Electromobility Analysis

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1 Electromobility Analysis In Veneto Region Part 2 Ph.D. Eng. Mattia Morandin Electric Drives Laboratory - University of Padova Abstract In order to reduce urban pollution, the introduction in the Italian and European market of hybrid and electric vehicles, designed for the passengers transport, seems to be a great opportunity, especially for electric vehicles that are characterized by zero emission and low acoustic noise. For this reason the electromobility will have a significant importance in the future sustainable mobility. This report shows the state of the art in the electromobility development trends in Veneto Region. This analysis has highlighted the new opportunities the applications in the electromobility field especially for the company and research institutions of Veneto Region. In particular, an internet research has been carried out with the aim to identify relevant companies and research institutes in the electromobility sector in Veneto Region. Furthermore with the aim to better understand the companies and research institutions involvement in the electromobility field, a questionnaire has been delivered. In addition, in order to identify the stakeholders and relevant opportunities in the electromobility field in the Veneto Region a workshop in this topic has been organized. The seminar results have been summarized. The principal workshop topics were: electromobility opportunity in Veneto Region, battery, electric drive, energy storage control unit, and light electric vehicle. At the end of the work some relevant company and research institution stakeholders in the electromobility field have been interviewed. The research report has been written on the basis of the data collected from the sources listed below; for most of them there are already contacts thanks to the author research experience during Ph.D. course and his involvement in a Regional project in the electromobility field. Index Terms Electromobility, Sustainable Mobility, Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Vehicle, Veneto Region. This research report has been financed in the frame of AKKU4FUTURE Project - INTERREG IV ITALIA-AUSTRIA Program. 1

2 I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION THE RECENT years the increasing cost of oil and the Earth global warming due to greenhouse IN gases have pushed the scientific research, the governments and thus the markets in the direction of a higher efficiency vehicles - hybrid or electric vehicles - in order to reduce the use of fuel and therefore its associated emissions. In this scenario, nowadays the research in electromobility (EMob) field is more attractive. With this historical context, this research report is focused on the study of the electromobility state of art and the impact of this particular type of mobility in the population habits and in the company strategies in the Veneto Region area. In particular, this research is carried out within a Project funded under the INTERREG IV ITALIA- AUSTRIA Program, called AKKU4FUTURE. The aim of this Project is the development of a diagnostic tool specific for batteries (state of charge, capacity, the level of wear), with the aim to allow the final user to properly use the accumulators. The distinctive features of the AKKU4FUTURE Project are: development of a diagnostic tool able to identify the aging effects and possible fault causes of the battery cells; contribution to find an active recycling process of batteries, by using a system able to monitor the status of the individual cells and which allows the modular construction of batteries; contribution to the development of innovative and sustainable technology sectors, resulting in improving the competitiveness of the Italy-Austria area. The Partnership of the project is composed by: Fraunhofer Research Italy (Lead Partner), Fachhochschule Kärnten, Carinthia Entwicklungsagentur, Techno Innovation South Tyrol (TIS), and t 2 i Trasferimento Tecnologico ed Innovazione. Although in the international literature there are several books [1] [4] and articles [5] [7] that discuss about electromobility opportunities and future scenario, in the author experience acquired during Ph.D. activity in the electrical drives for hybrid vehicle there are few technical reports that specifically refer to electromobility in Italy, and even less to the Veneto Region. For these reasons, the author intention is to emphasize in detail the basic aspects which in his opinion are fundamental to better understand the electromobility opportunities in the Veneto Region which are subject of this work. However, this is a preliminary work which should be a basis for future deeper researches in this field. This research report is organized as follows. Section II presents the state of the art in the EMob in Veneto area: in particular, it is highlighted the political/economic aspects, companies directly connected to the EMob field, and academic research in this topic. Section III reports active initiatives, best practices, and projects on the electromobility topic in the Veneto Region. Furthermore, part of the information could be obtained by using the results of the questionnaire that has been given to companies and research institutions of Veneto Region that operate in fields related to electromobility. Section IV summaries the results of the workshop, that has been organized with the aim of identify the stakeholders and relevant opportunities in the electromobility field in the Veneto Region. Farther, this Section indicates the opinion and experience of some stakeholders in the EMob field. At the end of the work, some conclusions are given in Section V. 2

