador Award. I consider myself very fortunate to have had great opportunities to contribute to the field of Earth system science as a researcher, educator, science manager, and senior administrator. These opportunities allowed me to contribute in a variety of ways during the past 30 years. Reflecting on those years, I can confess that none of it had been planned the way they came along, not on my part! Even my first postdoctoral appointment in 1985 came about through a surprise invitation letter when I was completing and defending my Ph.D. dissertation. It was this opportunity that shaped my professional career during ensuing decade(s). One major common contributor was NASA, which sponsored my postdoctoral appointment, hosted me as a visiting senior scientist through the California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and ultimately accepted me as one of its own. Combined together, these posts shaped more than 2 decades of my career. As such, I will always have a soft spot for NASA and its mission in my heart. I can think of many fond memories and proud moments, such as being a part of the international science teams promoting interdisciplinary and coordinated field experiments in the 1980s and 1990s, a member of the international team formulating the international Earth observing system program with NASA's Earth Observing System as a major component, and a member of the U.S. national science teams for developing the U.S. Space Exploration and Energy Independence initiatives. The one role that I cherish most is my contribution to the NASA education programs such as the Earth system science fellowship, New Investigators program, and National Earth System Science curriculum and education standards. They have enabled training and development of current and future generations of Earth system scientists, globally. Without intellectual leaders sponsored by these programs, we could neither utilize effectively the current Earth observing system nor dream of the future generation of such systems. I thank AGU for bestowing on me the Ambassador Award for my modest contribution to the field of Earth system science. I share this recognition and my gratitude with those who helped shape my career. I could succeed because of their support for me, and it is my great pleasure to accept this prestigious award. Thank you. Ghassem R. Asrar, Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park, Md. Citation for Paul A. Hsieh Paul Hsieh famously played a key role in resolving the disastrous 2010 blowout of the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico. Many news accounts of Paul s role in capping the well can be found simply by an internet search on the phrase Paul Hsieh hero. Paul s success during the Macondo incident is no surprise. Rather, it Paul A. Hsieh is part of a career-long pattern of developing and applying fundamental scientific principles to resolve important societal issues. Paul is a world leader in two complementary research areas: (1) the hydrology of fractured rocks and (2) the coupling between fluid flow, stress, and deformation. Perhaps more significant in the context of this award is how Paul has parlayed that expertise in terms of societal impact and service to the Earth science community. The U.S. Geological Survey has a large program of cooperative studies in which state and local government entities help fund hydrologic investigations. Paul is part of the relatively small cadre of research scientists who assist this operational program on important and intractable problems. For instance, Paul led the successful completion of a sole-source aquifer model spanning the Washington- Idaho border. The responsible state agencies were initially wary of each other, but Paul quickly developed working relationships, and under his leadership the team produced timely and well- received results. This and many similar examples highlight Paul s ability to formulate solutions to hydrologic problems and bring all parties to the table. To facilitate such efforts, Paul has created open-source software for visualization of model results tools that have considerably advanced the degree to which modelers can gain insight from simulations and effectively communicate results. Paul s stature in the field of fractured- rock hydrogeology led to service on three National Research Council committees, including the Panel on Conceptual Models of Flow and Transport in the Fractured Vadose Zone. This committee, which Paul chaired, was particularly important. Water collected at Yucca Mountain showed that bomb blast isotopes had penetrated deep into the unsaturated zone. This unexpected observation required leading scientists to critique existing theory and explore alternatives. At the time the site was approved, the future of Yucca Mountain as a viable nuclear waste repository depended on understanding this phenomenon. This background illustrates Paul A. Hsieh s career- long pattern of developing and applying fundamental science to resolve important societal issues. Paul is a zealous and unselfish collaborator, motivated entirely by the goal of achieving high- quality science, and an exemplary recipient for the inaugural Ambassador Award. Steve Ingebritsen, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Response Thank you, Steve, for nominating me, and thank you to my colleagues who wrote letters to support the nomination. I am deeply grateful to AGU for selecting me as one of the five recipients of the Ambassador Award. In today s world in which human impacts are manifested on a global scale, it is highly fitting for AGU to emphasize the role of science in addressing societal issues, not only for today but also for future generations. As an undergraduate at Princeton in the 1970s, I was drawn to hydrologic science through the classes taught by George Pinder and William Gray. Their pioneering work on computer modeling in hydrology instantly captured my fascination. Shortly thereafter, I had the good fortune of being hired by John Bredehoeft to work at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Under John s guidance, I learned how to transform difficult questions into tractable problems a process elegantly demonstrated in many of John s papers. During