3 Summary: Symposium Program Speakers abstracts Poster abstracts Speakers
4 Symposium program October, 5 th Wednesday Evening Chairman: Roberto Viola Istituto Agrario di San Michele a/a. - Italy 5.00 p.m. Registration - Opening poster session 6.00 p.m. Official opening of Symposium Welcome by the authorities 6.40 p.m. James Joseph Tufts University Boston - U.S.A. Multiple beneficial properties of berryfruit in brain aging p.m. Closing session Free night: selected restaurants offer special theme menus October, 6th Thursday Morning Chairman: Philip Lieten Proefbedrijf Noorderkempeu - Belgium a.m. Tiziano Mellarini Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Assessore all'agricoltura, al Commercio e Turismo - Italia Greetings a.m. Mauro Fezzi Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Dipartimento Agricoltura e Alimentazione The production system in Trentino a.m. Marc Duponcel Agricolture Service Commission UE soft fruit group European Union Soft fruits and strawberry: a growing sector. The point of view of the European Commission a.m. Roberto Della Casa University of Bologna Italy Strawberry and soft fruit European market: scenery, trends and perspectives for the Italian production analysing the main competitors and the most important consumer markets a.m. David Hughes: Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing Imperial College London Strawberry and soft fruit marketing: the English experience a.m. Hans Van Es COPA-COGECA - The Nederlands Strawberry and soft fruit: an overview of Europe and the Dutch experience a.m. Coffee break a.m. Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Handcraft and Agricolture - Trento - Italy Structural analysis of the production base for strawberry and soft fruit in the main UE productive Countries a.m. Conclusions e discussion p.m. Buffet
5 October, 6th Thursday Afternoon 1.0 p.m p.m. Poster Session Chairman Hugh Daubeny British Columbia University - Canada 2.00 p.m. Opening session 2.10 p.m. Lara Giongo Istituto Agrario di San Michele a/a. - Italia Trends of the horticultural research on soft fruit p.m. Fulvio Mattivi Istituto Agrario di San Michele a/a. - Italiy Overview of the importance of strawberry and soft fruit as major sources of dietary antioxidants p.m. Coffee break 3.10 p.m. Rex Brennan Scottish Crop Research Institute - Scotland Rubus and Ribes breeding in a changing landscape p.m. John Clark University of Arkansas - U.S.A. Current trends in fruit breeding on improving blackberries in the US p.m. Philip Lieten Proefbedrijf Noorderkempeu - Belgium Future perspectives for the strawberry research p.m. Discussion 4.30 p.m. End of the session Free night: selected restaurants offer special theme menus October, 7th Friday Morning a.m. Visit to the packing house of APA Sant'Orsola and Alpefrutta. A visit to some significant farms in the Mocheni valley, famous for berries production, will follow P.M. CLOSING OF THE SYMPOSIUM AND BUFFET OF TYPICAL TRENTINO PRODUCTS.
6 Speakers Abstracts Strawberry and soft fruits:
8 THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF BERRYFRUIT ON NEURONAL COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIOR IN AGING. JOSEPH, JA B. AND SHUKITT-HALE USDA HUMAN NUTRITION RESEARCH CENTER ON AGING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY, BOSTON, MA Numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that individuals who consume a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables may prevent age-related disease such as Alzheimer Disease. Research from our laboratory has suggested that dietary supplementation with berryfruit extracts high in antioxidants (e.g., blueberry, BB) can decrease the enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress (OS) that occurs in aging and these reductions are expressed as improvements in behavior. In addition to their antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, there appear to be additional multiple mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects observed from these supplementations. These mechanisms include enhancement of neuronal communication that involves increased signaling and neurogenesis (the growth of new neurons). For example, collaborative work with Dr. David Morgan showed that BB supplementation from 4 to 12 months of age in transgenic mice (APP/PS1) that express some of the memory problems seen in Alzheimer disease (AD) can offset the deficits in cognitive behavior by increasing two signals associated with learning and memory i.e., extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) These same signals also appeared to be activated in learning in both aged and young rats, are enhanced by BB supplementation, and are correlated with behavioral performance. It also appears that polyphenolic compounds, such as those found in BB may exert their beneficial effects by enhancing the internal antioxidant and neuronal signaling capabilities of the organism. In addition, collaborative work with Dr. Gemma Casadesus has indicated that one of the most striking effects of BB supplementation may involve increases in neurogenesis MAP kinase signaling and IGF-1 in the dentate gyrus that were associated with a reduced number of errors in maze performance. Additional research showed that the number of errors made by senescent animals on the Morris water maze were inversely correlated with the number of anthocyanins that were localized in regions such