Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Internet of Things based on Petri Nets and Behavior Expression

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1 Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and echnology (18): , 212 ISSN: Maxwell Scientific Organization, 212 Submitted: March 26, 212 Accepted: April 17, 212 Published: September 15, 212 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Internet of hings based on Petri Nets and Behavior Expression Lin hen, Linxiang Shi and Wen'an an School of omputer and Information, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 2129, hina Abstract: Modeling and performance evaluation plays an important role on the theoretical research and technology improvement of the Internet of hings (Io). In the study, the modeling and performance evaluation method based on Petri Nets and behavior expression is presented. Firstly, according to the system information flow chart, the constraint relationship between places and transitions are identified and then graphic Extended Stochastic Petri Nets model is built up; next, the behavior expression method is adopted to obtain a variety of performance indicators. A case is also presented to verify the effectivity and efficiency. Keywords: Behavior expression, performance evaluation, petri nets, the internet of things INRODUION With the in-depth development of Internet technology, the expansion and extension based Internet form a new generation of network technology, that is the Internet of hings (Io). he concept is first proposed at the International onference on mobile computer and network in the United States, In unisia 25, at the World Summit of Information Society, the International elecommunications Union (IU) released "IU Internet reports 25: the Internet of hings" which formally proposed the concept of Io (Wang and Zhang, 21). Io can be applied on a variety of areas, such as intelligent transportation, environmental protection, governmental administration, public security, industrial monitoring, elderly care, personal health and others. In 29, the European Io research project working group funded by the European ommission draw up Io Strategy Research Roadmap, RFID and Io Model and other submissions. In the same year, Japan also developed the i-japan program (Feng and Ye, 21). Results of modeling and performance evaluation of Io lay the basis for its design, planning and further improvement. Modeling of Io is to abstractly construct the dynamic stochastic model of Io in some manner, describe the relations between process elements and Io performance and give the quantitative analysis results of system performance. Modeling and evaluation will be able to help to find out the network bottleneck, to further improve the overall network performance. Petri Nets (PN) is a modeling and performance evaluation tool for discrete event dynamic system, especially for description of sequential, parallel, conflict and synchronization relations (Lin, 21). hus, the system modeling and evaluation technologies based on PN are widely proposed. Different types of PN (such as Object-Oriented PN, olored PN, Stochastic PN and hangeable Structure PN) adapts to different system requirements respectively. In the study, firstly, the modeling method for Io is presented based on PN and then the performance evaluation method is also proposed based on behavior expression which can not only deal with PN with arbitrary time distribution transitions, but also conveniently obtain function relationship for evaluation. Furthermore, a case is presented and the evaluation results are also presented and discussed. MEHODOLOGY Information flow model: Io is based on the technologies of RFID and EP (Electronic Product ode), which is combined with those of computer networks, database and middleware and so on. he global identification system determines each entity object a unique code, which builds a larger scale network than Internet composed of a large number of networking RFID readers and mobile tags (Xiao, 29). EP middleware (Savant, also known as expert system) is responsible for filtering, integrate labels from readers or data flow from sensors. ONS (Object Name Service system) can provide EP lookup service, translate given EP codes into one or more host URL addresses containing items of information to obtain more items related information on EPIS servers. orresponding Author: Lin hen, School of omputer and Information, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 2129, hina 3381

2 Inter net Savant L ocal ON S Remote O NS Reader Internet Label Label Local EPIS Remote EPIS Fig. 1: Simplified information flow EP Information Service (EPIS, formerly called PML service) keep all items related PML files produced by a lot of manufactures. Information collection, integration and transmission play an important role on Io. he information flow diagram is mainly composed of three parts: first, the RFID system transfers to EP and then the local network processes EP codes, finally, Internet returns the PML information of items (Jiao, 27; Mohsen and Martin, 28). he simplified information flow diagram is shown in Fig. 1. Extended Stochastic Petri Nets (ESPN): An ESPN is a seven-tuple (P,, I, O, H, m, F) (Guo et al., 1991), where P = {p 1, p 2,...p n }, n > and is a finite set of places; = {t 1, t 2,...t 5 }, s > and is a finite set of transitions with Pc M, P1 = M ; I : P N and is an input function where N = {, 1, 2,...}; O : P N and is an output function; H : P N and is an inhibitor function; m : P N and is a marking whose i th component is the number of token in the i th place. An initial marking is denoted by m ; F : R, is a vector whose component is a firing time delay with an extended distribution function. Analysis method based behavior expression: A behavior expression is compound or power series. It can depict the bounded PN, or some unbounded PN (with existence of expression). According to the expressions and by means of the following the following theorems, we can obtain the transfer function W of PN and then analysis method of moment generating function can be used to deal with the quality analysis of arbitrary distribution PN. he analysis method is based on the following three theorems (Jiang, 2): heorem 1: Set " is a monomial, " = t 1, t 2,...tq, then W ( s) = W ( s) q i=1 ti heorem 2: Set " is a standard polynomial, " = " 1 + " " n, then W ( s) = W ( s) a n i= 1 i heorem 3: Set " = (" )*, then. W " (s) /1!W " (s) he specific analysis steps are as follows: Generate the behavior expression of ESPN and convert the polynomial into the standard polynomial. Figure out firing probability and moment generating function according to the distribution parameter and the behavior expression structures. Next, base the transfer function definition, the transfer function of each event can be obtained. Remark the behavior expression to differentiate the same events with different transfer function in expressions according to the second step of the calculation results. 3382

