Tackling Data Security and Privacy Challenges for the Internet of Things. Dave Raggett W3C Tuesday, 14 th June 2016 IoT TechExpo, Berlin

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1 Tacking Data Security and Privacy Chaenges for the Internet of Things Dave Raggett W3C Tuesday, 14 th June 2016 IoT TechExpo, Berin

2 The Promise of the Internet of Things Services that are enriched through access to the physica and abstract Word Smart Homes Smart Cities Smart Businesses Smart Government Environment, heathcare, agricuture, manufacturing, ogistics and many more 2/19

3 Security and Privacy Chaenges for the Internet of Things Lack of Trust in Internet Privacy and Security May Deter Economic and Other Onine Activities, NTIA May 2016 How ong wi consumers put up with the IoT's faiures? IoT support pane, CES 2016 IoT pug and pray a over again, says security consutant David Aexander, PA Consuting, CRESTcon & IISP 2016 Three quarters of UK s information security professionas think IoT device manufacturers aren t impementing enough security on their products and 73% said there s a genera ack of industry standards ISACA 2015 po 72% of Americans see cyberattacks as a major threat, coming 2 nd after ISIS Pew Research po, Apri 2016 A of the potentia weaknesses that coud affict IoT systems, such as authentication and traffic encryption, are aready we known to the security industry..., Insecurity in the Internet of Things, Symantec, March /19

4 Eight Internet of Things Fais due to soppy practices and poor usabiity Target s Heating and Cooing System Hackers gained access through HVAC account, and were abe to insta card skimming s/w on POS terminas Wink s IoT Hubs Consumers found their devices bricked when the Hub security certificate unexpectedy expired Insteon connected homes Reporter abe to turn ights on and off whist chatting with home owners over the phone Home routers Open to man in the midde attacks when peope use defaut or easy to guess passwords Spammyrefrigerators Defaut passwords aowed attacker to use connected refrigerators as part of a `bot net TrendNet s nanny cams Easy remote access once you have the camera s IP address Samsung s smart TVs Easy to commandeer to view peope s iving rooms Nest thermostat Easy to hack if you can get physica access for a few minutes From: The Observer, 16 Juy 2015 Note: these products have either been withdrawn or patched 4/19

5 IoT Security Shoud Worry Us A Breaches of privacy Cybercrime Physica safety in the home, across the city and within businesses Threats to nationa infrastructure Looming risks of cyberwar 5/19

6 Unique Chaenges for IoT Security IoT reies on microcontroers with imited memory and computationa power This often makes it impractica to impement approaches designed for powerfu computers This in turn requires constrained IoT devices to be hidden behind secure gateways Threats based upon gaining physica access to IoT devices How to bootstrap trust and security, and ways that this can unrave Evoving technoogy More powerfu Systems on a Chip (SOC) embedding hardware security support Eciptic Curve Cryptography with reduced computationa demands Anything that is exposed to the Internet must be securey software upgradabe User experience must be good enough to avoid becoming a weak ink in the chain The necessity of keeping up to date with security best practices 6/19

7 The Chaenges for the IoT and Big Data Lots of sensors wi generate a vast amount of data API Research estimated 200 exabytes in 2014 and 1.6 zettabytes in % is currenty processed ocay, athough this varies by domain This creates a greater voume of sensitive data, creating a greater risk of Data and identity theft, Device manipuation, Data fasification IP theft, server/network manipuation, etc. Impact of introduction of data consoidation and anaytics at network edge Cisco, HPE and others App patforms in the coud or at the network edge wi be targets for attacks 7/19

8 Enabing Data Security for the Internet of Things Transport and app ayer encryption TLS and DTLS for encrypting data transmitted over the Internet App ayer encryption for greater security (e.g. as in financia transactions) Secure key exchange agorithms over unsecured channes Authentication and Key management IoT devices need to check that the server is who it says it is Servers ikewise need to check this for IoT devices Asymmetric Pubic/Private key pairs vs Symmetric keys Tamper resistant storage of keys and certificates Chaenges for provisioning services 8/19

9 Authorisation Determining Who Can Do What Authorisation rues Authentication of the data recipient Simpe form of rues as access contro ists More genera rues with compex conditions Capabiity based security A capabiity is communicabe and unforgeabe token of authority The token is associated with a set of access rights IETF work on ACE and JOSE ACE: access contro in constrained environments JOSE: JavaScript Object Signing and Encryption Reationship to modes of trust Prior agreements between two parties Attestations by trusted third parties 9/19

