Giuliano Bianchi. DOUBLE SHIFT Towards a convergence between spatial systems of small and large enterprises?

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1 European Regional Science Association 36th European Congress ETH Zurich, Switzerland August 1996 Giuliano Bianchi Università di Siena & Regione Toscana I Firenze - Via Ciro Menotti, 6 Tel Fax DOUBLE SHIFT Towards a convergence between spatial systems of small and large enterprises? ABSTRACT: The paper arises and defends the hypothesis that, at least in Italy, both the models of small enterprise spatial system and of large enterprise spatial system show apparent symptoms of convergence, as to inter-enterprises relationships, which are becoming more hierarchical in the former and more co-operative in the latter. The hypothesis may have a significant normative meaning in terms of regional development policy design. The first section presents original characteristics of the two models and of their territoriality (local rooting). The second discusses global and local processes which have affected original models and generated the new relationship style. In the third section a new generation of regional development policy, made possible by the new context, is presented. The last section illustrates an ongoing Tuscany experience aimed at implementing such a policy.

2 1 Premise: spatial systems of production and regional development policies Contemporary ( ) Italian economic development resulted in three distinct geoeconomic entities, which have been respectively termed (Bagnasco 1977, Fuà 1983): a. central economy, corresponding to the North West regions (Piemonte, Lombardia, Liguria: the so-called Industrial Triangle ), with an economic structure based on large private firms operating in modern sectors (as mechanics, automobile, electronics, etc.); b. marginal economy (South Italy or Mezzogiorno ), the less developed area, despite massive public investments in infrastructure and huge plants of steel and petrochemical industry; c. peripheral economy (regions of North East Central Italy, better known as Third Italy ), the most rapidly growing area owing to its dynamic small firms of traditional sectors (as textiles, clothing, footwear, etc.). The specific factor of the Third Italy development was universally recognised in its small enterprise spatial systems (hereon referred to as SESSs), for which new denominations were coined (as system areas : Garofoli 1983, 1991) or old concepts rediscovered (as the Marshall s industrial districts : Becattini 1979, 1987, 1990). In any case, it was clear that relationships among enterprises were essentially cooperative in the SESSs (so to be defined as constituting a communitary market : Dei Ottati 1986) and essentially hierarchical in the large enterprise spatial systems (hereon referred to as LESSs), typical of the central economy (Goglio 1982, Gobbo 1991). The situation until the 80s can be sketched out in the following terms: a. the territoriality (i.e. the local roots) of a SESS depended on the fact that it was (and still is) a local agglomeration of small enterprises, whereas local rooting of a LESS could be assumed to exist if the major enterprises there settled had a local sub-contracting network; b. the territoriality of both SESSs and LESSs was undermined by the cost minimising behaviour of buyers (international trade agents) in the SESSs and of major enterprises in the LESSs when they chose external instead of internal supply for price reasons. In this context standard regional development policies were limited: 2

3 a. in the SESSs, to support small enterprise (in the following: SE) functions (innovation transfer, professional education, market promotion, etc.); b. in the LESSs, to support localisation choices of the large enterprise (in the following: LE), mainly through urban plans and infrastructure, in order to provide industrial sites and to ease accessibility. 2 Recent evolution of SESSs and LESSs: co-operation vs. hierarchy 2.1 Global processes and local changes Some time ago (Bianchi G. 1994), we questioned if and to what extent the Third Italy concept had maintained its epistemological, interpretative and even its descriptive validity, considering both the difficulties that SESSs have been experiencing in coping with the challenge of post-industrial transition and the rather different paths of development followed by regions once constituting the Third Italy. More recently it has been ascertained, in the SESSs, a tendency to a more hierarchical style in the relationships between the standard SEs and the newly emerged leading medium sized enterprises (Varaldo and Ferrucci 1995, Bortolotti 1994). Further analyses recognised the expansion in the LESSs of co-operative relationships among the LE and the SEs of its subcontracting network (Belussi 1992; Rullani 1992, 1994). In fact, in the new scenario (Giersch 1982, Hyman and Streeck 1988, Dosi et al. 1988, Dioguardi 1994, Archibugi and Michie 1995), caused by global processes as those of globalisation and innovation (microelectronics, informatics, automation, telematics, and so forth) and by new trends in production process management (namely: time-to-market and total quality constraints), traditional features of spatial production systems (both SESSs and LESSs) tend to undergo major changes which are driven exactly by technological and managerial innovations (for a more detailed explanation see: Bianchi G. 1994). 2.2 Spatial systems of small enterprises Today the SESSs seem, indeed, to be quite embarrassed when faced with the processes of post-industrial transition, particularly those of economy internationalisation (Holland 1987) and of technological innovation (Benedetti 1989), which converge to create an urgent need for advanced production services (or advanced tertiary ). The existence of problems involved in 3

