# SYLLABUS OF BASIC EDUCATION Fall 2016 Basic Techniques for Ratemaking and Estimating Claim Liabilities Exam 5

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2 A. Basic Techniques for Ratemaking Range of weight for Section A: percent This section introduces the general principles of ratemaking as well as specific details regarding data requirements, calculations, key assumptions, and implementation-related issues. Candidates require a thorough understanding of basic ratemaking so that they will be able to analyze data, select appropriate techniques, and develop solutions to problems. This section addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the various ratemaking techniques as they are applied to specific situations and different lines of business. Classification of insureds for the purpose of risk stratification and other important ratemaking topics, such as coinsurance and catastrophe provisions, are also examined in this section. 1. Describe, analyze, or design the information requirements for ratemaking related to exposures and demonstrate the use of exposures in ratemaking. Range of weight: 2-6 percent a. Definition of exposure base b. Characteristics of exposure bases c. Relationship of exposures to coverage provisions d. Organization of data: calendar year, policy year, accident year e. Written exposure versus earned exposure versus in-force exposure f. Role of exposures in the ratemaking process g. Influence of changes in exposures Werner & Modlin, Chapters 1, 3-4 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-2

3 2. Describe, analyze, or design the information requirements for ratemaking related to premiums and demonstrate the use of premiums in ratemaking. Range of weight: 4-8 percent a. Organization of data: calendar year, policy year, accident year b. Written premium versus earned premium versus in-force premium c. Relationship between earned premium and earned exposure d. Policy terms e. Effect of law changes f. Effect of rate changes g. Determinations of and application of premium trend h. Adjustment for coverage and benefit level changes i. Distributional shifts and changes in volume (i.e., trend over time) j. Parallelogram method k. Extension of exposures ASOP 13 Werner & Modlin, Chapters 1, 3, 5, and Appendices A-D Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-3

4 3. Describe, analyze, or design the information requirements for ratemaking related to loss and loss adjustment expenses and demonstrate the use of loss and loss adjustment expenses in ratemaking. Range of weight: 8-12 percent a. Organization of the data: calendar year, policy year, accident year, report year b. Policy provisions c. Occurrence coverage d. Claims-made coverage: Report lag Coverage triggers Principles of claims-made policies Retroactive date Tail coverage e. Reported losses versus paid losses f. Claim counts g. Loss adjustment expense (allocated and unallocated expenses) h. Loss development i. Frequency trend j. Severity trend k. Pure premium trend l. Approaches to determining trend (e.g., exponential and linear analyses) m. Relationship between trend and loss development n. Effect of law changes o. Effect of changes in mix of business p. Adjustment for coverage and benefit level changes q. Credibility criteria and formulae r. Large loss adjustment s. Reinsurance recoveries t. Reinsurance costs u. Catastrophe adjustment ASOP 13 Werner & Modlin, Chapters 1, 3, 6, 12, 16, and Appendices A-D Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-4

5 4. Calculate the underwriting expense provisions underlying the overall rate level indication. Range of weight: 0-5 percent a. Expense categories (e.g., commission, general, other acquisition, taxes, licenses, and fees) b. Sources of data and selection criteria c. Profit and contingency provisions d. Net cost of reinsurance e. Cost of capital f. Fixed expenses and variable expenses g. Differences in procedures for loss adjustment expenses versus underwriting expenses Werner & Modlin, Chapters 1, 7, and Appendices A-D 5. Calculate the overall rate level indication using the pure premium and loss ratio methods and argue the merits of each. Range of weight: 3-6 percent a. Statement of Principles, CAS b. Assumptions of each method c. Mechanics associated with each method (including organization of the data) d. When each method works and when it does not CAS Ratemaking Principles Werner & Modlin, Chapters 1, 8, and Appendices A-D Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-5

6 6. Describe, analyze, and validate the considerations beyond the calculated cost-based estimate of the rate when selecting a final rate change to implement. Range of weight: 0-5 percent a. Calculated cost-based rate b. Regulatory constraints c. Operational constraints d. Marketing constraints: Competitive comparisons Close ratios Retention ratios Growth Distributional analysis Policyholder dislocation analysis e. Lifetime value analysis f. Optimized pricing g. Underwriting cycles Werner & Modlin, Chapter Explain the purpose for segregating data into homogeneous groups and summarize the considerations for determining such groups. Range of weight: 0-5 percent a. Risk Classification Standard of Practice b. Criteria for selection of classification grouping c. Credibility d. Adverse Selection e. Efficiency of class plan ASOP 12 Werner & Modlin, Chapter 9 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-6

