Structure of the judiciary system,

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Structure of the judiciary system, 2010-2012"

Transcription

1 Austria Belgium Denmark Austrian law is based on European traditions and is primarily statute law, with a very limited role played by customary law. The independence of the courts is enshrined in the constitution. The court structures do not correspond to the territorial divisions of the country. The judges are not bound to take any instructions in exercising their office, and are virtually irremovable. The Federal Constitution Law assigns the judiciary exclusively under federal responsibilities. The Länder are therefore not allowed to set up any courts. There are three supreme courts in Austria: the civil and criminal courts, with stages of appeal to the Supreme Court (OGH), the Constitutional Court and the Administrative Court. The Constitutional Court was established in 1920, it is the oldest constitutional court worldwide. It is the guardian of the Austrian constitution, comprises the President, Vice-President and twelve members, all appointed by the Federal President. Its formal and material responsibilities are laid down in the Federal Constitutional Law ( B-VG ) and in the Constitutional Court Act. Constitutional Court decisions are normally taken by the full court. In principle, the Constitutional Court does not act on its own initiative, only on application. Any court, an independent administrative panel, the Supreme Court, a Court of Appeal, the Administrative Court, the Asylum Court, the federal government, a state (Land) government, a local community/municipality, the Federal Public Procurement Office, the Ombudsman Institution or the Board of Audit may (some of them must) refer the question whether a norm is unlawful or unconstitutional to the Constitutional Court. Everyone can invoke the aid of the Constitutional Court (objection to a decision of the Asylum Court or of an administrative authority of last instance if he /she is of the opinion that a decision infringes his / her constitutionally guaranteed rights or applies an unlawful/ unconstitutional norm. An individual petition (request) against a regulation or law statute may be brought only if such a norm (regulation/statute) infringes currently/actually and directly a person's rights. Over the last years, about 2,000 to 3,000 cases on average were brought to the Court annually. According to an amendment of the Constitution in 2008 establishing the Asylum Court the number of cases increased dramatically. The Court has to face an additional caseload of around 3,500 cases only dealing with asylum matters because it is the only Court reviewing decisions of the Asylum Court (the review of the Administrative Court has been excluded by the constitutional legislator). That means that the Constitutional Court had to cope with a total of 5,500 new cases in 2009 (Activity Report 2009) and has to expect an equally important workload in the years to come. Still the duration of the Constitutional Court's proceedings (meaning those not dealing with asylum matters) would amount to eight months, which would be low in international comparison. The judicial system is based on civil law and originates from the Napoleonic Code. It has a pyramidal structure, with the Court of Cassation at the top. There are also administrative jurisdictions, with the administrative litigation sections of the Council of State and of the Constitutional court at their head. These jurisdictions are not, formally speaking, part of the judicial Order. The Danish judicial system is based on the traditions of continental Europe. The system of courts has a unified structure, in which there are no special courts of law, as well as no formal division within the courts. On 1 January 2007 a reform of courts reduced the number of district courts from 82 to 24. The objectives of the reform were to gain higher quality, reduce the time to review each case, and move the case load from the high courts to the district courts. Denmark has no specialised courts for constitutional issues and for administrative issues. Constitutional questions must be decided by the court that is otherwise dealing with the case, and in the final instance the question can be decided by the Supreme Court. Danish courts have been very reluctant to have recourse to the constitution, and it was not until 1999 that the Supreme Court rejected a politically important act as being contrary to the constitution. Administrative cases are dealt with by district courts. The administration has established a large number of complaint boards (internal to ministries) to deal with complaints of citizens, whose decisions can be appealed to the courts. Page 1 of 5