4 the evolution of SESSs has been noted for some time now, even by those most sympathetic to the model (Bianchi G. 1986, 1990, Brusco 1989, Gobbo 1990, Pyke et al. 1990, Conti and Julien 1991, Garofoli 1991, Becattini and Rullani 1993). The internationalisation of the economy endangers the SESSs' hold on international markets (De Vet 1993), both because of unequal competition from the meso-economic firms - i.e. the large multinational, multi-product, multi-market companies (Holland 1987), and because of the difficulty in promoting transnational strategic alliances (Holland 1989). But serious problems are envisaged for small firms even in only that part of the internationalisation process which is expressed by the Single European Market. So much so that the European Union is showing its concern by promoting policies and programmes for their assistance, which, however, do not go directly to the heart of structural problems (Dastoli and Vilella 1992, p.179). The embarrassment of SESSs with regard to the innovation process has been studied since some years (see, among many possible texts, those collected in: Camagni and Malfi 1986, Belussi 1992, Camagni and Quevit 1992, Rullani 1995). However, the problem is intrinsic to the very nature of SESSs: it is in their original makeup (Sweeny 1987). The ongoing process of change necessarily implies a decline in the importance of factors (sources of external economies) which sustained the initial development stages of the SESSs. In other words, the traditional generators of external economies are losing efficiency (Varaldo and Ferrucci 1996). The field of challenge is shifting from efficiency of the individual firm or system of firms to environmental efficiency of each SESS (Benko and Lipietz 1992). In short, new generators of external economies are needed (external, this time, to the local industrial system, but internal to the socio-economic spatial system): i.e. research and development, marketing, professional and managerial training (Bianchi P. and Bellini 1991). These new generators of external economies cannot spontaneously come into being, given that (Bianchi G. 1990): a. the radical changes, in themselves, lie beyond the cultural horizons of the average small entrepreneur: his social culture and the history of his past successes prevent him from perceiving the crucial nature of innovation; 4

5 b. there are economic barriers which, in general, inhibit a small firm's access to large scale R&D and marketing. c. other new generators (infrastructure, communications services etc.) lie, by their very nature, outside the legal responsibility of private subjects. As to the SESSs it is useful to briefly review the recent evolution of the Third Italy (with special reference to Tuscany), in order to identify SESS components and mechanisms which are put under stress by current post-industrial transition and to verify whether or not hierarchization is really increasing within inter-enterprise relations. To these purposes the following can be affirmed: a. flexibility is no longer a characteristic exclusive to SEs specialised in a single production phase or product component (Bianchi P. 1992): automation has made this possible also, and especially, for LEs and integrated production processes, which can, moreover, integrate flexible specialisation for small lots with production programming and market control; on the other hand, the increasing substitution of traditional multi-purpose machines with specialised ones with numerical control has tended to introduce elements of rigidity even in the production processes of SEs; b. to the extent that the buyers evolve from organisational agents for local production to become market intermediary services, localised in the SESS but now also active on world supply markets, they act as multipliers of competition from producers in lower wage cost countries, so threatening the SESS local roots; c. in general, learning by doing is no longer a satisfactory way of reproducing entrepreneurship and workers' skills (Messeri 1993); the family therefore is no longer able to pass on, from one generation to the next, the sophisticated knowledge needed for modern managerial and professional jobs: formal education is now necessary; d. the SESSs remain the elected seats of a diffused ability to innovate (Bellandi 1989, 1992), but the proliferation of innovation 'centres' or 'agencies' etc. (Bianchi G. 1990, Hassink 1996) testify to the fact that the innovation demand is no longer automatically satisfied by the marshallian industrial atmosphere. In this frame, the recent evolution of the SESSs has obviously witnessed significant elements of hierarchization (Bortolotti 1991), in that the multiple relationships between 5