7 8. Develop rating differentials for classification and territory and relativities for deductibles and increased limits. Range of weight: 8-12 percent a. Formulae and process for each rating differential or relativity b. Credibility and complements of credibility c. Off balance d. Capping of change e. Loss elimination f. Basic limits versus total limits g. Layers of loss h. Expense adjustments i. Fundamentals of univariate and multivariate relativity analyses Werner & Modlin, Chapters 9-12, 15 and Appendices E-F 9. Assess the considerations for implementing rates to achieve an organization s goals. Range of weight: 0-3 percent a. Rating algorithms b. Rating variables and differentials c. Fixed expenses, if applicable d. Expense fee calculation e. Calculation of final base rates f. Minimum premiums g. Non-pricing solutions Werner & Modlin, Chapter 14 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-7

8 10. Calculate premium for policies with coinsurance provisions. Range of weight: 0-5 percent a. Definition of coinsurance b. Insurance to value c. Common policy provisions d. Layers of loss e. Coverage issues f. Guaranteed replacement cost g. Formula Werner & Modlin, Chapter Perform basic individual risk rating calculations. a. Purpose of individual risk rating b. Schedule rating c. Manual rating d. Retrospective rating e. Experience modification f. Composite loss-rated risks g. Formulae h. Experience period i. Credibility j. Layers of loss Range of weight: 0-5 percent Werner & Modlin, Chapter 15 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-8

9 B. Estimating Claim Liabilities Range of weight for Section B: percent This section explores basic techniques that actuaries use to estimate unpaid claims for both insurance entities and also for non-insurance entities that retain risk. The CAS Principles and the American Academy of Actuaries Standards of Practice related to the estimation of unpaid claims are also examined in this section. 1. Describe, analyze, and validate the information requirements for estimating unpaid claims. Range of weight: 2-6 percent a. Types of data and their sources b. Role of homogeneity and credibility of data in the process of estimating unpaid claims c. Fundamentals of different types of insurance (e.g., long tail versus short tail lines of business, low frequency versus high frequency lines) d. Organization of data: calendar year, accident year, policy year, underwriting year, report year e. Insurer s environment f. Importance of accurate estimates of unpaid claims Friedland, Chapters 1, 3, and 4 CAS Unpaid Claims Principles ASOP Build and analyze claim development triangles. a. Purposes of the development triangle b. Development triangle as a diagnostic tool c. Examples and uses of diagnostic development triangles: Claim and claim count Ratio of premium to claims Average values Ratios of claims and counts Range of weight: 2-6 percent Friedland, Chapters 5-6 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-9

10 3. Construct and appraise unpaid claims estimates using each of the following estimation techniques: Development technique, including case outstanding technique Expected claim technique Bornhuetter-Ferguson technique Cape Cod technique Frequency-Severity techniques Range of weight: percent a. Standards of Practice, ASOP 43 b. Statement of Principles, CAS c. The claim process d. Assumptions of each estimation technique e. Mechanics associated with each technique (including organization of the data) f. Reporting and payment patterns g. When each techniques works and when it does not h. Key terms: case outstanding, paid claims, reported claims, incurred but not reported, ultimate claims, claims related expenses, reported and closed claim counts, claim counts closed with no payment, insurance recoverables, exposures, experience period, maturity or age, and components of unpaid claim estimates Friedland, Chapters 1-12, and 15 CAS Unpaid Claims Principles ASOP Assess the influence of operating changes on the estimation of unpaid claims. Range of weight: 0-5 percent a. How internal operating changes affect estimates of unpaid claims: Claims processing Underwriting and policy provisions Marketing Coding of claim counts and/or claim related expenses Treatment of recoveries such as policyholder deductibles and salvage and subrogation Reinsurance Friedland, Part 3 (Chapters 6-15) Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-10

