Green or black windpower? Salzburg 30 August 2011

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1 Green or black windpower? Salzburg 30 August 2011 Frede Hvelplund Aalborg Universitet Department of Development and Planning

2 Ownership and marketconstruction I. Ownership construction ( Ownership for efficient climate protection.todays presentation) II. Detailed marketconstruction: a. Feed in for wind power (cannot react on market signals) b. Active market design for introduction and management of an intermittency infrastructure. The marketdesign is I+II

3 I. Background for the ownership design

4 Historical experience 1. The Danish heat and electricity system has been locally developed and owned by consumers and municipalities. 2. The recent successful (from ) development of wind power and other Renewable Energy sources has been bottom up generated. (3. New technologies in Denmark were established in a period of economic crises. So now Denmark and Europe has an innovation opportunity!)

5 The present conflict between distant ownership and consumer ownership models The black trend : 1. Offshore wind parks are mainly owned by large power companies. 2. The share of co-operative ownership is reduced. 3. Offshore wind power is becoming increasingly expensive (DONG/Anholt) 4. This is due to monopoly in the bidding process (DONG/Anholt) 5. Lack of democracy in the research processes. (the Østerild testcenter case). The green trend : 6. Consumer and municipality ownership examples. (Samsø, Wind People, Ringkøbing Skjern wind energy planning, Near shore wind parks) The 1-5 development is against : (a) the present technological needs, (b) the need for acceptance and participation, and (c )a long succesfull consumer ownership tradition on the Danish energy scene. The 6 development is supporting (a),(b) and (c)

6 II. Why is local/regional ownership necessary?

7 Characteristics of present situation 1. Very large turbines 2. The paradigmatic change: A need for a new infrastructure to integrate of intermittent wind energy into the grid. 3. Reduced need for power companies and increase political resistance from Power Companies. 4. Not a free market. Only DONG was bidding at the Anholt offshore park. 5. Increased need for income in the areas with much wind (hinterland areas).

8 1. Large wind turbines a. Large investments, often more than 30 mill. Euro.(20 MW capacity- 7-3MW turbines) b. Visible in large areas. c. Ownership consequence (1) : Ownership should be linked to a larger area than the closest neighbors. (Combined ownership models with municipal etc. ownership)

9 2. The Paradigmatic change From SCARCE STORED (fossil fuel/uranium) energy sources to ABUNDANT INTERMITTENT renewable energy sources THAT S THE big change CHANGE!

10 Balance electrical system and grid stability (Wind power 2-6% of electricity consumption. System in Denmark untill around 1996) In-active components Active components 3500 Consumption Central power and cogeneration units Wind/RE Decentral producers

11 System 2 (2000- wind power 15%-19%) Activating RE via flexible decentral combined heat and power units In-active components Active components Consumption Central power plants and cogeneration Electricity distribution companies, heat companies, consumers, etc Wind/RE Decentral producers

12 System 3 (2011- wind power 25%-30%) Activating RE via increased electricity consumption (heat pumps and water storage) In-active components Active components Consumption Central power plants and cogeneration Electricity distribution companies, heat companies, consumers, etc. Decentral producers Heat pumps 4000 Renewable energy

13 System 4 (2015- wind power 50%-100%) Activating RE via increased electricity consumption (for heat pumps and transportation) In-active components Active components Consumption Central power plants and cogeneration Electricity distribution companies, heat companies, consumers, etc Decentral producers Heat pumps 4000 Renewable energy Wind El for transportation etc.

14 The evolving integrative SMART GRID Renewable Energy system (REC system) Coordinating (1) district heating, (2) electricity, (3) renewable energy, (4) conservation and (5) transportation. In-active components Active components Central power plants and Cogeneration/ CHP Electricity Consumption Decentral CHPs Heat storage Renewable energy Electricity Heat Heat pumps Heat market Transportation market

15 Smart grid systems Integration is the smart grid element: Integration of intermittent renewable energy into the energy system consisting of a combination of: a. Electricity b. Heat c. Transportation d. Heat, electricity and transportation conservation e. And a sustainable use of biomass

16 Reduction of transaction costs When owners of intermittency infrastructure owns wind turbines, the transactions costs of establishing this infrastructure may be reduced.

17 Minimising transactions costs Windturbine ownership by owners of the intermittency infrastructure owners reduces the transaction costs

18 Consequence for infrastructure and ownership Technical infrastructure: a) Establishment of heat pump capacity. b) Establishment of heat storage capacity. c) Co-ordination with the a transition to electric cars. d) Co-ordination with energy conservation activities e) Sustainable use of biomass (NEVER for heat!, and sometimes as back up system for intermittent RE) This infrastructure is situated close to the consumer! Ownership consequence (2): Households and organisations that OWN the above ACTIVITIES is important and should be given ownership priority to wind power both onshore and offshore. With this ownership model the transaction costs linked to solving the intermittency problem are minimized.