3 II. STATE OF THE ART ANALYSIS IN THE ELECTROMOBILITY TOPIC In this Section a summary of the state of the art of the mobility and electromobility topics in the Veneto Region will be reported. These topics have been thoroughly described in the first part of this research Report. This summary is essential in order to better analyze the Electromobility opportunity in the Veneto Region and to find out which kind of electric or hybrid vehicle may have the most effective and promising impact. Moreover, this Section is used to define the current role of EMob within the Italian mobility, especially looking at different points of view such as: politics (eg. incentives or tax reliefs), economics (i.e. number of hybrid/electric cars sold in the last few years), industrial (eg. number of companies that potentially or already are operating in the EMob sector), and academic research. The data provided by accredited sources for this kind of analysis (eg. ACI, ISTAT, ISFORT, UNRAE, Veneto Region, Ministry of Economic Development, IEEE Xplore, etc.) will be mainly adopted. A. Analysis of vehicles number by typology In order to to define the current role of Electromobility within the Italian mobility it is important to deeply analyze the state of the art of the conventional mobility inside the Veneto region. For this reason the data of the Automobile Club di Italia - ACI (Automobile Club of Italy) has been used. ACI is a public institution of the Italian Republic, self-financed, with functions of promoting, monitoring and legal addressing of the automotive industry. This institution provides the historical series of the resident population and circulating vehicles in the period between 1921 and 2011 in the Veneto Region [8]. The evolution trend of the circulating cars and the resident population in the last fifty years (period between 1961 and 2011) are reported in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) respectively. These highlight that nowadays the ratio between the number of sale cars and the actual population is abut cars/inhabitants. (a) Number of cars (b) Number of populations Fig. 1. Evolution in the number of circulating cars and population in Veneto Region from 1921 to 2011 [8]. These results in the Veneto Region are also confirmed by another Italian institute, which is Istituto Nazionale di Statistica - ISTAT (Italian National Statistical Institute) [9]. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social, economic and environmental surveys and analysis. ISTAT is the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, and it is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by EUROSTAT. In order to better analyze the impact of EMob in the Veneto Region, another important aspects are the number of vehicles and their service fleet length. The data of the ACI has been adopted [10]. In particular, the vehicles are subdivided in three groups depending for their weight: 3

4 Heavy vehicles (HV) = bus, trucks (under 3.5 t and over 3.5 t), and tractors. Mild vehicles (MV) = cars (gasoline, diesel, and others). Light vehicles (LV) = motorcycle. A summary version of vehicles fleet in Veneto Region is reported in Table I. TABLE I VEHICLES FLEET IN VENETO REGION UP TO DECEMBER 2011 [10]. Bus (HV) Trucks (HV) Cars (MV) Motorcycles (LV) Under 3.5 t Over 3.5 t Gasoline Diesel Others 6, ,316 48,420 1,529,288 1,170, , ,297 Furthermore the vehicle fleet, up to December 2011 in [10], is organized by 20 bands according to enrollment year. The data can be expressed as percentage of vehicles for each band compared to the total number of circulating vehicles. The result is shown in Fig. 2. It highlights that about 55 % of HVs, 25 % of MVs, and 60 % of LVs have more than 15 years, so great impact on pollution is also due to the heavy vehicles (HVs) service length. Fig. 2. Vehicles fleet, expressed in percentage compared to the total number of circulating vehicles, according to the enrollment year in Veneto Region up to December 2011 [10]. Another set of information are supplied directly from the database of the Veneto Region [11]. Fig. 3 shows percentage distribution of the number of registered vehicles in the Veneto Region, by Province. It can be proved that the number of vehicles complies with the size of the Provinces, so the number of registered vehicles is well distributed in Veneto Region apart from Belluno and Rovigo. B. Analysis of a typical inhabitant journey To analyze the typical inhabitant journey in Veneto Region the studies carried out by by Osservatorio su stili e comportamenti di mobilità degli italiani - AUDIMOB (Observatory of mobility styles and behaviors of Italian) has been used [12]. The AUDIMOB is edited by Istituto Superiore di Formazione e Ricerca per i Trasporti - ISFORT (Higher Education of Training and Research for Transport). The AUDIMOB studies are based on a large number of telephone interviews (about 15,000) every year, 4

5 Fig. 3. Percentage distribution of the number of registered vehicles in the Veneto Region, by Province [11]. subdivided by quarterly surveys. These surveys combine the quantitative aspects of the mobility demand with qualitative aspects and behavioral profiles, or the reasons for the modal choices, perceived satisfaction, the feedback about the measures for mobility and so on. Table II reports the average daily transfers [12], excluding those from home; especially it highlights that average duration of each transfer is about 21.2 min with an average length of each transfer of about 13.1 km. These results show also that the average time dedicated to mobility is about 65.9 min for each inhabitant which implies an average total length about 40.7 km. TABLE II AVERAGE DAILY TRANSFERS, EXCLUDING THOSE FROM HOME, IN 2007 [12]. Unit Veneto North-East Italy Number of transfer N Work/Study % Family management/personal % Leisure % Average duration of transfer min Work/Study % Family management/personal % Leisure % Average length of transfer km Average speed of transfer km/h The rush times, as reported in [12], are when the residents move for work or study from 7:01-10:00 and from 17:01-20:00, with 50 % of daily transfers. Different types of vehicles adopted in daily transfer in 2007 are listed in Table III. It underlines that the most used vehicle is the personal car, with an average of about 61 % everyday; instead the use of public transportation in general (i.e. bus, train, tram, etc.) is very low, with an average of about 6 % for a few times per month. 5