graduate school at the University of Arizona, I learned from my advisor, Shlomo Neuman, the importance of understanding fundamental theory and not simply learning methods and procedures. It is through such fundamental understanding that one is able to expand beyond one s own area of study to collaborate with others in related fields. To my mentors who invested time and energy in my education and growth, I am truly grateful. I consider USGS my professional family. It is a joy to be among peers who are totally dedicated to their work. During my career, I have been allowed the opportunity to pursue different areas of work, from groundwater contamination to induced seismicity. Such diversity of work has greatly contributed to my career growth. I am thankful to be part of an organization that recognizes its employees as its most valuable assets. My participation in the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was a career highlight. It was a privilege to serve on the government science team, led by then secretary of energy Steven Chu. In my opinion, it was Dr. Chu s deep understanding of science and his wisdom in balancing risks and benefits that led us through the environmental crisis. It was a great example of the importance of science in decision making. Yet even the best scientists today must suffer the slings and arrows of a politicized society, a situation to which climate scientists, for example, are no strangers. And so we must continue to strive for rigor and openness in our work. Paul A. Hsieh, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Citation for Scott Mandia Scott Mandia is helping the Earth science community deal with problems we never expected. In 2009, scientists at leading research institutions had their s stolen, mischaracterized, and plastered across the global media. Scientists were shocked that misinformation about their research Scott Mandia could spread so rapidly. Scott Mandia, along with two other researchers, decided to help. They formed the Climate Science Rapid Response Team to proactively address misinformation about climate research and assist scientists in accurately communicating their research to the public and the media. Their volunteer effort now includes more than 200 climate researchers who regularly communicate with journalists and provide assistance to nongovernmental organizations that are active on climate issues. Earth & Space Science News // 17

20 AGU NEWS Mandia s work has helped many early- and mid- career scientists take on more ambitious public outreach opportunities, and many members of the rapid response team have grown as communicators in the past several years. Of course, attacks on climate scientists didn t stop. In many ways, they got worse. In several cases, advocacy groups and politicians sued scientists in court and falsely accused them of faking their climate research. At the time, the Earth science community was not prepared to respond to these unprecedented legal assaults. Mandia stepped into the breach again and worked with documentary film maker Joshua Wolfe and Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility to create the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF), which now provides regular legal assistance to researchers. The group has been a saving grace to the many scientists who have faced invasive document requests and other burdensome legal attacks. At the same time, the group s assistance has had a positive ripple effect in the scientific community. Other researchers can publicly communicate about their work secure in the knowledge that if they are attacked by advocacy groups or politicians, they can get the help they need. Mandia s drive and enthusiasm are infectious. He approaches his work with the Earth science community seriously and with good cheer. His willingness to step up and provide valuable, necessary services to Earth scientists makes him an excellent inaugural recipient of AGU s Ambassador Award. Michael E. Mann, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Response I am honored to have been chosen to receive one of AGU's inaugural Ambassador Awards. I accept on behalf of the many people who helped make this possible. Deepest thanks to Dr. Michael Mann for coordinating the nomination process and to the others who wrote supporting letters. Thank you to the AGU awards committee members for considering my nomination worthy of this award. Your time is greatly appreciated. Thank you to Drs. John Abraham and Ray Weymann for founding the Climate Science Rapid Response Team with me in 2010 and to Drs. Michael Ashley and Jan Dash for helping to manage the team over the past few years. Thank you to the climate scientists who joined the team. Your willingness to be on call for journalists and policy makers has provided them with critical, rapid, and cutting edge science information. Deepest thanks to Aaron Huertas (Union of Concerned Scientists) and to Susan Joy Hassol and Dr. Richard Somerville (climatecommunication. org) for providing science communication workshops for our team members. Because of the work of these two groups, many of our team members have become superb science communicators. The combination of our experts willingness to reach out coupled with their advanced communication skills has moved forward the public dial of understanding of climate science. Unfortunately, some groups and individuals have found climate science research inconvenient to their worldview and have used Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) laws to harass our experts and thus stifle the scientific endeavor. In January 2012, I cofounded the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund along with Joshua Wolfe to respond to this unfortunate reality. The Climate Science Legal Defense Fund serves to assist scientists when they face legal attacks as well as to educate them about their rights and best practices to avoid such attacks. I wish to thank Jeff Ruch and his staff at PEER for agreeing to become our fiscal sponsor and for always being there when scientists contacted our service in need of legal advice. Many thanks to Joshua Wolfe for being a huge part of the growth and success of the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund, even