6 substantially equal SEs are being substituted by relationships between medium sized enterprises and their area of smaller supplier (sub-contractor) enterprises (Bianchi P. 1991, Rothwell and Dodgson 1991). This shift from co-operation to hierarchy tends to relax the territorial constraint within SESSs, given that now not only buyers but also the medium sized leader enterprises assume a cost minimising attitude: they buy their production inputs within or externally to the local system according to their convenience in terms of relative prices. 2.3 Spatial systems of large enterprises As to the LESSs, relevant literature and direct inquiries show that here the traditional hierarchical subordination of the sub- contractor SEs to the sub- contracting LE is progressively substituted by relations of a co-operative nature according to the model of enterprise network pushed by the total quality paradigm. Indeed, the total quality and the time-to-market imperatives make crucial for the LE to increase the knowledge intensity of its production processes, while searching higher levels of flexibility, in quantitative terms (stock contraction, adjusting to demand variability, etc.) as well as qualitative (product customisation). Those imperatives have substantially instigated an evolution towards a model of flexible fordism (Rullani 1992, 1994), in the sense that LEs are now following a productive strategy focused on searching scope and variety economies rather than scale economies with the aim to minimise production costs of a differentiated product range instead of minimising the average cost of single products. Nevertheless, the competition constraint requires not only defensive but, and chiefly, proactive strategies; in other terms, flexibility can no longer remain adaptive it must now become dynamic, as capacity to govern turbulence and complexity. In this context time based competition and innovation are for LEs mere survival conditions: a sort of permanent modus vivendi (Humbert 1993). So flexibility goes beyond the manufacture sphere and beyond technology potential asking for a new capacity of the LE to generate continuous learning processes (CNR 1990). Flexibility encompasses enterprise management as a whole: acceleration in new product development (time to market) is a problem which can be successfully tackled only by means 6

7 of new organisation models. Flexibility, then, is mainly an organisation issue which requires a multiplicity of strategic options. Organisational and technological complexity increases, together with R&D investments to the extent to render the innovation governing, in a context of high vertical integration of production process, very difficult and uncertain (Varaldo and Ferrucci 1995). Restructuring processes stem from these circumstances and generate complex forms of outsourcing, subcontracting and integration between enterprises which cannot be classified according to traditional market or hierarchy paradigms (Powell 1990, Belussi 1992). LEs, in fact, tend to adopt strategies aimed at decentralising not only productive capacity, but also technological know how. Activities are not externalised according to their strategical role, but first of all according to their congruity with LE core competencies and, hence, according to the need to develop (or not) competitive know how on them (Davidow and Malone 1993). The old dilemma make or buy is more and more answered by outsourcing practices, which tend to render more stable the sub-contracting relationships. To the extent that the total quality imperative calls for more competent sub-contractors, know-how sharing becomes the normal style within sub-contracting networks, giving increasing room to co-design and comakership relations. In essence LE strategy is pointed to reduce internal complexity, via a drastic selection of activities to keep under control. This obviously compels LEs to develop the capacity of coordinating a complex area of functions and subjects, that implies a deep transformation of the very enterprise nature from production agent to co-ordination agent (Di Bernardo 1991). In some case this could lead to subordination links based on power relationship (Kechidi 1996). But, in general, co-operative and more stable relations develop along all the filiére. Relations between enterprises tend henceforth to change in substantial way, becoming less asymmetric. Sub-contractors SEs are now owners of know how relative to certain production phases or product components and, hence, involved in the innovation process and responsible for quality levels. The process so far outlined can be better qualified if it is placed within the approach that sets knowledge economy at the core of enterprise transition from the fordist paradigm to a 7