6 TABLE III TYPES OF VEHICLES ADOPTED IN DAILY TRANSFER IN 2007 [12]. Type of vehicle Unit Veneto North-East Italy Walking/Bicycle % Motorcycle % Car (as driver) % Car (as passenger) % Public transport % Combination of vehicles % Other % These result are also confirmed by observing the analysis was also carried out by ISTAT, and it shows these results for two main categories of inhabitants, namely students and workers [13]. This survey shows that the students category principally uses the public transportation (30 %) or car as passenger (31 %). Instead the workers category utilizes the personal car as driver (68 %), which confirms how it is more difficult to use the public transportation as a vehicle to reach the work place. (a) Students (b) Workers Fig. 4. Type of vehicle adopted in daily transfer by students and workers in the 2012 [13]. Other important considerations about mobility in Italy can be extracted from the data provided by Osservatorio mensile di Segugio.it (Monthly Observatory of Segugio.it) [14], [15]. Segugio.it is a website which allows to compare in a clear, transparent and free way the most convenient car and/or motorcycle insurance. Segugio.it was born thanks to the over 12 years experience of MutuiOnline Group, a leading company in Italy about multi-brand and products comparison in credit and insurance brokering. The independence of MutuiOnline Group from banking and insurance groups reinforces its impartiality and orientation towards consumers. Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) report the average distance traveled in Italy for cars and motorcycles respectively. Fig. 5(a) underlines that, nowadays, about 78 % of car users drive less than 10, 000 km during a year, which corresponds to approximately less than 30 km/day. In addition, these surveys highlight that the average distance traveled by a car is decreased from 12, 600 km/year in 2009 to 9, 900 km/year in 2013, corresponding to 20 % in 4 years. This result can be partly attributed to the economic crisis, the raised fuel cost, and the high operating costs of a car. 6

7 (a) Car (b) Motorcycle Fig. 5. Average distance traveled with by car [14] and by motorcycle [15] in Italy. Instead, as indicated in Fig. 5(b), about 70 % of motorcycle users drive less than 4, 000 km during a year, which corresponds to approximately less than 11 km/day. Furthermore, the average distance traveled by a motorcycle is increased from 3, 360 km/year in 2011 to about 3, 620 km/year in 2013, corresponding to +8 % in 3 years. This trend can be justified by moderate operating costs of a motorcycle in comparison to a car and lower fuel consumption that mitigates the effect of the increased cost of fuel. C. Italian Legislative Framework As first step it is crucial to analyze the Italian legislative framework concerning the vehicles with low or zero emissions, as the hybrid or electric vehicles. In this regard, the reference law is the n. 134 of 7 th August 2012 [16]. This law is valid for vehicles registered between 1 st January 2013 and 31 st December Table IV indicates the different thresholds of state incentive according to the registration year and the emission level of the vehicle. In order to sustain these State contributions up to December of 2015, the Ministry of Economic Development has allocated a budget of 50 millions euros for 2013 and 45 million euros for 2014 and 2015 each. As regards the current year 2013, the 30 % of the 50 millions euros allocated by the Ministry for State incentives, i.e. 15 millions euros, are provided for all categories of consumers. Instead the remaining 70 %, i.e. 35 millions euros, are delivered for the replacement of public or private transportation for by third parties use or for vehicles used by companies, freelance professionals, or craftsmen, exclusively used as means for business. Nevertheless, to access the last range of incentives, that has 70 % of the total budget, other criteria have to be met such as: deliver a vehicle to be scrapped in the same category as the new purchased one, the vehicle to be scrapped has more than 10 years and it is assigned for more than 12 months to whoever buys a new vehicle. The budget thresholds distribution in 2014 and 2015 will be determined by observing the use of the 2013 incentives. 7

8 TABLE IV THRESHOLDS OF INCENTIVE UP TO THE END OF 2015 [16]. Registration CO 2 emission % of the Maximum year limit [g/km] total value [e] TABLE V DENSITY OF THE LIMITED TRAFFIC ZONE (ZTL) IN VENETO CITIES. YEARS (km 2 TO 100 km 2 OF COMMUNAL SURFACE). ( ) ITALY EXCLUDING THE DISTRICTS OF: MILANO, MONZA, FERMO, AND TRANI [19]. District Verona Vicenza Belluno Treviso Venezia Padova Rovigo Italy ( ) Another great tax advantage can be obtained through the reduction of the Regional automobile tax. In particular, in the Veneto Region, a distinction between hybrid or electric vehicle has been made [17], [18]. In case of electric vehicles, they will be exempted from Regional automobile tax for 5 years from the date of trial, for new vehicles as: cars, motorcycles, and mopeds (with two, three or four wheels) powered by an electric motor [17]. Regarding the hybrid vehicles (i.e. powered by: a petrol engine + electric motor, a diesel engine + electric motor, and in general a thermal engine + electric motor but also dual-fuel petrol/hydrogen), their owners are exempted from Regional automotive tax for 3 years from the date of registration, from Instead the hybrid vehicles registered in 2012 and 2013 will benefit of facilitation in 2014 and 2015 respectively. In such cases, the exemption will in fact applied from 2014 [18]. D. Permanent Measures in Veneto Region A permanent measure, that surely increments the development of sustainable mobility, is that the vehicles with very low emissions can access in the limited traffic zones (Zone a Traffico Limitato - ZTL). In order to analyze the density of the limited traffic zones in the Veneto Region, the data of the ISTAT have been adopted [19]. The data show that all cities in the Region have ZTL areas, and the density values for each city are in line with the national density one. The density value for each Veneto city from 2000 up to 2011 is reported in Table V. It is important to note that the city of Padova presents a high ZTL density, i.e. about 1.4 km 2 to 100 km 2 of communal area, approximately equal to 40 % of the total ZTL area of Veneto Region. In order to improve the quality of urban mobility, another important permanent measure is the introduction of tram as public transportation vehicle. In particular, Padova has today about more than 10 km, since 2007 [20], and Mestre (VE) has about more than 6 km, since 2010 [21]. Figs. 6(a) and 6(b) show 8