as the cortex and hippocampus in the BB-supplemented animals. Taken together, these findings, along with those showing similar beneficial effects on other signals and such as insulin growth facto (IGF-1) and behavior in BB-supplemented animals, suggest that antioxidant-rich fruits such as BBs may improve cognitive and motor function by enhancing neuronal signaling and ultimately, neuronal communication. Clearly, however, the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of the berryfruit polyphenols may only represent a small aspect of their beneficial effects. Moreover, recent data in our COS- 7 cell model suggest that rather than acting only as free radical scavengers BB polyphenolic compounds may act to turn off several molecular signals (e.g., cyclic AMP response element binding protein; protein kinase C) associated with oxidative stress and to turn on signals which are protective such as MAP kinase. Additionally, data from BV-2 mouse microglia cells suggest that pre-treatment of the cells with BB protects the cells against lipopolysaccharide (an inflammatory agent) by reducing nitrite production. Similar findings were seen in BB-fed young animals given hippocampal kainic acid (an inflammatory mediator) injections which showed decreases in the activation of central markers of inflammation. It may be that we can take advantage of these properties of BB to target specific areas of the signaling pathways to alter responses to stress and learning and memory.
9 SOFT FRUITS AND STRAWBERRY: A GROWING SECTOR. THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION MARC DUPONCEL AGRICOLTURE SERVICE COMMISSION UE SOFT FRUIT GROUP EUROPEAN UNION Keywords: The presentation will cover the major features of the sector of strawberries and soft fruits in the european union (production, trade) analysing the major changes since the enlargement of The presentation will discuss some implications of the recent enlargement for two products: strawberries and raspberries. it will in particular analyse the relations between the fresh and processing destinations.
10 THE EUROPEAN MARKET FOR STRAWBERRIES AND SOFT FRUIT: SCENARIOS, TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR ITALIAN PRODUCTIONS BY THE ANALYSIS OF MAIN COMPETITORS AND CONSUMPTION MARKETS ROBERTO DELLA CASA BOLOGNA UNIVERSITY We provide below indications in relation to the analysis methodology and main results from the European market for strawberry and soft fruit study, with particular attention to trade development, retail trends and, finally, the scenario about consumption and product feeling. About trade, besides the analysis of aggregate flows historical series we have deepened commercial trades providing the split for Country of destination and origin in relation to the last three-year period form 2002 to 2004 both for strawberries and soft fruit, by official statistics. This allowed us to outline a complete trade scenario for the different Countries of interest: in one side we have Countries like Germany and United Kingdom, important strawberry net importers strongly dependant on respective supplying Countries especially Spain to meet the national demand. On the other side, instead, we find producer Countries that have developed a relevant export activity: the main net exporter for strawberries in the European scenario is certainly Spain with above tonnes exported in 2004 followed, by far, by Poland. The trade analysis for each Country of interest that is to say Italy, Spain, Poland, Hungary, United Kingdom, Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium steadily refers to the competitive positioning of Italy towards the main European competitor - i.e. Spain with the aim to find out opportunities and threats for Italian productions. Besides the progressive competitiveness loss of our production in favour of Spain, there is a general globalization trend that we could assume as interpretation key of the European trade scenario besides the international. It is important to underline that official statistics have been opportunely cross tabulated and integrated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view with direct analysis realized on field, through sector specialists, leader companies, retailers, etc, to operatively deepen the picture as it is necessary for niche products like strawberries and soft fruit. Coming to the retail scenario, we have analysed the distribution channels and their evolution both in relation to the food sector and, more in detail, the fresh produce, with attention to the modern retail trends. It does not exist, actually, a unique Multiple system at European level as differences and specific features of each market are so relevant to request a different strategic approach, Country by Country, one-to-one. Even though the differences among the Countries of interest in terms of main distribution format, inhabitants number per point of sale, distribution concentration rate, internalization rate, and so on, the target for each approaching strategy is represented anyway by the Multiple system, even if with its different format. Finally, the study analyses the consumption scenario and product feeling, at consumer level, both for strawberries and soft fruit. The scenario appears very diversified, not only in relation to a quantitative point of view but there are also different trends: from a decreasing consumption market for strawberries in