8 new organisational principle (Rullani 1992). In this frame two theoretical alternatives can be schematically distinguished: a. the first is based on organisational flexibility, i. e. a change from a rigid organisation to a flexible one, even if on the same technological base; b. the second advocates the development of a new technological base (mainly built on automation, information and telecommunication technologies), together with a corresponding adjustment in the organisational structure (that is, practically, the flexible automation paradigm. This paradigm can be made operational through two strategies, less alternative than complementary: know how sharing strategy, which nurtures the organisational flexibility, involving an increasing number of subjects in co-design and co-makership processes; know how remains firm specific but it is shared with SEs belonging to the local sub-contracting network; spatial proximity plays an important role (Rullani 1992). know how formalising strategy, which aims at making know how formal and, hence, portable, i. e. transmissible to remote sub-contractors: the network is now global but with deep local roots. The shift from hierarchy to co-operation tends to reinforce the territorial constraint within LESSs, given that now the trade off between quality and cost renders less convenient to assume a cost minimisation attitude: so sub-contracting networks are more stable. In conclusion, in a LESS, sub-contracting LE tends to become structured and flexible networks, with mutable boundaries but firm local roots; in the SESSs, sub-contractors SEs tend, in turn, to be co-ordinated, by the local or external sub-contracting LE, into networks and productive chains, in order to achieve the critical mass needed for pursuing those scale and scope economies, which were once exclusively reserved to LEs (Holland 1989). 2.4 Co-operation vs hierarchy in SESSs and LESSs: an empirical test Previous assumptions are based on a well known and copious literature: in any case, some of them (the crucial ones) have also been tested by means of three field surveys addressed to local sub-contractor SEs (Bianchi G. 1996). 8

9 Two of the surveys have been carried out in the Poggibonsi and Prato areas. The latter is the world-wide known eponymous of a textile industrial district; the former, even if it owns a remarkable presence of furniture industry, is less an industrial district than an agglomeration of SMEs. The third survey has been carried out in the Poggibonsi area, the realm of Piaggio (the producer of Vespa scooter). Survey results are reported in the table. As far as local rooting is concerned, both Prato and Pontedera have strong local networks: the bulk (Prato) and the whole (Pontedera) of sub-contracting enterprises are local, whereas they are local only in 29% of cases in Poggibonsi. However networks seem more stable in Pontedera than in Prato, since the majority of orders are given on quality basis in the former and on minimum price basis in the latter (even if the quality criterion is significantly present). Cost minimising is the standard rule for the external sub-contracting firms of Poggibonsi small enterprises, which receive their orders only if they grant low prices. Common to Pontedera and Prato is the high incidence of no answer. As the same happens for the items referring, respectively, to know-how sharing, professional education and technology transfer programmes, one could interpret this as symptoms of embarrassment, as if responding firms were unable to realise exactly what is really occurring in their areas contexts: in other terms, new trends reveal mainly in changes no immediately understandable by SEs common wisdom. Nevertheless, co-operative practices are undoubtedly more diffused in Pontedera than in the other two sites: sub-contracting firms in 63% of cases share their know-how, in 40% supply education initiatives, in 51% support technology transfer. Yet it is interesting to remark that also in Prato some know-how sharing and some subcontracting firms involvement in technology transfer are beginning to diffuse. These results are coherent with the findings of a recent research, which demonstrate how Prato was able not only to diversify and upgrade its products but also to ensure a closer coordination between firms, without loosing its production flexibility (Dei Ottati 1996). In any case public role remains markedly predominant in the three areas as to education and technology transfer, even if with the significant exception of Pontedera, where innovation transfer depends more on sub-contracting firm initiatives. 9