9 some photos of trams during their transit in Padova [22] and Mestre [23]. (a) Tram of Padova (b) Tram of Mestre Fig. 6. Photos of trams during their transit in Padova [22] and Mestre [23]. Also the car sharing service, based on the model already operating in many European countries, is a service that assists the sustainable mobility in the city. The service is configured as a complement to collective and public transport and in particular in Veneto Region this service is operated by APS Holding S.p.A. for Padova and AVM S.p.A. for Venezia. E. Italian Electromobility Market In order to understand whether the incentives described above for hybrid or electric vehicles are enough to ramp up the number of sold cars in Italy the data provided by Unione Nazionale Rappresentanti Autoveicoli Esteri - UNRAE (National Union of Foreign Vehicles Representatives) has been used [24]. The UNRAE is the association of foreign automotive manufacturers operating in Italy in the sector of: distribution, marketing and service of cars, trucks and commercial vehicles, buses, caravans and motor caravans. The UNRAE is today the most valid partner of institutions, that contributes in producing the technical elements, statistics, assessments, and scenarios that are supporting the work of the Ministries and relevant bodies in the mobility management. Therefore, by observing the data provided by UNRAE, it is possible to evaluate the national sales performance of hybrid and electric cars up to December Table VI reports the number of hybrid and electric vehicles sold in Italy for each segment (City, Small, Compact, Mid-size, Executive, and Luxury) between 2001 and 2011 [24]; in particular, in the last row it is highlighted the percentage of hybrid and electric vehicles respect to the total amount sold in that period. From the results shown in Table VI, it is possible to observe that although the growth trend is positive in each type of vehicles, the share of the total market is however practically negligible, especially for electric cars. This is mainly due to the high cost of this type of cars in the market that, despite the incentives, remains very high compared to a conventional one. However, nowadays there are hybrid cars in B and C segment, with prices ranging from 16,000 euros to 22,000 euros that have allowed to increase the market share of hybrid cars in 2013 up to almost 1 % of the total market [25]. Instead, the electric cars prices in the A and B segment are approximately 20,000 euros to 25,000 euros plus about 80 euros to 150 euros per month for 3 or 10 years car battery rental, so the total price of this type of vehicle is about double compared to conventional one, also considering the incentives. For these reasons the market of electric cars is still standing about 0.06 % in 2013 [25]. 9

10 TABLE VI NUMBER OF HYBRID/ELECTRIC VEHICLES SOLD IN ITALY [24]. Segment Fuel Years type type A (City) B (Small) C (Compact) D (Mid-size) E (Executive) F (Luxury) Total % of market Hybrid Electric Hybrid Electric Hybrid ,149 1,534 2,632 Electric Hybrid ,926 2,063 2,579 2,014 1,112 Electric Hybrid ,189 1, Electric Hybrid Electric Hybrid ,111 2,184 3,453 3,340 7,585 4,845 5,165 Electric Hybrid Electric III. OPPORTUNITY IN ELECTROMOBILITY FIELD, IN VENETO REGION In this Section the opportunity in electromobility field, in particular in the Veneto Region, will be described. This Section is used to define the current role of EMob within the Italian mobility, especially looking at different points of view such as: politics and economics (eg. Regional, State, European founding), industrial and academic research (eg. number of companies and research institutions that potentially or already are operating in the EMob sector). Mainly, the data provided by accredited sources for this kind of analysis (eg. ACI, ISTAT, UNRAE, Veneto Region, Ministry of Economic Development, IEEE Xplore, etc.) will be adopted. At the end of this Section some Companies and Research Institutions Opinion opinions will be summarized, part of the information could be obtained by using the results of the questionnaire that has been given to companies and research institutions of Veneto Region that operate in fields potentially related to electromobility. A. Electromobility Funding An analysis of active initiatives, best practices, and projects on the electromobility topic in the Veneto Region have been done. Therefore the main projects in this field that have been activated in recent years in the Veneto Region will be reported. Principally, the data provided by credible sources for this type of analysis (eg. ISTAT, Mobility Direction of Veneto Region, Veneto Innovazione, Confindustria, Research and Technology Transfer Office of Padova University, etc.) will be used. Furthermore, part of the information could be obtained by using the results of the questionnaire that has been described in the previous Section. 1) Regional funding: In order to evaluate the opportunities directly provided by the Veneto Region in the electromobility field, the mobility office of the Veneto Region has been contacted. The mobility office has indicated that the Veneto Region has recently applied the financing program referred to Bando a 10