Germany to an increasing trend in Italy, with a market progressively expanding in the last five years a growth of 10% in 2004 towards 2002 in volume against the decreasing tendency of consumptions for the fresh produce category. From a methodology point of view, we have decided to analyse strawberries consumption for the different Countries of interest through the supplying balance, with a combined analysis of production, import and export data to be combined with domestic consumptions, if available. This choice is due to the following consideration: domestic consumption data from consumer panel of different research companies could result scarcely representative of the total consumption dimension for niche products like strawberries, and even more for soft fruit, characterized by low per capita consumption and low penetration rate. The consumer feeling, instead, was analysed by two focus group for each Country of interest that is to say Italy, Spain, Germany and United Kingdom both for strawberries and soft fruit. The main subjects discussed, pointed out convergent elements i.e. strawberry still appears, in all Countries, a seasonal product; the taste appears like uncontested leit-motiv at the top of all consumers preferences against other elements of relevant diversity among participant to the focus group. For example, if in Italy and Germany leader purchasing criteria for strawberries are represented by aesthetic qualities in terms of colour, size, shape, besides the overall aspect in general in Spain and UK consumers prefer to purchase on the basis of the product freshness. Group discussions, besides the items above, refer also to the following main subjects: consumption habits; consumption frequency, with attention to the de-seasonality issue; likes & dislikes; product feeling ; main production areas knowledge; purchasing criteria; purchasing channels; consumption methods and places, and so on.
11 BERRY FRUIT: THE ENGLISH EXPERIENCE David Hughes: Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing Imperial College London c/o Westfield - The Parade - Monmouth - Monmouthshire NP25 3PA United Kingdom Keywords: Berry fruit produced domestically are a scarce example of success in the UK where self-sufficiency in total fruit consumption has declined to a meagre 10%; i.e. 90% of fruit eaten in the UK is imported. Even better, the UK markets for berry fruit are booming: strawberry sales volumes increasing by double digits year-onyear, although unit prices have been static over the past three years; raspberry sales have fared even better with volumes doubling in the first half of this decade - not surprisingly, strong sales growth has been associated with pressure on prices but, still, this sector continues in a strongly optimistic vein. The market for blueberries has exploded, with supplies short but domestic interest has been kindled sufficiently that blueberry production is expanding from a very low base in the UK. Is everything rosy in the berry patch? No! Increasing competition in the retail sector - fewer, larger retailers - is being reflected in increasing pressure on prices and a continuing rationalisation in the number of suppliers servicing the major chains. Further, the major food manufacturers of the world - e.g. Nestle, Unilever, PepsiCo - are reconfiguring their product portfolios to respond to the increasing consumer demand for healthier food and drink products. We in the fresh produce industry must watch out as our clothes are being stolen. Unilever's Knorr Via fruit juice products are targeting the consumer concerned about eating/drinking 5-a-day. They are entering our segment of the overall food market and they will be tough and very professional competitors. In the UK, there is plenty of room for berry markets to grow. However, increasingly, we shall have to emulate the marketing performance of the fast-moving consumer goods companies. remember, these are the dangerous enemies, not supplies of berries from imported sources.
12 STRAWBERRY AND SOFT FRUIT: AN OVERVIEW OF EUROPE AND THE DUTCH EXPERIENCE. HANS VAN ES COPA-COGECA THE NEDERLANDS Keywords: This presentation will give an overview of the developments in the field of strawberries and softfruit on the European market. The market as whole is not growing very rapidly,but there is a shift from industry to fresh. The ones who are strong in logistics and can fill in the coolchain are the most successfull up till now. Specially the UK supermarkets are doing quite well compared to their continental competitors. They make the better prices and it turns out how longer you can extend the sales season(preferable yearround) how better you do.the changes we already see to day wil continue in the future. It doesnot make much sense to fight the changes you better anticipate. Changes in production methods, packaging, promotion, logistic infrastructure, IT application etc. will dominate the period to come. Finally I spend some words on the changes in the fruit and veg sector in general. A more demanding customer and government, more health oriented way of living, europeanisation of the sector, overproduction etc. they all will have their influence on the way the sector wiil develop in the future. Some people say we have had already so many changes. But don't forget we just started with the changes, there is much more to come. Within ten years the sector will have a completely different face!