11 5. Adjust data and/or estimation techniques for changes in the: Internal environment (e.g., claims processes that result in shift in the adequacy of case outstanding or shift in settlement rates, change in mix of business, change in rate level) External environment (e.g., inflationary or legal environment) Range of weight: 3-7 percent a. Effect on estimation techniques due to change in: rate levels, claim ratio, mix of business b. Use of trend factors and tort reform factors in estimation techniques c. Identification of changes in case outstanding adequacy d. Adjustment for changes in case outstanding adequacy e. Identification of changes in rate of claims settlement f. Adjustment for changes in rate of claims settlement Friedland, Chapters Estimate recoveries. a. Salvage and subrogation b. Reinsurance c. Key assumptions of estimation techniques Range of weight: 0-5 percent Friedland, Chapter Estimate unpaid claim adjustment expenses. a. Organization of the data b. Estimation of unpaid ALAE c. Estimation of unpaid ULAE d. Key assumptions of estimation techniques e. Strengths and weaknesses of the estimation techniques for claim related expenses Range of weight: 2-7 percent Friedland, Chapters 1, 3, 16, and 17 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-11

12 8. Appraise and validate the results of the estimation process for adequacy and reasonableness. Range of weight: 4-8 percent a. Components of evaluation: Multiple methods Explanation of differences Test statistics (e.g., claim ratios, severities, pure premiums, frequencies, indicated unpaid claims) b. Monitoring and interim valuations Friedland, Chapter 15 Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-12

13 Complete Text References for Exam 5 Text references are alphabetized by the citation column. Citation Actuarial Standards Board of the American Academy of Actuaries, Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 12, Risk Classification (for all Practice Areas), revised in 2005, updated for deviation language in Actuarial Standards Board of the American Academy of Actuaries, Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 13, Trending Procedures in Property/Casualty Insurance, revised in 2009, updated for deviation language in Actuarial Standards Board of the American Academy of Actuaries, Actuarial Standard of Practice No. 43, Property/Casualty Unpaid Claim Estimates," adopted in 2007, updated for deviation language in Abbreviation Learning Objective Source ASOP 12 A7 OP ASOP 13 A2, A3 OP ASOP 43 B1, B3 OP Statement of Principles Regarding Property and Casualty Insurance Ratemaking, Casualty Actuarial Society, May CAS Ratemaking Principles A5 OP Statement of Principles Regarding Property and Casualty Unpaid Claims Estimates, Casualty Actuarial Society, released May CAS Unpaid Claims Principles B1, B3 OP Friedland, J.F., Estimating Unpaid Claims Using Basic Techniques, Casualty Actuarial Society, Third Version, July The Appendices are excluded. Friedland B1-B8 OP Werner, G, and Modlin, C., Basic Ratemaking, Casualty Actuarial Society, Fifth Edition, May The Appendices are an integral part of the textbook and will be used for creating questions. Chapter 2 is excluded. Werner & Modlin A1-A11 OP NEW Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-13

14 Source Key B NEW OP SK SKU Book may be purchased from the publisher or bookstore or borrowed from the CAS Library. Indicates new or updated material. All text references marked as Online Publications will be available on a web page titled Complete Online Text References. Material included in the 2016 Study Kit. Material included in both the 2016 CAS Study Kit and the 2016 Update to the 2015 Study Kit. Items printed in red indicate an update, clarification, or change. Publishers and Distributors Contact information is furnished for those who wish to purchase the text references cited for this exam. Publishers and distributors are independent and listed for the convenience of candidates; inclusion does not constitute endorsement by the CAS. Actex Publications (Mad River Books), 107 Groppo Drive, Suite A, P.O. Box 974, Winsted, CT 06098; telephone: (800) or (860) ; fax: (860) ; Website: Actuarial Bookstore, P.O. Box 69, Greenland, NH 03840; telephone: (800) (U.S. only) or (603) ; fax: (603) ; Website: Actuarial Standards Board, American Academy of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Road, Suite 600, Schaumburg, IL 60173; telephone: (847) ; fax: (847) Casualty Actuarial Society, 4350 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 250, Arlington, VA 22203; telephone: (703) ; fax: (703) ; Website: SlideRule Books, P.O. Box 69, Greenland, NH 03840; telephone: (877) or (603) ; fax: (877) or (603) ; Website: Materials for Study, Exam 5 Exam 5-14

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