Introduction to Data Mining and Machine Learning Techniques. Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing

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1 Introduction to Data Mining and Machine Learning Techniques Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 1

2 Overview Main principles of data mining Definition Steps of a data mining process Supervised vs. unsupervised data mining Applications Data mining functionalities Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 2

3 Definition Data mining is the automated process of discovering interesting (non-trivial, previously unknown, insightful and potentially useful) information or patterns, as well as descriptive, understandable, and predictive models from large-scale data. Also known as: Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) Data analysis Information harvesting Business intelligence Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 3

4 Goals search consistent patterns and/or systemic relationships between data validate the findings by applying the detected patterns to new subsets of data Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 4

5 Data Mining is... k-means clustering decision trees neural networks Bayesian networks Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 5

6 Data Mining is not... Data warehousing SQL / Ad Hoc Queries / Reporting Software Agents Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Data Visualization Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 6

7 Knowledge Discovery Process Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 7

8 Steps of a data mining process 1. Exploration 2. Model building and validation 3. Deployment Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 8

9 Exploration data preparation data cleaning, data transformation etc. elaborate exploratory analyses using a wide variety of graphical and statistical methods, depending on the nature of the analytic problem determine the general nature of models that can be taken into account in the next stage Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 9

10 Model building and validation, and Deployment Model building and validation: consider various models and choose the best one validate the model on existing data Deployment: apply the model to new data Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 10

11 Model building and validation, and Deployment Model building and validation: consider various models and choose the best one validate the model on existing data Deployment: apply the model to new data Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 10

12 Model building and validation, and Deployment Model building and validation: consider various models and choose the best one validate the model on existing data Deployment: apply the model to new data Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 10

13 Two styles of data mining: Predictive and Descriptive 1. Predictive Predict the value of a specific attribute (target or dependent) based on the value of other attributes (explanatory) 2. Descriptive Derive patterns that summarise the relationships between data Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 11

14 Supervised vs. Unsupervised Supervised predictive or directed useful when you have a specific target value to predict about your data Classification, Regression, Anomaly Detection Unsupervised descriptive or undirected finds hidden structure and relation within the data Clustering, Association, Feature Extraction Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 12

15 Supervised Data Mining a pre-specified target variable explanatory variables one (or more) dependent variables the algorithm is given many training data where the target is known the algorithm identifies the new data points that match the model of each target value Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 13

16 Unsupervised Data Mining determine the existence of classes or clusters in the data exploratory analysis all variable are treated in the same way Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 14

17 Overview Main principles of data mining Definition Steps of a data mining process Supervised vs. unsupervised data mining Applications Data mining functionalities Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 15

18 Fielded Applications Web mining PageRank, Search Engine, Recommenders, Social Networks Screening Images Diagnosis Marketing and Sales Market basket analysis, Direct marketing Biology, biomedicine, astronomy, chemistry Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 16

19 Beers and Diapers Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 17

20 Overview Main principles of data mining Definition Steps of a data mining process Supervised vs. unsupervised data mining Applications Data mining functionalities Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 18

21 1. Supervised Data Mining Classification Regression Outlier detection Frequent pattern mining 2. Unsupervised Data Mining Clustering Feature Extraction definition real use-cases method pros and cons Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 19

22 1. Supervised Data Mining Classification Regression Outlier detection Frequent pattern mining 2. Unsupervised Data Mining Clustering Feature Extraction definition real use-cases method pros and cons Iza Moise, Evangelos Pournaras, Dirk Helbing 19

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