2 Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Finland has a civil law system which is based on Swedish law (which itself is based on the Napoleonic system). The judiciary is divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals or businesses and the public administration. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts, regional appellate courts, and the Supreme Court. The administrative arm of the judiciary consists of regional administrative courts and the Supreme Administrative Court. In addition, there are a few special courts. For example, a High Court of Impeachment examines criminal charges against high-ranking officeholders. France is a country of written Roman law. The judiciary in France exercises its authority in accordance with a basic distinction between, on the one hand, judicial jurisdiction for settling disputes between persons and, on the other, administrative jurisdiction for disputes between citizens and the public authorities. Within these two jurisdictional orders, the various courts and tribunals are organised in accordance with a pyramidal structure: so-called courts of first instance (or trial courts) constitute the base of the pyramid; courts of appeal (or of second instance ) consist of courts which rule on appeals against decisions taken by the courts of first instance ; and at the top of each order, a supreme court of appeal is responsible for monitoring and ensuring consistency in the application of the law as implemented by other judges responsible for the substantive aspects of cases. These two appeal courts are the Court of Cassation in the case of the judicial order, and the Council of State for the administrative order. The German legal system draws from the European codified civil law tradition. Germany s Civil Code was developed in the late nineteenth century, and has served as a template for other civil law jurisdictions. The federal constitutional Court in Karlsruhe is the supreme court. The 16 judges of the supreme court monitor adherence to and compliance with the Basic Law, they adjudicate competence disputes between the federation and the Länder. They rule only upon petitions and their decisions are final. The supreme court holds a monopoly on interpretation of the constitution with regard to all German jurisdictions. All organs of the federation are bound to uphold to the rulings of the supreme court. Each Land has a state constitutional court. If a Land law is regarded as being incompatible with the respective Land constitution, the courts seek a ruling from the Land constitutional Court which has jurisdiction in accordance with Land law. If a norm is declared unconstitutional by the court, it has to be submitted to the constitutional Court for an independent review (concrete proceedings on the constitutionality). Norms can also be examined by the court irrespective of any specific application (abstract proceedings on the constitutionality). Besides ordinary courts which deal with criminal and almost all civil cases, the administration of justice consist of, labour, administrative, social, and financial specialised courts. Justice is administered by some 21,000 independent judges, generally appointed for life. The Greek legal system belongs to the Continental European civil law tradition and has been especially influenced by German and French law. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and comprises three Supreme Courts: the Court of Cassation, the Council of State and the Court of Auditors. The judiciary is also composed of civil courts, which judge civil and penal cases, and administrative courts, which judge disputes between citizens and the Greek administrative authorities. Ireland is a common law country with a written constitution. While much of Irish public law is similar to that of other common law jurisdictions, the existence of a written constitution and judicial review of legislation has meant that the Irish legal system has developed its own distinctive characteristics. Judicial review is more vigorous than in most other countries. Similar to the US, a judge may declare legislation to be unconstitutional, and the High and Supreme Courts in the cases that come before them ensure that government and parliament, in the enactment of primary legislation, respect principles of natural and constitutional justice. These principles include principles of proportionality, the right to be heard, and the right to have decisions taken without bias. Courts also ensure that secondary legislation and other acts of public bodies are consistent with the authorizing primary legislation. In this regard, the courts will be concerned with how a decision was taken by a regulator, rather than with the merits of the decision itself. Page 2 of 5