11 favore delle regioni per il finanziamento di reti di ricarica dedicate ai veicoli elettrici (i.e. project for the financing of networks dedicated to charging electric vehicles in favor of regions) that has been published in G.U. n. 85 of 22 nd July The regional application, accompanied by the technical planning proposal has been submitted to the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport on 16 th September All the provincial cities of the Veneto (the only subject that can be interested in this project) have been involved. Of those Treviso, Vicenza, and Venezia have been responded within the deadline set for applying to the initiative. The submitted project includes the purchase and installation of 25 charging points for electric vehicles or Plug-in hybrid ones, that will be placed preferably in the parking areas and ride near to the Service of the Regional Metropolitan Railway (ESRD) for a global amount of 230, euros. Announcement, recently concluded, that produced benefits in the electromobility field, is the Regional Low (L.R.) 9/2007 of 18 th May 2009 called Piano strategico regionale per la ricerca scientifica, lo sviluppo tecnologico e l innovazione (i.e. Regional Strategic Plan for Scientific Research, Technological Development, and Innovation ). By observing the data referred to L.R. 9/2007, updated until September 2009 and provided by Innovati [26], they highlight a great number of applications (360) 200 of which are deemed suitable. The participating companies are 543: 363 small companies, 83 medium companies, and 97 large companies. In particular, 108 of total companies are active in the electronic and electric fields. Another program that has been produced benedits in the EMob field, is Programmi Operativi Regionali - POR (Regional Operational Programs), it is part of Fondo Europeo Sviluppo Regionale - FESR (European Regional Development Fund), with D.G.R. n of 24 th November 2009 called Contributi a favore dei processi di trasferimento tecnologico e allo sviluppo di strutture di ricerca interne alle imprese (i.e. contributions in favor of the technology transfer processes and the development of research facilities within companies). It is in according with the L.R. 9/2007 in fact its aims are to increase the regional competitiveness and employment, to encourage the process of technology transfer and the development of research facilities within companies [27]. Dedicated founds have been given to projects that support the following measures: industrial research; experimental development; technical feasibility studies preparatory to industrial research or experimental development; process innovation; organizational innovation; technology transfer to small and medium-sized companies. Moreover, the projects must be no longer than 2 years and must be made in the Veneto Region. 2) State funding: A grate state funding, which sustains the development in the field of sustainable mobility, is INDUSTRIA 2015, approved on September 2006 and still in progress [28]. This project establishes strategies for the development and competitiveness of the Italian production system of the future, based on: a concept of industry extended to new sectors integrating manufacturing, advanced services and new technologies and an analysis of the economic-productive future facing the Italian country in the medium to long term (2015). The Government s strategy is identifying networks of companies, innovative financing tools and especially industrial innovation projects in order to ensure the strategic repositioning of the Italian industrial system in the world economy, globalized and highly competitive. On December 2008, the Italian Government has published the projects approved in the Sustainable Mobility topic, within the funding program INDUSTRIA 2015 [28]. Some project ideas presented in Sustainable Mobility section are: an ecological taxi powered by fuel cells and solar panels, an ergonomic quad-cycle, low emission buses, flexible trains, inter-modular port system, and management systems of 11

12 digital mobility. These are just some of the research and development projects approved by INDUSTRIA A set of 22 projects of the 50 presented have been funded for a total investment of approximately 500 millions euros, corresponding to 180 millions euros in incentives. The companies involved are approximately 250 in total and 100 research organizations. In particular, the approved projects involving companies of Veneto Region are 12, with an average total investment for project about 21 millions euros and with an average incentives of 40%. A new important State funding is the program called Smart Cities and Communities and Social Innovation D.D. 391/Ric of 5 th July 2012 [29]. It is founded by Ministero Italiano dell Istruzione, dell Università e della Ricerca - MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research). The areas of interest for the electromobility field are smart grids, transportation and land mobility. 3) European funding: The Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) for research infrastructures for industrial innovation is the European Union s main instrument for research funding over the period [30]. FP7 consists of four specific programmes which correspond to the basic components of the European research: cooperation, ideas, people, capacities. Support for Research & Innovation Infrastructures (RIs) is currently open to infrastructures across the fields of science and technology. The overall objective of the RI part of the programme is to optimize the use and development of the best existing RIs in Europe, as well as helping creating new facilities which best meet the needs of researchers and support their achievements. In particular, it is noted that the Commission has proposed that the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) should set up a new Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) on urban mobility in 2018 [31]. This new KIC will contribute to the goals of Horizon 2020 and the Europe 2020 agenda for jobs and sustainable growth. B. Companies and Research Institutions Map In order to identify relevant actors in the electromobility field in Veneto Region, an internet research has been carried out. This survey has been based on keywords research, which allowed to identify companies and research institutions which are directly active in the electromobility field or a closely related one. The principal adopted keywords are: electric vehicles (cars, bikes, boats, train, etc.), energy storage systems (battery, fuel cells), electric machines (generators and motors), electric drive, power electronics (UPS, PV inverter, battery charger, welding machine, power converter), transmissions, control units (PCB, vehicle control unit, battery management system), vehicle constructions. In particular, the identified actors have been classified in two groups according to the information available on their homepages and to the experience of the author in this field, acquired during Ph.D. studies, namely: development potential or e-mobility priority. The final list contains about 80 companies of which approximately 50 % are classified as e-mobility priority. Fig. 7 shows the distribution of these companies (expressed as a percentage of the total) within the principal keyword sectors of the electromobility field. These companies are listed in Tables VIII and IX; the research institutions are reported in Table X in A at the end of report. For each company and research institution: the name, type of principal business, location (Postal Address, Postcode, City) and homepage are reported. Fig. 8 shows companies and research institutions EMob map of the Veneto Region, the numeration refers to the companies list which is reported in Tables VIII and IX, the same for the research institutions 12

13 Fig. 7. Companies distribution in different keyword sectors of EMob field. list is reported in Table X. Companies with e-mobility priority (Table VIII) or development potential (Table IX) are highlighted with two different colors, light green and light blue respectively. The same color code has been adopted for the institutions. Fig. 8. Companies and research institutions Electromobility map in Veneto Region. 13

