High temperature electrolysis (SOEC) for the production of renewable fuels

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1 IRES 2012 High temperature electrolysis (SOEC) for the production of renewable fuels Björn Erik Mai sunfire GmbH (Manager Business Development) Seite 1

2 Content 1. Company facts 2. Technology 3. Power-to-Gas (PtG) 4. Power-to-Liquids (PtL) 5. Gas-to-Power (GtP) 6. Challanges ahead Seite 2

3 Company facts sunfire and staxera a joint expertise and the potential in the development and production of fuel cells and electrolyzers the core components for the Power-to-Liquids (PtL) Power-to-Gas (PtG) and Gas-to-Power (GtP) methods. Seite 3

4 Company facts History sunfire founded in 2010 staxera founded in 2005 staxera acquired by sunfire in 2011 company merger in 2012 Employees 45 (39 engineers and technicans, 6 business graduates) Experience Chief engineers with significant experience in synfuel production, high-temperature catalytic processes and high-temperature fuel cells / CEO with strong business background Infrastructure 6m invest in production and laboratory equipment Patents > 30 patent families (i.e. process patent sunfire WO/2008/014854) Support Strong support from governmental ministries ( 4m research subsidies granted) Revenues 0.5m (2009); 1.2m (2010); 1.8m (2011); 2,8m (2012e) Seite 4

5 Technology High temperature electrolysis (SOEC) is the key technology for efficient and cost effective generation of renewable fuels. Seite 5

6 Challange and solution Limited fossil resources Renewable liquid fuel from CO 2 Intermittent electricity supply Energy storage/ grid load compensation Increasing CO 2 level CO 2 -recycling CCU instead of CCS Inefficient energy conversion Combined heat and power (CHP) Seite 6

7 The C-H-O -system Hydrogen H 2 O (Water) Hydrogen-Economy Efficient Generation Oxygen H 2 O + CO 2 (Combustion Products) CH 2 (Gasoline, Diesel, Wax) Fossil Ressources CH 2 O (Biomass) CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) C 6 H 2 O (Coal) Source: Dissertation Dr. B.M. Wolf, 1976 Carbon Efficient generation of hydrogen and conversion to hydrocarbons can enable a path to a renewable fuel economy Seite 7

8 Core component Fuel cell (SOFC) for GtP Electrolysis (SOEC) für PtG/PtL Carbon dioxide & water (CO 2 & H 2 O) Water (H 2 O) Electricity Electricity Heat Heat Fuel (-CH 2 -) Oxygen (O 2 ) Hydrogen (H 2 ) Oxygen(O 2 ) Seite 8

9 Low temperature - vs. high temperature electrolysis CO 2 Syngas Abwärme Hydrogen Hydrocarbons LT Electrolysis (PEM, Alkaline) HT-Elektrolysis (SOEC) Electr. Power(100%) Dampf Electr. Power (84%) Heat recovery (16%) Steam and CO 2 Water PtG + HTE ηel= 76% PtG + LTE: ηel= 56% Seite 9

10 Power-to-Liquids A commercially viable and technically realizable path towards a circular economy in which high-quality fuels (-CH 2 -) compatible with existing fuel systems produced from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). Seite 10

11 Power-to-Liquids Renewable electricity Electrolysis (SOEC) Fischer Tropsch Fuel infrastructure Process efficiency (Power Fuel): ~70% Production cost (liquids): 1,00 /l GHG-mitigation: >85% Fits with existing infrastructure Seite 11

12 Power-to-Liquids 40,0 35,0 30,0 25,0 Supply Demand 15,4 Demand +143% 37,4 Demand increases: Final consumption of energy in transport from renewable sources must be 10% 2009/28/EC: Each Member State shall ensure that the share of energy from renewable sources in all forms of transport in 2020 is at least 10% of the final consumption of energy in transport in that Member State. 20,0 15,4 15,0 10,0 5,0 0,0 In Mtoe 2010 Supply -66% 5,2 Supply Demand Supply decreases: GHG-mitigation potential of renewable fuels must be >50% 2009/28/EC: With effect from 1 January 2017, the greenhouse gas emission saving from the use of biofuels and bioliquids shall be at least 50%. From 1 January 2018 that greenhouse gas emission saving shall be at least 60% for biofuels and bioliquids produced Estimated European renewable fuel market for terrestrial and air traffic (in 2010 and 2020) Seite 12