10 Privacy and the Internet of Things The IoT has the potentia to provide huge and unprecedented amounts of persona information This information may ast indefinitey Risk of abuse by individuas, criminas, companies and governments Sense of intrusion into your persona space Fear of harm due to discosure of persona information Strongy identifying information Your address, data of birth, sexua orientation, Principe of data minimisation high cost to companies for handing persona data securey Privacy poicies determining what purposes data can be used for, and for how ong Weaky identifying information When sufficient such data is combined this can uniquey characterise you Companies need to provide privacy poicies on how they hande such data Need for adhering to best practices to avoid reputationa damage to companies Incuding reguatory requirements 10/19

11 The IoT and the Web Web technoogies are increasingy important for the IoT Web protocos ike HTTP Semantic descriptions based on RDF HTML5 and the Open Web Patform for human machine interface The Web security mode and its reationship to the IoT Access rights for web apps are scoped to app s origin The Web is moving to encrypt a communication We re preparing to transition the Web from passwords to pubic key crypto Users authenticate to the browser, and browser authenticates to the website For the IoT, the user (owner) isn t around at the time the device needs to authenticate itsef to a service We therefore need a way for users to authorize the device in advance This is a form of trust deegation, and introduces the need to authenticate users as we as service providers 11/19

12 Some Take Away Messages Security is crucia and must not be seen as an afterthought Need to consider security and privacy from the start Need to adhere to evoving best security practices Faiure to do so risks reputationa and financia damage Recruit experienced security staff Take advantage of the avaiabe resources, e.g. Internet of Things Security Foundation OWASP IoT Security Guidance IAB Privacy & Security studies RFC 7452 Architectura Considerations in Smart Object Networking RFC 7456 Cryptographic agorithm agiity EU Artice 29 Data Protection Working party Anonymization, privacy and the IoT Track the emerging standards, e.g. W3C Security Activity IETF ACE & JOSE Some tips from Mike Computer Weeky Set up an integrated team of business executives and security speciaists Integrate security best practice with the IoT product deveopment process Educate consumers as we as front-ine staff in security best practice Address privacy concerns with easy to understand privacy poicies 12/19

13 Overcoming the Fragmentation of the Internet of Things Today, there are many non-interoperabe patforms and a surfeit of technoogies and standards This creates sios, increases deveopment costs and reduces the market potentia W3C is the eading organization for Web technoogy standards We re working on approaches to overcoming fragmentation and enabing open markets of services Anaogy with network services before and after the Internet was introduced Get it right and there wi be exponentia growth in IoT services 13/19

14 The Web of Things A heterogeneous set of patforms, serving different needs No one patform and protoco can be expected to win out The Web of Things Things denoting physica and abstract entities Cross patform standards for appication access to things Rich metadata describing things What data and interaction modes are exposed to appications? What protocos and communication patterns can be used? What kind of a thing is it (semantic modes and constraints)? What are the reationships to other things? Web of Things as inter-patform Web technoogy standards Based upon W3C s estabished strengths in semantic technoogies, web security and the open web patform 14/19

15 Web of Things Key Chaenges Semantic interoperabiity ensuring that communicating parties share the same meaning for data Patforms may use different protocos and data formats, but without shared meaning, it won t be possibe to buid services that integrate data across patforms Shared trust assumptions for end to end security across patforms How are the entities invoved named and authenticated? How is trust estabished across these entities? How are authorization poicies described? Do a of the parties use high eves of security? Enabing resiience of services Best practices for deaing with fauts and attacks Defence in depth and its impications Security, monitoring, machine earning and poicies 15/19

16 Word Wide Web Consortium Mission: ead the Web to its fu potentia The Web is the word's argest vendor-neutra distributed appication patform Founded by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the Web 400+ Members Member-funded internationa organisation Deveops standards for Web and semantic technoogies HTML, CSS, scripting APIs, XML, SVG, VoiceXML, Semantic Web and Linked Data etc. Deveoper oriented, enabing cooperation between organisations with very different backgrounds W3C patent poicy for royaty free standards W3C staff of engineers activey participating in standardisation Increasingy invoved in verticas: Mobie, TV, Automotive, Digita pubishing 16/19

17 W3C Web of Things Web of Things Interest Group exporing the potentia through technoogy surveys and experimenta impementations Web of Things Working Group panned for ate 2016 wi deveop initia standards Web of Things Business Group under discussion to guide technica work based upon anaysis of business and poicy eve requirements across many appication domains Web of Things Interest Group, Montrea /19

18 The Bottom Line The Web is essentia for reaizing the fu potentia of the IoT The Web provides a unifying framework for semantic interoperabiity The Web acts as a goba marketpace for suppiers and consumers of services 18/19

19 Work with us to secure the Web of Things! Thank you! For more information on W3C see: 19/19

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