though you prefer to remain behind the scenes. Finally, I wish to thank my wonderful wife, Kelly, who has steadfastly supported all of my climate science related activities. You understand how important these activities are to me and to others, and for that, I am truly grateful. Scott Mandia, Suffolk County Community College, Selden, N.Y. Citation for James E. Overland It is my great pleasure and honor to give the citation for the 2014 AGU Ambassador awardee Dr. James E. Overland. Jim s contributions to raising public awareness and fostering collaborative, interdisciplinary research on Arctic change and ecosystem responses are tremendous. James E. Overland Jim s tireless work includes publishing more than 200 peer-reviewed scientific papers, book chapters, and reports; giving presentations at scientific meetings and local community gatherings; convening meeting sessions; organizing workshops; and forming working groups to address important issues related to Arctic climate change and its impact on fisheries and components of ecosystems. He communicates the significance of scientific findings to policy makers, fisheries managers, environmental agencies, biologists, and the public. Jim is a leading force to push Arctic research to the forefront. He shows great foresight in Arctic research and supports young scientists by serving as a Ph.D. committee member around the world. Jim has brought communities of scientists from different disciplines together to work as a cohesive unit. Because changes in the Arctic environment are multivariate and data sources are scattered, Jim envisioned a single interdisciplinary portal of information to contain key indicators of the Arctic environmental system. His goal was to make the information easily accessible to scientists, teachers, students, decision makers, and the general public. Jim founded the State of the Arctic Report in 2006, which later became the Arctic Report Card, a yearly assessment of the Arctic s physical, chemical, and biological systems and how they are changing. He continues to serves as an editor of the Arctic Report Card, which in 2013 featured 18 essays authored by a team of 147 researchers from 14 countries. In 2008, Jim organized scientists to create a Web-based forum/summary called the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) with the purpose of providing the scientific community, stakeholders, and the public the best available information on the evolution of Arctic sea ice. In 2013, 23 groups of experts provided their predictions on the basis of model and/or empirical analyses. Because of his profound knowledge of Arctic climate change and his insight into studies of climate change related issues, Jim was chosen to represent the United States as a lead author of chapter 10 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s Fifth Assessment Report. Jim has responded to requests to provide climate projections for evaluating endangered species and has contributed to U.S. and international Arctic change assessments. Jim is a true ambassador in the Arctic research community. Muyin Wang, University of Washington, Seattle Response I am honored to be considered for the AGU Ambassador Award as a larger recognition of how the Arctic science community has cooperated and communicated the importance of ongoing rapid changes in the Arctic over the last decades. For me, it starts with the professional values promoted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration leaders to provide credible scientific information backed by peer review publications. It has included working with other editors on the Arctic Report Card, a yearly update of multiple changes that now includes more than 100 contributors, and Sea Ice Outlook, a website to discuss the causes of rapid summer sea ice loss that has matured to a larger activity in the last 2 years. A challenge was working with biological scientist colleagues on Endangered Species Act listings for polar bears and various ice seals; here one compared climate change projections with potential impacts based on different life histories. With Arctic temperatures rising 2 3 times faster than the global value and many Arctic surprises, it has been necessary for the community to come together during symposia and workshops to understand the mechanisms for this Arctic amplification as an indicator of global change and local impacts. Such efforts are seen by the many Arctic- related sessions at the current AGU meeting. International support for integration activities is through the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), and various World Meteorological Organization activities. Achieving synthesis and consensus is not always easy or possible, as with any rapidly evolving science activity. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report dealt with differences between data and models on future timing of sea ice loss, and the community is currently debating the extent of larger hemispheric impacts of Arctic change. I appreciate the many colleagues whom I have had the pleasure to collaborate with over the years. James E. Overland, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Wash. Citation for Michael E. Wysession Michael Wysession is one of the world s leading geoscience educators. Most notably, he chaired the writing of national standards requiring, for the first time, that high school and middle school students complete a year of modern, quantitative, data- based Earth and space science. Wysession is an excellent researcher, who has made and continues to Michael E. Wysession make important contributions using seismology to study deep Earth structure. He has done even more as an educator, showing that it is not those who can t, teach but those who understand, teach. Rather than avoid or dumb down complicated concepts, he thoughtfully and clearly explains them. His interest was already apparent in grad school. While doing a fine thesis, he asked to coauthor the seismology text I was writing. I declined, feeling that he should focus on research until getting tenure. After he had gained tenure, we agreed that the book was largely com- 18 // Eos 1 February 2015

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