19 3. Reduced need for power companies

20 The OLD fuel based system: Where the money goes - or the value-added distribution in a coal-fired electricity system. 1. Fuel Power production Transmission Distribution Sale 100 I. Direct Electricity Supply System 5. Power plant equipment Transmission equipment Distribution equipment 10.5 II. Indirect Electricity Supply System

21 Where the money goes - or the value-added distribution in a RE electricity system. 1. Fuel 2. Power production Lost 26 value added 9.3and raison d etre for large power companies. I. Direct Electricity Supply System 3. Transmission Distribution Sale Power plant equipment Transmission equipment Distribution equipment 10.5 II. Indirect Electricity Supply System

22 The new integrative system: Where the money goes, or the coming renewable energy systems I. The Direct Electricity Supply System III. Consumer level (1 ) Transmission 3.4 (2 ) Distribution 14.6 (6) Sale 100 (3) Centralised renewable energy equipment 27.3 (4) Decentralised renewable energy equipment 27.3 (5) Consumer organised conservation and renewable energy equipment 27.3 II. The Indirect Electricity Supply System

23 The reduced role of existing power companies 1. Wind- and photovoltaic powerplants are automatons produced at factories (not in power companies).once in place, they just feed electricity into the grid. 2. The value-added share of electricity prices linked to power company activities is reduced by 60%-80%. 3. The new power plants are small flexible heat and power plants close to the consumers. 4. The needed regulation infrastructure is close to the consumers. Ownership consequence 3. It has no technical or economical sence that wind turbines and photovoltaic plants are owned by the old power companies (DONG, Vattenfall, E.ON, RWE, EDF).

24 4. Oligopolistic competition on the power market. 1. Low motivation for investing in wind power in DONG, Vattenfall, etc. More wind power gives lower prices at the Scandinavian Nordpool market, and losses to these companies. 2. Insufficient competition in the bidding process for offshore parks. (Only DONG at the 400 MW Anholt offshore park.) 3. Expensive wind power resulting in political resistance. Ownership consequence (4) : Establish Municipal etc. ownership, as competitor to the power companies when bidding on coming offshore plants.

25 5. Need for accept of windpower

26 Profit per kwh from wind parks (example) Wind turbine onshore, 2200 hours/ pay back time 13 years. Source Profit in Eurocent/per sold kwh Via electricity sale 2 Via land rental 0,65 Income to local entrepreneurs: 10% of investment. Total profit per kwh 0,65 3,3 (If locally owned) 1,3 (If owned by distant owners)

27 Example: A 400 MW regionally owned onshore wind park will give around 24 mill. Euro annually more in profit to the region than the same park with distant ownership.

28 Ownership consequence (5) : Wind turbines should be owned by local/ regional actors in order to generate regional incomes and local accept and participation.

29 III. Conclusions

30 A coming ownership model (Example) Wind turbines 1. 50% ownership by local municipalities, CHP companies and/or local electricity distribution companies % ownership by local/regional households, farms and companies % ownership by large power companies. Alltogether at least 80% local/regional ownership. District heating 100% Consumer/municipality ownership of technical monopoles. (Close to present situation!)

31 Community integration of wind power Community power is important for the needed regulation infrastructure. For instance by giving ownership priority to local municipalities, companies,households and organisations so that they are enabled to establish the above regulation infrastructure. This also requires new policies designed in the parliament.

32 Black wind power 1. Distant owners. (DONG, Vattenfall, E.ON, etc.) 2. Only minimal money flow goes to local actors. 3. Minimal local and regional influence in the planning process behind locating wind parks. 4. Closed process, when establishing test centers. 5. Minimal environmental concern. 6. Minimal local and regional technical integration of wind power. 7. Expensive wind power, as it is owned by companies that needs profit without having much to give. 8. Result: Wind power will be expensive and politically unpopular, and thus only get a limited share of energy supply in the future.

33 Green wind power 1. Local and regional owners (Municipalities, el. companies, households, etc.). 2. At least 80% of the ownership income stays in the region. 3. Local and regional influence in the planning Process. 4. Open and local participation, when establishing research and test centers. Include research in accept and participation in wind power projects. 5. Environmental concern has high priority. 6. Maximum and economically efficient local and regional integration of wind power. 7. Relatively cheap wind power. 8. Result: Wind power will supply a high share of the energy production.

34 Phases of development 1. Civic driven and policy driven 2. Policy driven 3. New intermittency technology owner driven (New companies and civic driven)

35 Conclusion: Need to change the present trend from black to green windpower! 1. There is a tendency towards a centralised and undemocratic wind power development, here named BLACK WIND POWER. 2. There is a technical and institutional need for a change towards openness and local and regional participation in the planning processes, and local/regional ownership. And co-ordination with energy conservation! This is here named GREEN WIND POWER.

36 Thank you!

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