10 Survey on sub-contractor SMEs - Prato, Poggibonsi and Pontedera areas ITEMS Prato Poggibonsi Pontedera Your sub-contracting enterprises are usually local a. Yes b. No c. No answer Buyers and sub-contracting enterprises give you their orders essentially: a. On minimum price basis b. On quality basis c. No answer Sub-contracting enterprises generally share their know-how with sub-contractors a. Yes b. No c. No answer Regional/local professional education programmes are in general satisfactory a. Yes b. No c. No answer Professional education is mainly supplied by: a. Your initiatives b. Sub-contracting enterprises initiatives c. Public initiatives d. No answer Regional /local technology transfer programmes are in general satisfactory a. Yes b. No c. No answer Technology and innovation transfer processes in the area are mainly supported by: a. Your initiatives b. Sub-contracting enterprises initiatives c. Public initiatives d. No answer Source: Bianchi G A provisional conclusion can be drafted from preceding data: Pontedera, Prato and Poggibonsi look like as if they were placed along a continuum of change: the first with a rather robust local network, reinforced by an increasing inter-firm co-operation behaviour; the second with the emergence of local leading enterprises, which practice sub-contracting according to old criteria, but some new attitude is already identifiable; the third seems still searching a stable structure, even if external sub-contracting and cost minimising contrast the evolution towards a real industrial district. 10

11 3 New policies for the new context As a matter of fact more hierarchy in the SESSs and more co-operation in the LESSs result in making over the time convergent their previous spatial models of production in a single one: that definable in terms of enterprise networks and/or network enterprises (Hakansson 1987, Camagni 1991, Antonelli 1992), so to give rise to the firm embedded (Grabher 1993) in a nexus of untraded interdependencies (Storper 1995). Provided the ongoing processes could lead, in the middle term, the SESS and LESS spatial models of production to a sort of convergence, this might significantly ease the Region Governments capacity to design and implement a new generation of regional development policy, which are necessary, given that traditional policies are no longer able to match the new needs of small enterprises in terms of innovation, education and market promotion, whereas they have never been able to really meet the major enterprises necessities. The new scenario makes new policies possible and necessary, calling for a new partnership between small and large enterprises, on the one side, and institutions on the other, in order to face the challenge stemming from the new global context which tends: a. to further weaken the territorial constraint in the SESSs, where the buyer is now joined by the leader enterprise in adopting the cost minimising attitude, as once used to do the subcontracting enterprise in the LESSs (orders are given internally or externally to local system on the minimum price basis); b. to reinforce that constraint in the LESSs, where the inter-enterprises co-operation which, being based on quality control criteria, induces the sub-contracting firm to stabilise the local network. The objective of regional development policies can hence be now correctly formulated in territorial terms: to oppose, in the SESSs, the tendency to weaken territorial link and to support, in the LESSs, the inverse tendency, in order to strengthen the system territoriality in its character of local rooting. Logical structure of such policy starts from actions pointed on relations between subcontracting LE and sub-contractor SEs: if the objective is to stabilise the local system territoriality, it is necessary to reduce the intrinsic precariousness (for SEs) of sub-contracting relationship, changing it into a tendencially permanent relationship; but it is necessary to 11

