Image-guided Spine Procedures for Relief of Severe Lower Back Pain:

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1 Image-guided Spine Procedures for Relief of Severe Lower Back Pain: A Guide to Epidural Steroid Injection, Facet Joint Injection, and Selective Nerve Root Block. PETER H TAKEYAMA MD HENRY WANG MD PhD SVEN EKHOLM MD PhD P-L WESTESSON MD DDS PhD University of Rochester, Rochester, NY Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 1 of 28

2 Outline I.! Introduction II.! Objectives III.!Anatomy IV.!Patient evaluation V.! Procedures VI.!Conclusion Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 2 of 28

3 I. Introduction! Back pain is a major problem in the United States with countless emergency room visits every year.! The emotional, physical, and healthcare costs are tremendous.! Image-guided spine procedures can be successful in diagnosing and relieving the source of severe back pain. Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 3 of 28

4 II. Objectives This educational poster will illustrate key learning points of epidural steroid injection, facet joint injection, and lumbar nerve root block.! Basic relevant anatomy! Indications! General procedure principles! Possible complications Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 4 of 28

5 III. Anatomy Lumbar Spine Plain film Transverse process Inferior articular process Pedicle Neural foramen Superior endplate Inferior endplate Facet joint Pars interarticularis Facet joint Lamina Pedicle Spinous process Interlaminar space Superior articular process Pedicle Pars interarticularis Intervertebral disc Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 5 of 28

6 III. Anatomy Lumbar Spine CT Intervertebral disc Vertebral body Vertebral body Psoas Neural foramen Exiting nerve Pedicle Transverse process Superior articular process Facet joint Spinous process Inferior articular process Facet joint Ligamentum flavum Spinal canal Lamina Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 6 of 28

7 III. Anatomy Lumbar Spine MRI Anterior longitudinal ligament Spinous process Supraspinous ligament Interspinous ligament Neural foramen Superior endplate Inferior endplate Conus medullaris Intervertebral disc Vertebral body Epidural fat Dorsal Dural margin Nerve root Facet joint Ligamentum flavum Nucleus pulposus Annulus fibrosus CSF T1 T1 T2 Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 7 of 28

8 III. Anatomy Lumbar Spine MRI Intervertebral disc Vertebral body Vertebral body Psoas Neural foramen Ligamentum flavum Exiting nerve Spinous process Pedicle Superior articular process Inferior articular process Transverse process Facet joint Thecal sac with cauda equina Lamina T2 Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 8 of 28

9 IV. Patient evaluation All patients are evaluated by the neuroradiologist prior to procedure.! History including duration and nature of pain! Physical exam! Review imaging studies, findings must correlate with pain! Explain risks, benefits, and possible complications! Informed consent Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 9 of 28

10 V. Procedures 1.!Epidural injections 2.!Facet joint injections 3.!Lumbar nerve root block Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 10 of 28

11 1. Epidural injections Indications and Rationale! Commonly performed for symptoms of! Herniated disc! Spinal stenosis! Refractory back pain of uncertain etiology! Decrease inflammation and swelling of nerve root! Relieve pain and break pain cycle! Allow patients to return to their usual activities! May help delay or avoid more invasive surgical procedures Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 11 of 28

12 1. Epidural injections Contraindications! Coagulopathy. Patient should discontinue anticoagulative medication (coumadin). Check INR, PT, PTT.! Allergy to contrast. Procedure can be modified and performed without contrast.! Contraindication to steroids use (ulcers, active infection) Preparation! Prone position on fluoroscopy suite table! Sterile preparation of lower back and drapes! 1% buffered lidocaine for skin local anesthesia! 22-gauge Tuohy needle with Medallion syringe and tubing! Syringes for local anesthetic, contrast, and steroid! Mixture of 2-3 cc of 0.5% Marcaine and 80 mg of Kenalog! Conscious sedation not necessary. IV midazolam and fentanyl can be given if required Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 12 of 28

13 1. Epidural injections Anatomy! Epidural space bordered by dural sac, ligamentum flavum, and vertebral bodies Procedure! Needle is advanced to the appropriate level lamina under fluoroscopy, just touching the periosteum adjacent to interlaminar space! Needle is withdrawn a few millimeters and walked carefully past the lamina medially Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 13 of 28

14 1. Epidural injections Procedure (continued)! Stylet removed and connected to Medallion syringe containing air! Needle is slowly advanced while tapping syringe plunger until loss of resistance! Needle is connected to contrast (Omnipaque 180) via tubing and slowly injected! Contrast rapidly advances confirming placement in epidural space! Spot image is obtained! Mixture of Marcaine and Kenalog is injected into epidural space Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 14 of 28

15 1. Epidural injections Complications! Bleeding! Infection! Placement of needle into subarachnoid space! Injury to vessel or nerve! Contrast reaction! Vasovagal reaction! Non-response to therapy Post Procedure! Monitoring of vital signs! Home care instructions for potential complications, ie. Infection! Initial pain reduction from local anesthetic! Steroid effects may gradually take effect after 1-2 day delay! May require repeat series of injections for optimal effect Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 15 of 28

16 2. Facet injections Indications and Rationale! Commonly performed for spinal facet syndrome, inflammation of facet joints! Symptoms are variable and diagnosis can be a challenge! Pain can be overlying affected joints, or may be referred! Innervation of facet joints by medial branch of dorsal rami of spinal nerves! Facet injections can be both diagnostic and therapeutic Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 16 of 28