14 C. Companies and Research Institutions Opinions In order to better understand the companies and research institutions involvement in the electromobility field, a questionnaire has been delivered. An draft text of this questionnaire is reported in in A at the end of report. This questionnaire has been implemented using Google Module, that is a useful tool able to send surveys and allows to gather information easily and efficiently [32]. The questionnaire has been sent to all the 80 identified companies and 14 identified research institutions in Veneto Region. However, after about two months from the first sending, the response rate was very low around 20 %. It should be noted that this 20 % of total companies and research institutions responded after less than one week, and all of them operate directly in the field of mobility. This could mean that in the Veneto Region there are few companies that are directly involved in the electromobility field. Nevertheless, the results obtained from this questionnaire have been useful to identify some national projects in where companies of Veneto Region have participated. In particular a great part of interviewees believed that the electromobility field is a very promising opportunity for companies of Veneto Region especially because EMob is a field complementary to their activities. Conversely, there are three different opinions when asked if in the Veneto Region the industry electrical and electronic has acquired technical skills and abilities to compete in the EMob market. A 30 % of interviewees said that skills and abilities are abundantly adequate, a 40 % said that the skills are adequate but only as a sub-suppliers of global EMob companies, and the remaining 20 % claimed that the this field is dominated by global EMob companies. All interviewees thought the technologies derived from the development in the electromobility field should have evidence in other areas as Energy, Smart Grids and Traction. Another interesting aspect, that emerged from the survey, is that most of the interviewees said that the expansion of electromobility could be reflected in the development of new technologies that can lead to a immediate impact (or however in less than 10 years) in reduction of the EVs and HEVs costs. A great part of interviewees believed that the best strategies that National/Europeans governments should implement to increase development in the field of electromobility are: environmental incentives and tax relief, adequate recharging infrastructure, and investment in public fleets with electric vehicles only. At the end of the questionnaire the interviewees can leave free considerations on the electromobility field. The relevant considerations can be summarize in two reflections. The first is that the current storage systems are the major limitation to the expansion of electromobility field. The second is that the problem seems to be more political than technical because the national government invests lightly in start-up or small companies with big potential. IV. ELECTROMOBILITY SIGNIFICANT STAKEHOLDERS With the aim of identify the stakeholders and relevant opportunities in the electromobility field in the Veneto Region a workshop in this topic has been organized. The seminar results will be summarized in this Section. Moreover, the point of view of stakeholders, and relevant actors in the field of electromobility in the Veneto Region will be also reported in this Section. In particular, by previous knowledge of the author matured in the Electric Drives Laboratory of the industrial engineering department and contacts provided by CPV (Productivity Center of Veneto Region), companies and research institutions stakeholders have been interviewed. 14

15 A. Electromobility Workshop In order to identify the active networks between research institutions and industry, stakeholders, and relevant projects in the electromobility field in the Veneto Region a workshop in this topic has been organized in collaboration with the Study Group on the Automation and Conversion Energy of Centro Produttività Veneto - CPV (Productivity Center of Veneto Region). Automation and Energy Conversion study group of CPV is proposed to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among entrepreneurs, managers, and technicians through the organization of conferences, meetings and study visits. It treats issues of great relevance due to its close connection with the productive world and the real business issues. This Study Group is composed of about 50 companies in Veneto Region area. This seminar in Electromobility field has been planned for the workshop AC Motor Drives Technology of 2014, which takes place every two years and is organized by CPV. So the 16 th edition of the workshop AC Motor Drives Technology has been entitled Stato dell arte, aspettative e prospettive della mobilità elettrica nella Regione Veneto (State of the art, prospects and expectations of electromobility in the Veneto Region) [33]. The event logo is shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9. Ac motor drive workshop logo [33]. The venue of workshop was Villa Valmarana Bressan, Vigardolo di Monticello Conte Otto (VI) [34] in data 11 June A picture of workshop venue is shown in Fig. 10. This 16 th edition of the workshop AC Motor Drives Technology has been proposed to researchers, designer engineers, and company in the field of power electronics, electric motors and drives in the Veneto Region. The aim of workshop was to illustrate some important perspectives and opportunities for research development and industrial production in the field of electromobility. In particular it wanted to highlight the possible technical and economic strength of this emerging strategic sector. Electromobility can bring the companies of Veneto Region to increase their competitiveness in a global market. Along these issues the program was structured according to intense ladder of interventions, by which authoritative experts and researchers from industry, academia discussed of different aspects in the electromobility field. 15

16 Fig. 10. Workshop venue, Villa Valmarana Bressan [34]. The workshop schedule was: Electromobility in the Veneto Region, State of the art, presented by Ph.D. Eng. Mattia Morandin - Research assistant University of Padova. Abstract: Overview of the state of the art in the field of electromobility in the Veneto Region. We will highlight the new opportunities that this sector can bring to businesses Venetian and the critical issues that must be resolved to increase dissemination of products of this industry. FIAMM batteries and salt SoNik, state of the art and experience in the field of sustainable mobility, presented by Eng. Federico Resmini - Sales Manager Mobility-EMEA, FIAMM S.p.A.. Abstract: Overview of salt SoNik, state of the art and experience in the field of sustainable mobility. Converter topologies for battery chargers Plug-in high-efficiency, presented by Prof. Roberto Petrella - Assistant Professor University of Udine. Abstract: Overview of the different types of converters adopted in the area of plug-in charger for electric vehicles. Description of the wiring diagrams of the major converters resonant high efficiency. Interreg IV Italy-Austria AKKU4FUTURE project (www.akku4future.eu) - Results: 1) Modeling: from the electrochemical cell to a determination specifies the general state, presented by Ph.D. Eng. Florian Niedermayr - Fraunhofer Research Bolzen. Abstract: Overview of different approaches to modeling. Description the equivalent circuit diagrams implemented. Presentation of the software implemented and the initial results the simulation. Introduction to the diagnosis. 2) Measurement strategies for the quantification of the state of charge and the state of health of a Li-ion battery, presented by Eng. Alexander Elbe - Fachhochschule Krnten, Villach (Austria). Abstract: Li-ion batteries require a strict operation window in terms of terminal voltage, load current and cell temperature. Battery management systems (BMS) have to ensure the safe operation of Li-ion batteries. Measurement strategies to create data for the quantification of the state of charge (SOC) and the state of health (SOH) of a Li-ion battery are described and a measurement setup is proposed. 16