12 reduce also the uncertainty embedded in the exclusivity constraint, rather frequent within subcontracting, which turns out (for SEs) in a highly risky mono-dependence from a single client. It is clear that the balancing of antagonist interests cannot be achieved by means of legal rules, but only by means of a public intervention able to operate on the frame of respective LE s and SEs conveniences. For example, LE can be offered warranties on quality side, through professional education programmes for SE workforce; SEs, in turn, could be given some chances of market autonomy, either through incentives to networking initiatives for joint tenders on sub-contracting markets or through, again, professional education programmes for SE workforce but, aimed, this time, to widen the LE flexibility margins within the annual production cycle: here too public intervention can manifest in terms of professional education programmes for SE workforce, but, in this case, they would assume the characteristics of re-training programmes for workforce temporarily exceeding the production cycle demand. The strategy here above summarily outlined seems to own elevate characters of realism, to the extent that it asks to use only resources wholly at disposal of the three partners, even if the resources to feed in the trilateral bargaining are substantially of financial type only for institutional actor, the others being asked to contribute essentially their consensus on the basis of the enterprise interest. The instruments at disposal of the regional authorities may be recognised in the following: a. for the large enterprise: support to R&D activity; b. for the small enterprise: programmes of professional education for coping with the quality standards (specialisation of labour force) and the flexibility requirements (re-training during the low phases of the production cycles); networking policies aimed at promoting co-operation among small enterprises (even transnationally) in order to gain some market autonomy and to make innovation transfer possible. c. for both: infrastructure provision and appropriate land use planning. 12

13 4. The Tuscany Experience 6.1. The Large/Small Enterprise Relationship within Regional Planning The regional government of Tuscany seems to be aware about ongoing changes in the links between the two typologies of enterprise and, hence, in the characters of territorial systems of respective settlement, if its Regional Development Programme states that innovative policies in the field of humane resources education can find a fecund field of application within sub-contracting areas, which represent not only one of the most typical networks of the regional productive structure, but also a typical channel of transfer of technologies and managerial and professional competencies between large and small enterprises (Regione Toscana 1994). On these grounds the Regional Programme includes a special Sub-contracting Project, with the explicit aims of: making more stable sub-contracting networks; increasing technological aptitudes and market autonomy of sub-contractors small enterprises; supporting large enterprise flexibility requirements (ibidem). The Project declares benefits involved participants could expect from its fulfilment: a. for the large enterprise, in terms of improvement of its sub-contracting network; b. for the small enterprises, in terms of more market autonomy; c. for the local system, in terms of more safeguarded growth perspectives (ibidem). The Project is conceived on the same format of the communitary initiative programmes, in the sense that it calls for proposals to be submitted jointly by sub-contracting enterprise, small sub-contractors enterprises consortia, research centres and local public institutions, which shall identify the subject responsible for implementation and shall specify the financial commitment of each participating body, whereas Regional Government will grant an adequate cofinancing (ibidem) The Pontech Project Within this frame a pilot project has been designed and initially implemented. The project is named Pontech and located in Pontedera (the motorbike Vespa area) to which Tuscany Region, Piaggio Company, S. Anna University, Province of Pisa, and Municipality of Pontedera participate. Pontech is an exemplar implementation of the approach to the new generation of regional development policy here summarily presented. The project consists of a complex of functions to be located within the Piaggio plant: 13