13 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRODUCTION BASE FOR STRAWBERRY AND SOFT FRUIT IN THE MAIN UE PRODUCTIVE COUNTRIES. Stef Schreuder Applied Plant Research - Fruit The Netherlands Keywords: This study is asked for by the Italian apples Growers Association to compare the different crops of small fruits, including strawberries in 10 European countries. The world production of strawberry has increased since 1992 by 33%. The USA is world s largest producer (27%), whereas Spain is second with 10% of the world production. In the top 10 strawberry countries, also Poland (5%), Italy (5%) and Germany (tenth, with 3%) are important. Blueberries are produced in only 16 countries worldwide. Poland with 8% of world production is the third world producer. The Netherlands with 2% is the fourth world producer. Italy and France are also on the top 10 producers, but with less than 1% of world blueberry production. Raspberry production increased worldwide with 38% since Poland (11%, 4), Germany (7%, 5), Hungary (4%, 7), UK (2%, 9) and France with 2% on the 10 th place are in the top ten of worldproducers. Currants (including black, red, white currant and gooseberry) are mostly produced in Germany (30%), followed by Poland with nearly as much production. Other top-10 producers are: UK, Hungary and France. Important factors for competition are: area, profitability, productionaspects, marketing, export, consumption and varieties. As far as information was available for each country a SWOT-analyses is made, containing the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. As these differ for the countries for each crop, these SWOT-analyses are not summarised. See for these analyses the last paragraph of each chapter. Some common aspects: Production of small fruits including strawberry is increasing worldwide. Many countries are working at season lengthening for different crops. The economic profitability is not in each country for each crop positive. Poland is a big producer focused on processing. If Poland changes to the production for the fresh market this would meant a big competitor for the other countries. Compared to other fruit like apples the small fruit crops are small crops based on production, also the consumption (in kilo/capita) is lower for these crops. An increase in consumption is important to meet the extra production as well as the decrease in prices. The healthiness of small fruits is perhaps a good marketing instrument to increase the consumption. Other countries outside the scope of Europe are also coming up-as producer: China and Morocco for example, especially for the processed fruits.
14 Compared to the apple market, the market for small fruits seems to have perspectives. As in most European countries small fruits are literally a small crop in total fruit industry, a common European action to increase consumption of both fres and processed small fruits could be valuable.
15 TRENDS OF THE HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH ON SOFT FRUIT. Keywords: LARA GIONGO ISTITUTO AGRARIO SAN MICHELE ALL ADIGE Via E. Mach, San Michele all Adige (TN) Italy The research on soft fruit and the production, in the last years, have being facing to powerful developments both in the methods, technology and objectives. Still the influence of the research on soft fruit is directly related to the economical impact these crops have on the market, but what seems certain at the moment is that the research is more tightly applied to the production than before. The first reason is the low availability of public funds, that makes the private sector the first interlocutor: this makes the challenge more competitive but also more restricted in terms of exchange of germplasm and knowledge. The second reason especially in Countries where still the production efficiency is low - is related to a lack of synergy among different disciplines applied to the soft fruit studies. Many unclear passages in the physiology, morphology and genetics of these different genera remain and a short review of the last discoveries will be covered in this presentation. As an example of international exchange and synergy among disciplines, together with its objectives, the results of the first year of the project InterBerry will also be presented.