3 Fig. 2: Simplified ESPN model ompute the transfer function of remarked behavior expressions according to theorem 1 to 3. Evaluate performance according to the above results and methods of moment generating function, obtain the quantitative analysis results. RESULS AND DISUSSION ESPN model: Readers access the EP codes of labels and pass them to Savant in local servers. After information filtering by Savant, applications transfer Savant information to local ONS system, by which to get the host URL address about the other related information of corresponding items. After application software get the URL address, it can automatically link to local or remote EPIS server, get all the information about the items. Simplified ESPN model is shown in Fig. 2. he meanings of places are described in able 1 and the firing rate or weight of transitions are listed in able 2. hese data in able 2 are collected from statistical analysis of prototype system developed by us. is determined time transition with rate 1 ; 3,, 7, and 8 are exponential distribution with firing rate 5, 1,, and 8 respectively. Random switches of immediate transitions 1, 2, 5 and 6 are also determined from statistical data. Evaluation based behavior expression: We can obtain the behavior expression from Fig. 2: " = ( )( ) 9 and then figure out moment generating functions of each transition: s W = e, W = 8., W λ 5 3 W s s W λ 1 = =, 3 = = λ 5 λ s 1 s 3 able 1: Meaning of places Place P P1 P2 P3 P P5 P6 P7 Meaning Ready to read tags EP code into local server Prepare local ONS service Prepare remote ONS service Ready to obtain item information Prepare local EPIS service Prepare remote EPIS service Information acquisition end able 2: Rate or weight ransition Meaning Rate or weight ar reader reading 1. 1 Local processing.8 2 Remote processing.2 3 Local access to URI 5. Remote access to URI 1. 5 Local EPIS.8 6 Remote EPIS.2 7 Local access to the item information. 8 Remote access to the item information.8 9 Service end 1. W = 8., W = 2., W = W λ 8 = = λ s s W 9 λ 7 = λ s 7 s here is no need to remark ", for there not exist different transfer function of the same event for transitions. According to theorem 1-3, compute the transfer function of " : 5 1 W ( s) = e s 1 s s 8. s hen, the mean service time for Io is: = ( ) s W s s= =

4 Fig. 3: Performance with changes of the time of reading tag and ratio of local processing Let s = in W i (s), where i is the transitions except for and now: ' = ( ), thus the steady-state s W s s= probability PM ( ) = ' =., which shows that the system stays in the state of reading tag with the maximum probability and the card reader reading is the performance bottleneck. In our prototype system, the card reader access tags using serial mode, so it spend longer time for EP code read into the local server. We need to optimize the tag access method to improve the whole system performance of prototype Io. Moreover, Let the firing rate of transition be x and the random switch of 1, 2, 5, 6 are y, 1-y, y, 1-y, respectively. It is to investigate the changes in system performance with the changes of the time of reading tag and ratio of local processing and remote processing. hen, the transfer function of behavior expression " is: sx / 5 1 W ( s) = e y + ( 1 y) 5 s 1 s 8. y + ( 1 y) 1 s 8. s And the mean service time for Io is: ( ) s W = s s= 1/x-9/5*y+9/ It is shown in Fig. 3 that both the time of reading tags and ratio of local processing play crucial roles on the performance of Io. Except to reduce the time of reading tags, to improve the system performance, we should try to handle events in the local servers as far as possible. ONLUSION he Internet of hings (Io) is a new development opportunity for human being in the century, known as the top technology to change life. he modeling and performance evaluation of Io lays the basis on theoretical analysis, technology improvement and its quantitative results can guide researchers to locate the performance bottleneck, lay the foundation for further improvement. In the study, the modeling and performance evaluation based PN and behavior expression is proposed which can deal with arbitrary distribution transitions. It is used to analyze the prototype system and the detailed analysis results are also presented. In the future, we will work on the modular modeling method for Io based PN, which can help to build more complex PN model using the bottom-up approach. AKNOWLEDGMEN his study was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of hina under Grant No and No and by Science and echnology Planning Project of Wenzhou under Grant No. G2918. REFERENES Feng, S.L. and.. Ye, 21. Preliminary exploration of the way of the development of the internet of things/sensor network, Bull. hinese Acad. Sci., 25(1): 5-5. Guo, D.L., D.. Frank and M.. Zhu, A moment generating function based approach for evaluating extended stochastic petri nets. IEEE rans. Automat. ont., 38(2):

5 Jiao, Z.D., 27. A study of communicating information in the epc global nework. M.S. hesis, Hefei University of echnology, Hefei, hina. Jiang,.J., 2. Petri Net heory of Discrete Event Dynamic System. Science Press, Beijing, (in hinese). Lin,., 21. Performance Evaluation of omputer Networks and Systems, 21. singhua University Publisher, Beijjing. Mohsen D.N. and P.M. Martin, 28. Smart home mobile RFID-based internet-of-things systems and service. Proceedings of 28 International onference on Advanced omputer heory and Engineering, pp: Wang, X.J. and J. Zhang, 21. Research on internet of things. J. Liaon. U. (Natural Science Edition), 37(1): Xiao, H.B., 29. Development and research in EP network middleware of enterprise information interaction. M.S. hesis, North hina University of echnology, Beijing, hina. 3385

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