14 a. a Research Laboratory (established by the S. Anna University School and the National Council of Research) with the mission to develop technological research for Piaggio and technology transfer to SEs in these fields of competencies: robotics, micromechatronics, virtual reality and telesurgery; b. an Incubator aimed at promoting spin-off activation from the research, by means of supporting new enterprises as to: business plans, partnership detecting, service sharing; c. a Technology Development Unit, whose task is to instigate innovation processes within small enterprises (normally sub-contractors) of the area, by providing : R&D interface; co-design facilities; feasibility assessment; market assistance in acquiring new customers; d. a Professional Education Unit, with the mission to develop education programmes aimed at labour force specialisation (to help small enterprises corresponding quality standards) and at labour force reconversion (especially during the demand decrease phases) in order to support flexibility needs of the large enterprise. REFERENCES Antonelli C. (ed.) The Economics of Information Networks, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Archibugi D. and Michie J The Globalization of Technology: a New Taxonomy, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19. Bagnasco A Tre Italie: la problematica territoriale dello sviluppo italiano, Il Mulino, Bologna. Becattini G Dal settore industriale al distretto industriale. Alcune considerazioni sull'unità d'indagine dell'economia industriale, Rivista di economia e politica industriale, 1; now also in Becattini 1987, as: L'unità d'indagine. Becattini G. (ed.) Mercato e forze locali: il distretto industriale, Il Mulino, Bologna. Becattini G. (ed.) Modelli locali di sviluppo, Il Mulino, Bologna. Becattini G The Marshallian industrial district as a socio-economic notion, in Pyke et al Becattini G. and Rullani E Sistema locale e mercato globale, Economia e Politica Industriale, 80. Bellandi M Capacità innovativa diffusa e sistemi locali di imprese, in Becattini Bellandi M The incentives to decentralised industrial creativity in local systems of small firms, Revue d Èconomie Industrielle, 59. Belussi F. (ed.) Nuovi modelli d impresa, gerarchie organizzative e imprese rete, Franco Angeli, Milano Benedetti E. (ed.) Mutazioni tecnologiche e condizionamenti internazionali, Franco Angeli, Milano. 14

15 Benko G. and Lipietz A. (eds.) Les régions qui gagnent. Districts et réseaux: les nouveaux paradigmes de la géographie économique, Puf, Paris. Bianchi G Maturità precoce: una modernizzazione a rischio, in G. Mori (ed.), Storia d'italia. Le regioni dall' Unità a oggi. La Toscana, Einaudi, Torino. Bianchi G Innovating in the Local Systems of Small- Medium Sized Enterprises, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 2. Bianchi G Requiem per la Terza Italia? Sistemi territoriali di piccola impresa e transizione postindustriale, in G. Garofoli e R. Mazzoni (eds.), Sistemi produttivi locali: struttura e trasformazione, Franco Angeli, Milano. Bianchi G Sub-contracting in Prato, Poggibonsi and Pontedera. Preliminary Results of a Survey, University of Siena, Working Papers, n. 7. Bianchi P Concorrenza dinamica, distretti industriali e interventi locali, in Gobbo F. (ed.), Bianchi P Sentieri di industrializzazione e sviluppo regionale negli anni 90: strategie politiche di intervento pubblico nella nuova fase competitiva post-fordista, in F. Belussi (ed.) Bianchi P. and Bellini N Public policies for local networks of innovators, Research policies, 20. Bortolotti F Il lavoro nel sistema di regolazione dell'economia toscana, Ires Toscana, Papers, 18. Bortolotti F. (ed.) Il mosaico e il progetto. Lavoro, imprese, regolazione nei distretti industriali della Toscana, Franco Angeli, Milano. Brusco S Piccole imprese e distretti industriali, Rosenberg & Sellier, Torino. Camagni R. (ed.) Innovation Networks: Spatial Perspectives, Belhaven, London. Camagni R. e Quevit M. (eds.) Politique d'innovation technologique au niveau local, Gremi, Padova. CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) L automazione flessibile, Franco Angeli, Milano. Conti S. and Julien P.A. (eds.) Miti e realtà del modello italiano. Letture sull economia periferica, Patron, Bologna. Dastoli P. V. and Vilella G La nuova Europa. Dalla Comunità all' Unione, Il Mulino, Bologna. Davidow W.H. e Malone M.S The Virtual Corporation, Harper Business, New York. De Vet J Globalisation and Local & Regional Competitiveness, STI Review, 13. Dei Ottati G Distretto industriale, problemi delle transazioni e mercato comunitario: prime considerazioni, Economia e politica industriale, 51; now also in Becattini 1987, as: Il mercato comunitario. Dei Ottati G Economic Changes in the District of Prato in the 1980 s: Towards a More Conscious and Organized Industrial District, European Planning Studies, vol. 4, no. 1. Di Bernardo B Le dimensioni d impresa: scala, scopo, varietà, Franco Angeli, Milano. Dioguardi G. (ed.) Sistemi di imprese: le nuove configurazioni delle imprese e dei mercati, Franco Angeli, Milano Dosi G., Freeman C., Nelson R.R., Silverberg G. e Soete L. (eds.) Technical Change and Economic Theory, Pinter, London. 15