13 Power-to-Gas Enabling renewable electrical energy to be stored and transported as methane gas using the infrastructure already available (conventional gas networks and gas depots). Seite 13

14 Power-to-Gas Renewable electricity Electrolysis (SOEC) Methanation Gasgrid- and storages Process efficiency (Power Gas): ~70% Production cost: < 0,10 /kwh Efficient storage of fluctuating renewable energy Supports decentralized energy production (CHP) Seite 14

15 Power-to-Gas Power-to-Gas enables integration of renewables by providing regulating power Seite 15

16 Load compensation Base Load Peak Load Compensation Load (sunfire) Good part load capability allows continuous operation with positive load compensation. Seite 16

17 Gas-to-Power Efficient and decentralized power generation based on a scalable technology (high temperature fuel cells SOFC) with high fuel flexibility providing the best fit to the local resource availability and the specific area of application. Seite 17

18 Gas-to-Power Natural gas supply Fuel cell (CHP) Virtual power plant Electric efficiency 35-55% Overall efficiency > 80% (heat & power) Scalability (0.5kW 100 kw) End customer viability proven in Callux field test Seite 18

19 Fuel cell efficieny advantage Theoretical efficiency limits of a fuel cell an engine Power generation with liquids an gaseous fuels Power generation with solid fuels Chemical energy η ~ 90% Centralized power Steam turbines Fuel cell η ~ 85% Thermal energy Carnot η ~ 65% Power in MW Steam engines ORC Gas tubines Micro gas turbines Gas engines Combined gas and steam power cycle Fuel cells Mechanical energy Stirling engines Decentrelized power Electrical energy Engine η ~ 56% η ~ 95% Source: kraftwerkforschung.info Efficiency in % Seite 19

20 callux field test SOFC stack The micro CHP system from Vaillant 30 installations 2011/ installations in 2013 Seite 20

21 Challanges ahead The intrinsic technological advantage of PtG/PtL and GtP based on SOEC and SOFC has to be combined with feasible economical models to enable a successful market entry. Seite 21

22 Economics Renewable Electricity Power-to-Gas process Natural gas infrastructure Gas-to-Power combined heat and power Eletcrical Grid Electricity tariff (EEX): Price Gas to Grid ex PtG Process: Price Gas after Grid Maximum price for electricity and heat Transfer cost 4,5 ct/kwh el 8,0 ct/kwh chem Requirements: High efficiency(η el = 76%) High capacity utilization (ca. 80%) Distribution of fix costs to beneficiary parties 10,5 ct/kwh chem 22,0 ct/kwh el 6,0 ct/kwh therm Seite 22

23 Cost reduction Cost 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 GtP based on the SOFC is an excellent option for decentralized combined heat and power generation (CHP) the challange is the cost competition to exisiting technologies PtG and PtL based on SOEC has a strong potential, when available on an indstrial scale. 0,4 F&E 0,2 Offgrid PtG/ PtL KWK 0 1 Production volume Seite 23

24 Closing the carbon cycle Renewable Electricity Power-to-Gas process Natural gas infrastructure Gas-to-Power combined heat and power Eletcrical Grid A closed carbon cycle can be realized. The key success factors are: Efficient processes (OPEX) Low system costs over lifetime (CAPEX) Suitable operation models Political framework Seite 24

25 Thank you for your attention VIELEN DANK FÜR IHRE AUFMERKSAMKEIT sunfire GmbH Gasanstaltstraße Dresden Germany T +49 (0) F +49 (0) Seite 25

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