16 OVERVIEW OF THE IMPORTANCE OF STRAWBERRY AND SOFT FRUITS AS MAJOR SOURCES OF DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS FULVIO MATTIVI VIA E. MACH 1, SAN MICHELE ALL ADIGE, ITALY. ISTITUTO AGRARIO DI SAN MICHELE ALL ADIGE - IASMA, CENTRO SPERIMENTALE SOFT FRUITS, STRAWBERRY, ANTIOXIDANTS, NUTRITION The researches on the mechanisms of the bioavailability, the metabolism and the protecting action of the microconstituents of the diet, allowed emphasizing that some components of the fruit and of the vegetables can interfere with the perpetual cycle of events associated to the rise up of serious pathologies and the ageing process, slowing it down. In this vision, the role of a correct nutrition is not limited to supply an adequate support of energy and essential elements, but also to help to reach in good state of health and of efficiency, physical and mental, the years of the old age. Among the microconstituents widely present in the vegetables, the polyphenols exercise a protecting action through multiple mechanisms, of which the most well-known is the antioxidant action. The soft fruits, like the wild berries from which derive the cultivated varieties, are among the food most rich in polyphenols. The chemistry of these substances is particularly complex, given that many thousands of natural compounds belong to this class, and each food is different for quantity and quality of polyphenols. To be able to estimate the nutritional value of the different fruits is therefore essential a systematic approach to the description of the different classes of polyphenols, in order to build complete databases. The compositional data must be analysed against the results of the biomedical research for each compound, with the last purpose to characterize the species and the varieties that supply a greater contribution of nutritionally relevant microconstituents. At the Experimental Centre of IASMA is now in advanced construction, in collaboration with other research institutions and with the support of the Associations of the Producers of Trentino, a database with the detailed characterization of the main bioactive components present in the strawberry and soft fruit. This presentation reports the results of the characterization of the berries produced in For most of the constituents, the existence of an important variability was pointed out in many cases of nutritional importance - within each typology of fruit. The differences regard the quantity of each class of antioxidants (including also the ascorbic acid) and the pattern of the polyphenols, and particularly of the anthocyanins, the ellagitannins and the hydroxycinnamates. The information obtained in this study is fundamental for the producers in order to characterize inside the existing varieties the best choice as an alternative to the present productions, and above all in order to plan the future programs of genetic improvement and to further improve the content in antioxidants and the high nutritional quality of the berries. The nutritional importance of some compounds of the soft fruits - such as the anthocyanins - is now widely accepted, while for others such as the ellagitannins of the rasberry, blackberry and strawberry, we lack precise data on the molecular structure and on the mechanism of action, and further fundamental work is still required. Acknowledgements. This research was funded by Provincia Autonoma di Trento, Fondo Unico per la Ricerca 2003, InterBerry Project.
17 BREEDING RUBUS AND RIBES IN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE Rex Brennan, Nikki Jennings and Julie Graham. Scottish Crop Research Institute Keywords: The commercially-sponsored breeding programmes for Rubus and Ribes at SCRI are fully aligned with changing market conditions, through the application of appropriate breeding strategies and objectives. For example, raspberry production in Scotland has moved from a predominantly field-based system with mechanical harvesting for processing to a situation where the majority of the Scottish production is now grown under tunnels for the fresh market. As a result, breeding and selection is now focused in this area, leading to the latest release, Glen Doll. In blackcurrant, fruit components linked to health are increasingly important to the end-users, and various genotypes with elevated ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content have been identified. Recent molecular developments in Rubus and Ribes have produced the first linkage maps in each crop, and work is in progress to identify markers linked to important traits for use in marker-assisted breeding strategies. These traits initially include pest and disease resistance, but will be followed by quality and developmental characters. In addition to consumer- and market-led changes in emphasis, there is an increasing need for breeding programmes to produce plants with greater environmental adaptibility. In the long term, climatic and field observations indicate that reduced levels of winter chilling are now experienced in southern parts of the UK, so strategies to produce low chill-adapted cultivars for the future are under consideration.