16 Fuà G L'industrializzazione nel Nord-Est e nel Centro, in G. Fuà e C. Zacchia (eds.), Industrializzazione senza fratture, Il Mulino, Bologna. Garofoli G Le aree sistema in Italia, Politica ed Economia, n. 11. Garofoli G Local networks, innovation and policy in Italian industrial districts, in E.M. Bergman, G. Maier and F. Todtling (eds.), Regions Reconsidered, Mansell, London. Giersch H. (ed.) Emerging Technology: Consequences for Economic Growth, Structural Change and Employment in Advanced Open Economies, Mohr, Tübingen. Gobbo F. (ed.), Distretti e sistemi produttivi alla soglia degli anni Novanta, Franco Angeli, Milano. Goglio S Sviluppo regionale e dimensione d'impresa, in S. Goglio (ed.) 1982, Italia: centri e periferie, Franco Angeli, Milano. Grabher G. (ed.) The Embedded Firm: on the Socio-Economics of Industrial Networks, Routledge, London and New York. Hakansson H. (ed.) Industrial Technological Development. A Network Approach, Routledge, London. Hassink R Technology Transfer Agencies and Regional Economic Development, European Planning Studies, vol. 4, no. 2. Holland S The Market Economy. From Micro to Mesoeconomics, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London. Holland S The promotion of networking by regional development agencies and small and medium enterprises within the European Community, Consultancy Paper for the Commission of the European Communities, London and Bruxelles. Humbert M. (ed.) The impact of globalization in Europe s Firms and Industries, Pinter, London & New York. Hyman R. and Streeck W New Techology and Industrial Relations, Basil Blackwell, London. Kechidi M Coordination inter-enterprises et relations de sous-traitance: le cas d Aérospatiale, Revue d Économie Régionale et Urbaine, 1. Messeri A Mutamento sociale e professionalità. Forme della modernità nello sviluppo locale, Franco Angeli, Milano. Powell W Neither Market nor Hierarchy: Networks Forms of Organization, Research in Organizational Behaviour, 12. Pyke F., Becattini G. and Sengenberger W. (eds.) Industrial Districts and Inter-Firm Cooperation in Italy, International Institute for Labour Study, Geneva; Italian edition: Sforzi F. (ed.) Distretti industriali e cooperazione tra imprese in Italia, Banca Toscana, Firenze. Regione Toscana Programma regionale di sviluppo , Regione Toscana - Dipartimento programmazione, Firenze. Rothwell R. and Dodgson M External linkages and innovation in small and medium sized enterprises, R&D Management, 21, 2. Rullani E Divisione del lavoro e reti di impresa: il governo della complessità, in Belussi F Rullani E Produzione snella e post-fordismo: alla ricerca del paradigma emergente, Economia e politica industriale,

17 Rullani E Distretto industriale ed economia globale, Oltre il Ponte, 50. Storper M The resurgence of regional economies, ten years later: the region as a nexus of untraded interdependencies, European Urban & Regional Studies, vol. 2. no. 3. Sweeny G.P Innovation, entrepreneurs and regional development, Pinter, London. Varaldo R. and Ferrucci L The Evolutionary Nature of the Firm within Industrial Districts, European Planning Studies, vol. 4, no. 1. Varaldo R. e Ferrucci L I distretti industriali fra logiche di sistema e logiche di impresa, Franco Angeli, Milano. 17

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