17 2. Facet injections Contraindications! Coagulopathy. Patient should discontinue anticoagulative medication (coumadin). Check INR, PT, PTT.! Allergy to contrast. Procedure can be modified and performed without contrast.! Contraindication to steroids use (ulcers, active infection) Preparation! Prone position on fluoroscopy suite or CT table! Sterile preparation of lower back and drapes! 1% buffered lidocaine for skin local anesthesia! 25 gauge (or 22 gauge) 3.5 to 5 inch needle (longer if obese)! Syringes for local anesthetic, contrast, and steroid! Mixture of 2-3 cc of 0.5% Marcaine and 80 mg of Kenalog! Conscious sedation not necessary. IV midazolam and fentanyl can be given if required Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 17 of 28

18 2. Facet injections Anatomy! Facet joints are synovial joints with joint capsule, articular cartilage and synovium! Osseous components include the superior articulating process from the caudal spinal segment and inferior articulating process from the rostral spinal segment! Innervation from medial branch of the dorsal ramus of spinal nerve from the corresponding level and variably from a level above and below Dorsal ramus of spinal nerve Medial branch of dorsal ramus Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 18 of 28

19 2. Facet injections Procedure! Needle insertion at appropriate level with small incremental advances under fluoroscopy or CT guidance! Confirm placement of needle in joint with contrast! Spot image is obtained! Mixture of Marcaine and Kenalog is injected into facet joint space! Where equipment is available, pulsed radiofrequency ablation can be performed on medial branch of dorsal ramus Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 19 of 28

20 2. Facet injections Complications! Bleeding! Infection! Injury to vessel or nerve! Contrast reaction! Vasovagal reaction! Non-response to therapy Post Procedure! Monitoring of vital signs! Home care instructions for potential complications, ie. Infection! Initial pain reduction from local anesthetic! Steroid effects may gradually take effect after 1-2 day delay! May require repeat series of injections for optimal effect Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 20 of 28

21 3. Lumbar nerve root block Indications and Rationale! For diagnosis of radicular pain when etiology is uncertain! For therapeutic block of spinal nerve causing radicular pain following successful diagnosis Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 21 of 28

22 3. Lumbar nerve root block Contraindications! Coagulopathy. Patient should discontinue anticoagulative medication (coumadin). Check INR, PT, PTT.! Allergy to contrast. Procedure can be modified and performed without contrast.! Contraindication to steroids use (ulcers, active infection) Preparation! Prone position on fluoroscopy suite or CT table! Sterile preparation of lower back and drapes! 1% buffered lidocaine for skin local anesthesia! 25 gauge (or 22 gauge) 3.5 to 5 inch needle (longer if obese)! Syringes for local anesthetic, contrast, and steroid! Mixture of 2-3 cc of 0.5% Marcaine and 80 mg of Kenalog! Conscious sedation not necessary. IV midazolam and fentanyl can be given if required Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 22 of 28

23 3. Lumbar nerve root block Anatomy! Nerve root exit the neural foramen in the lumbar region inferior to adjacent pedicle! Ganglion is located in the lateral aspect of neural foramen! Postganglionic portion of lumbar exiting nerve root tracks anteroinferiorly under the mid transverse process the level below Procedure (Lumbar Postganglionic)! Superior aspect of mid transverse process is targeted inferior to level of desired nerve root! Needle insertion with small incremental advances under fluoroscopy or CT guidance Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 23 of 28

24 3. Lumbar nerve root block Procedure (continued)! Paresthesia felt by patient when needle is at the target nerve! Confirm placement of needle by nerve root with contrast! Spot image is obtained! For diagnostic block, 2-3 cc of 1% lidocaine is injected! For therapeutic block, mixture of Marcaine and Kenalog is injected Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 24 of 28

25 3. Lumbar nerve root block Procedure (Lumbar Periganglionic)! For periganglionic block (transforaminal epidural injection), neural foramen is targeted! Needle insertion with small incremental advances under fluoroscopy or CT guidance! Needle is directed to the neural foramen at the rostral pedicle! Confirm placement of needle by nerve root with contrast, frequently contrast will extend into epidural space! Spot image is obtained! For diagnostic block, 2-3 cc of 1% lidocaine is given! For therapeutic block, mixture of Marcaine and Kenalog is injected Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 25 of 28

26 3. Lumbar nerve root block Complications! Bleeding! Infection! Injury to vessel or nerve! Contrast reaction! Vasovagal reaction! Non-response to therapy Post Procedure! Monitoring of vital signs! Home care instructions for potential complications, ie. Infection! Initial pain reduction from local anesthetic! Steroid effects may gradually take effect after 1-2 day delay Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 26 of 28

27 VI. Conclusion! Back pain is a major problem requiring countless emergency room visits! Significant physical, emotional, and healthcare costs! Image-guided spine procedures can diagnose and relieve severe back pain! Image-guided spine procedures can help delay or avoid more invasive surgical procedures! Many patients have improvement in quality of life Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 27 of 28

28 References Brown D. Atlas of Regional Anesthesia. 2 nd Ed. Saunders Williams A and Murtagh FR. Handbook of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Spine Procedures. Mosby Amirsys StatDX website. Acknowledgements Some of the images were adapted from the University of Rochester Neuroradiology website. Thanks to Margaret Kowaluk for PowerPoint slide design and arrangement. Presentation material is for education purposes only. All rights reserved URMC Radiology Page 28 of 28

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