17 Light Electric Vehicles - ASKOLL: 1) Light Electric Vehicles - vehicle analysis, presented by Eng. Andrea Mazzagatti - Askoll Holding S.p.A. Vicenza. Abstract: Market opportunity of the different types of light electric vehicles (as electric bike and scooter). 2) Light Electric Vehicles - design choices, presented by Eng. Gianluca Marangon - Askoll Holding S.p.A. Vicenza. Abstract: Overview of the different design choices of electric drive and energy storage system. To this workshop was attended by about 50 people between the company and research institutions. The feedback from participants and the discussions that emerged during the workshop have highlighted that the electromobility topic could be a strategic sector for the company that operate in the field of power electronics and energy storage systems. B. Company Stakeholder - Askoll S.p.A. Askoll S.p.A. has been interviewed as future EMob companies stakeholders in the Veneto Region. The company has been identified as an innovative model of business because it has recognized the strategic importance of the electromobility sector and it has started a new business field. The most of the skills and innovative technologies, necessary to this novel field, are derived from decades of experience in the production of electric motors and drives for domestic applications such as: aquariums, washing machines, dishwashers, boilers, etc. Today, the Askoll S.p.A. group employs 3000 people in 11 companies. According to a strategic choice to betterface the challenges of the global market, each company is independent but linked by a common goal. Heading the Group is Askoll Holding, that sets forth the guidelines and main strategies. The Askoll S.p.A. is present in 8 countries, it boasts 9 production establishments in such strategic markets as Italy, Slovakia, Romania, Mexico, Brazil and China. Askoll evolution and development trend in its 36 years of history: 1978 Thanks to the intuition and the entrepreneurial frame of mind of its founder, Elio Marioni, Askoll introduces the synchronous technology in the aquarium pumps market (50 million euros in receipts and 36 employees) The synchronous technology is extended to the sector of drain pumps for washing machines and dishwashers, offering improvements in cost saving, fitting and maintenance simplicity plus the benefit of saving energy (61 million euros in receipts and 252 employees) The Group enlarges its activity at international level: Askoll Brazil is established to manufacture and sell pumps for household appliances in South America (88 million euros in receipts and 369 employees) Askoll introduces the synchronous technology in the heating market (141 million euros in receipts and 550 employees) Askoll Mexico is established to manufacture and sell pumps for household appliances in North America (360 million euros in receipts and 3000 employees) Askoll acquires Emerson Appliance Motors Europe (E.A.M.E) from Emerson. The Group has consolidated an important presence in the markets of drain pumps for washing machines and dishwashers, of electric motors for household applications, such as washing machines, dryers and ventilation and refrigeration systems through the Askoll, Plaset and Ceset trademarks. Thanks to the synergies generated by the new structure, Askoll aims to meet more and more the requirements of Partners by means of: 17

18 an enhanced technological capability in the development of highly innovative solutions for a wide range of applications; a greater logistics efficiency, thanks to a global presence; a strategic partnership in the global procurement process, providing the right solution, in the right place, and at the right moment. Askoll believes innovation must be pursued with enthusiasm and determination as it drives development, progress and the common good. For these reasons inside Askoll Group there is a specific division called Askoll Cinque that concerned with Research and Development in the field of Electronics, Electromechanics, Engineering/Fluid dynamics, and Rapid prototype construction. Askoll Cinque is a door wide-open to the future for the entire Askoll Group. Askoll leads very dynamic and active research and development processes not only with regards to products but also processes and organizational methods, using creative and advanced tools, according to a multidisciplinary logic. The Askoll s milestones in the field of electric machine are reported in Fig. 11. Fig. 11. Askoll s milestones. Askoll group now has sales of almost 300 million of Euro and it invests more than 6% of its sales into research and development. This means it can add value to its products by using innovative technologies. For this reason in the recent year Askoll creates an internal self-funded project called E.V.A. project (Electric Vehicle - Askoll) with the aim to produce three different family of electric light vehicle for the urban mobility: 1) Electric Bike (Pedelec - pedal electric cycle). 2) Electric Scooter. 3) Electric Micro-Car (light four-wheels, in two configuration light (L6) and heavy (L7)). 18