18 CURRENT TRENDS IN FRUIT BREEDING TO IMPROVE BLACKBERRIES IN THE UNITED STATES JOHN R. CLARK Department of Horticulture, 316 Plant Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR USA Keywords: Fruit quality, primocane-fruiting, thornlessness Blackberry breeding continues in the U.S. although the number of programs is reduced compared to 20 years ago. The two largest efforts are at the U.S. Dept. of Agric. Agri. Research Service Corvallis, Ore., and the University of Arkansas. There are several smaller programs, both private and public. Major objectives include fruit quality for improved flavor and postharvest handling, thornlessness, primocane fruiting, along with productive, healthy, adapted plants. The U.S.D.A program focuses on floricane-fruiting, trailing types for the processing industry in Oregon, including improved cultivars with fruit flavors similar to Marion. Recent releases have been suggested for trial in the shipping market also. The Arkansas program includes both thorny and thornless types, with emphasis on erect canes. Postharvest handling is a high priority in the program to expand the production of blackberries for shipping both within and outside the U.S. Flavor, along with firmness, are emphasized. The program has released 11 cultivars, of which four are thornless. Primocane fruiting is a more recent addition to the program, with breeding for this trait begun in the 1990s. Two cultivars have been released for the home garden market, with additional improvements forthcoming. This exciting new area of work will provide potential innovations in blackberry production. Current and potential advances in blackberry improvement will be discussed.
19 PROSPETTIVE FUTURE DELLA RICERCA SULLA FRAGOLA Philip Lieten, Proefcentrum Hoogstraten Belgio Keywords: The last decade the economical decline has affected the financial contribution to the praticical and scientific research in strawberries and research in the strawberry industry has become less funded by national governments. Nowadays research stations and universities have become increasingly more dependent for their financial support on the private industry. On the other hand grower cooperatives in the EU have the opportunity to get financial support for R&D and work together with researchers, marketing-specialists and consultants In 2007 the budget for supporting horticulture in the EU will be renegociated as 10 new countries have entered the European Union. Transfer of products and technology between member states will lead to new technical questions and create a need for more research. Interregional and international projects supported by the EU and the industry will become more important. More then ever before there is a need for research. The strawberry industry has been growing and implementing high technology, the quality demands of supermarkets and the consumer have been evolved to a higher level. For these reasons a cross pollination of ideas and technical input from researchers from around Europe is necessary to come up with answers for many new problems and questions such as soil disinfection, IPM, substrate culture, tracebility, energy efficiency, alternative heating systems and energy sources etc. Public breeding programs have or will become privatized or remain no longer regional active Some grower cooperatives, supermarket chains and nurseries enter into existing breeding programs, others will set up their own breeding program to ensure in the future access to new varieties. Their idea is to have protected access through an exclusivity clause for several years or definitive which can have a dramatic impact on the market situation. There is finally also in Europe a rise in controlled production by companies which provide varieties, technical support and do the marketing. The intellectual property and decrease of germplasm exchange will affect other public and private breeding programs negatively. Breeding has become nowadays very competitive and will be even more privatized in the near future.
20 Poster Abstracts Strawberry and soft fruits:
21 A SURVEY ON THE PRESENCE OF ANTHOCYANINS IN STRAWBERRY AND SOFT FRUITS URSKA VRHOVSEK, ARIANNA PALCHETTI, LARA GIONGO, FULVIO MATTIVI ISTITUTO AGRARIO DI SAN MICHELE ALL'ADIGE - IASMA, CENTRO SPERIMENTALE FUTURE PERSPECTIVES FOR THE STRAWBERRY AND SOFT FRUITS PRODUCTION FOR FRESH MARKET IN THE SERBIA Miloljub Stanisavljevic IPTCH, Willamette Kneza Vase Popovica 4/8, Cacak, Serbia and Montenegro PASTEURIZATION OF FRUIT JUICE BY HIGH PRESSURE CARBON DIOXIDE S. Spilimbergo, D. Mantoan, A. Dalser Department of Material Engineering and Industrial Technologies - University of Trento FIRST REPORT OF ARMILLARIA ROOT ROT ON HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) IN TRENTINO REGION DANIELE PRODORUTTI 1, LUISA PALMIERI 2, DAVIDE GOBBIN 2, ILARIA PERTOT 2, CESARE GESSLER 2 ISTITUTO AGRARIO DI SAN MICHELE ALL ADIGE BIOAVAILABILITY OF DIETARY ANTHOCYANINS PRINCIPLES, FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES SABINA PASSAMONTI DIPARTIMENTO DI BIOCHIMICA, BIOFISICA E CHIMICA DELLE MACROMOLECOLE - UNIVERSITÀ DI TRIESTE