19 Indeed, in line with the results reported in this report, Askoll points out that electromobility, especially in an urban area, is a field in deep growth not only in Italy but throughout Europe as demonstrated by COLIPED (Association of the European Two-Wheeler Parts and Accessory Industry) studies [35]. The principal key aspects, that highlight the Askoll s philosophy for electromobility products, are summarized as follows: Italian design: clean and ergonomic lines for a sober and elegant style. Technology: know-how for the entire system traction from the electric motor to the battery pack and the control electronic systems. Avant-garde industrial structure: knowledge and skills for the development and implementation of specific and custom process solutions for new vehicles. Industrial experience: ability to capture economies of purchasing and production through an industrial and logistic systems on a global scale. Table VII reports the principal preliminary features of the four electric vehicle. This Table highlights that all electric vehicle is powered by the most advanced technologies in the market as synchronous permanent magnet (PM) electric machine and Li-ion battery. TABLE VII PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Preliminary Electric Electric Light Electric Heavy Electric Characteristics Bike Scooter Micro-Car (L6) Micro-Car (L7) Motor type Synchronous PM Synchronous PM Synchronous PM Synchronous PM Number of motors Power 250 W 1500 W 4000 W W Torque 50 Nm 100 Nm 400 Nm 520 Nm Velocity 25 km/h 45 km/h 45 km/h 80 km/h Battery Type Li-ion Li-ion Li-ion Li-ion Energy 300 Wh 2100 Wh 8000 Wh 8000 Wh Range 100 km 100 km 100 km 100 km Weight 22 kg 70 kg 420 kg 450 kg The market launch of Askoll s Pedelec and Electric Scooter will be in the first quarter of 2015 and the completion of Askoll s electric light vehicle with the micro-car, in its two configuration Light (L6) and Heavy (L7), after about a year. C. University Stakeholder - Electric Drive Labortaory (EDLab) Prof. Silverio Bolognani, Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Padova, has been interviewed. Silverio Bolognani (IEEE Member 98) received the Laurea degree in electrical engineering from the University of Padova, Padova, Italy, in In 1976, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Padova. He then started the Electrical Drives Laboratory (EDLab), where a variety of research work on brushless and induction motor drives is carried out in the frame of European and the National research projects. He is currently a Full Professor of electrical converters, machines, and drives in the same department. He is author of more than 200 papers on electrical machines and drives and is the holder of three patents. Prof. Bolognani has been serving international conferences as a member of the steering or technical committees, as well as an invited speaker. He is currently the Chairman of the IEEE North Italy IEEE Industry Applications/Industrial Electronics/Power Electronics Societies Joint Chapter. 19

20 In the opinion of Prof. Bolognani, as expert in the field of electric machine and drive, he states that the electromobility is today a multidisciplinary very live field of research and development activity in academic and industrial laboratories. However electromobility is an issue as old as the cars, being object of study and prototyping before the beginning of the 20 th century. In fact, during the second half of 1800 s years and the beginning of last century a variety of battery-powered (full electric), hybrid parallel, serial, or with range extender electric vehicles (from bicycles to cars and to trams) was prototyped and exhibited. He states that after enjoying success at the beginning of the 20 th century, the electric car began to lose its position in the automobile market. A number of developments contributed to this situation. By the 1920 s an improved road infrastructure required vehicles with a greater range than that offered by electric cars. Worldwide discoveries of large petroleum reserves led to the wide availability of affordable gasoline, making gas-powered cars cheaper to operate over long distances. Electric cars were limited to urban use by their slow speed (no more than 4 32 km/h) and low range (50 65 km), and gasoline cars were now able to travel farther and faster than equivalent electric. Such a situation remained unchanged until about the 1970 s years when the petroleum crisis gave a new impulse to find alternative energy-effective transport technologies and electric vehicles were again pulled out of the closet. The results were disappointing for a number of reasons: power electronics (apart from diode/scr technology) and digital electronics were almost absent; electrical motors for drives were limited to DC motors and drive technology was limited to this motors; electric energy storage was, in practice, limited to lead-acid battery. For all of this, the rediscovered and put on the market electric vehicles were not able to contribute to the goal of energy saving (battery were charged from the electrical grid which was supplied mainly by petroleum-dependent power plants; renewable/alternative energy sources were not yet exploited apart from nuclear), and exhibit lower overall performance and reliability than existing internal combustion engine vehicles. The main result was that the population was sensitized to the problem, but no product remains on the market. We can call Electromobility 1.0 this one century experience (till about ), from the first experiments to the last pre-power electronics age proposals. He said that power electronic advent causes a first revolution in the field, moving Electromobility 1.0 to Electromobility 2.0 that exploits fully the maturity of power electronics and extend approximately from 1990 to Rigorously speaking, the merits of Electromobility 2.0 are not to be attributed solely to power electronics. In the same time, powerful and versatile digital components were developed and made easily available; new high energy permanent magnet materials were industrialized allowing high efficiency and compact motors to be realized; electrical drives technology introduced vector control that allows to migrate from the heavy DC motor drives to the efficient, reliable, high performance AC motor drive, especially brushless motors (but not only). Considering the improvements of the energy storage systems, Electromobility 2.0 brought full or hybrid electric vehicles with characteristics comparable (in term of velocity and range capability) to those of internal combustion engine vehicles for many field of application, apart from costs. Because of the latter, the absence of dedicated infrastructures and the effects of the ancestry range anxiety (the fear that a vehicle has insufficient range to reach its destination) electromobility remained limited to finite and specific applications. At the end of the interview he said that these drawbacks have been canceled in the last decade (up today) which shows, together with additional technical advancements, mainly a cultural social maturity toward electromobility. Not only the fear toward electrical vehicles is now attenuated, but electric vehicle 20

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