3 Ireland (cont.) Italy Netherlands The court system was set up by the Courts (Establishment and Constitution) Act 1961 pursuant to Article 34 of the 1937 Constitution. The constitution outlines the structure of the court system as comprising a court of final appeal, the Supreme Court, and courts of first instance with include a High Court, with full jurisdiction in all criminal and civil matters, and courts of limited jurisdiction, the Circuit Court and the District Court, organised on a regional basis. The High Court and the Supreme Court have authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of public bodies with the constitution and the law. Although not a part of the judiciary, the Office of the Attorney General plays a significant role advising the government on matters of law and the constitution. The Italian legal system draws from the European codified civil law tradition. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the ordinary judiciary from interference by any other State power in its activity of interpreting the law and assessing facts. The Constitutional Court has the power to review laws and decree-laws. If they do not comply with the Constitution, the Court declares their unconstitutionality and, consequently, these acts are no longer valid in the constitutional order from the day after the decision s publication. The Constitutional Court is the only body entitled to exercise this power. Judges nevertheless play an important role in checking whether laws are in accordance with the Constitution and raising constitutionality issues before the Constitutional Court. The Court is composed of 15 judges: one third appointed by the President of the Republic, one-third elected by parliament, and one-third elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts. The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest appeal court. Appeals to the Court generally come from the lower appeals court, but litigants may also appeal directly. Generally, cassation is based not on outright violations of law, but on diverging interpretations of law between the courts. The Court therefore cannot rule on the evidence of the facts or overrule the trial court's interpretation of the evidence; rather, it rules on the lower court's interpretation or application of the law. Decisions of the supreme court are binding only in the case submitted. The Court s seat is in Rome and has jurisdiction over the entire territory of the Republic. Besides ordinary courts (civil and penal), the Constitution provides for only clearly defined specific courts, among which are the administrative courts. The latter monitor the legitimacy of administrative acts and may lead to their annulment. Judges are independent public officials. Once appointed, they serve for life and cannot be removed without specific disciplinary proceedings conducted by the Superior Council of Judges. Civil and criminal judges form a single structure, that of the ordinary judges, which also includes prosecutors. Administrative judges are distinguished from ordinary judges and have an independent governing body. The Ministry of Justice handles the administration of courts and judiciary including paying salaries or constructing new courthouses. As the judiciary s self-governing organ, the Superior Council of Judges safeguards the independence of the order; regulates the most important activities necessary for the exercise of its competence; and applies disciplinary sanctions. It is made up of the President of the Republic, who presides over it (and who generally has the assistance of a Vice president, elected from the members), the first President of the Corte of Cassation, the Cassation s Prosecutor General, as well as 24 other members. The Dutch judicial system is based on the traditions of continental Europe, with a codified law and a written Constitution. The Council of State is a form of constitutional court, advising the government on all draft bills and orders in council. The court system consists of courts, courts of appeal, and a Supreme Court. Administrative appeals are heard by the administrative branch of the courts. The judiciary can and does interpret the law in its rulings, but cannot challenge it. Page 3 of 5

4 Portugal Spain Sweden The constitution provides for the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Justice and the Supreme Administrative Court (the last two have subordinate courts) and a variety of special courts, including a military court system. The Portuguese legal and judicial system is based on Roman civil law. It has a complete body of law that has all been transcribed into codes. Judges are essentially seen as civil servants who are the mouth of the law. They must seek the appropriate law from the codes and apply it without any reservations, excesses, any interpretations. Judicial power is unitary. There is one judicial structure covering the whole of Spain and all matters including the public administration, the only exception being the person of the King. The ACs use the State courts (apart from appeals on administrative decisions relating to their own powers and competences). Special courts are forbidden (for example, there is no longer a separate military jurisdiction). The General Council of the Judiciary is responsible for overseeing and ensuring the autonomy and independence of judicial power, including all the courts. As such, it is not a judicial but an administrative body. It is enshrined in the Constitution, and therefore enjoys the same status as the other institutions mentioned in the latter, such as the government, the Congress and the Senate, and the Constitutional Court. Justice is administered at various levels by a range of independent courts. Each territorial unit has specific courts. From the lowest to the highest rank, the system consists of: Municipalities and judicial districts. Courts of peace, courts of first instance and examining courts. Provinces. Provincial courts. Autonomous Communities. Higher Courts of Justice as the highest appeal court for administrative and legal acts in their jurisdiction. National level. The national court and the Supreme Court have national jurisdiction. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial institution for all types of law (apart from constitutional affairs). It is the ultimate appeal court for civil, criminal, administrative, social and military matters. It deals with administrative appeals on, and disputes about, acts issued by the Council of Ministers, government commissions, the Congress and the Senate, the Constitutional Court, the Court of Auditors and the Ombudsman. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed by the King. Swedish law, drawing on Germanic, Roman, and common law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial precedent as in the United Kingdom and the United States. The courts may interpret the law, but they do not make it. Court decisions are not however restricted to procedural issues, and they can rule on the substance of a case. The judiciary is politically independent, with permanent judges (appointed by the government, but politically neutral). There is no jury system, with a few exceptions. There is no constitutional court, instead all courts may ascertain whether a law is in conflict with other laws, including the constitution, to which all other laws are subordinate. There are three types of court in Sweden: the general courts, which comprise 72 district courts, six courts of appeal and the Supreme Court; the general administrative courts, which comprise county administrative courts, administrative courts of appeal for cases dealing with the public administration, and the Supreme Administrative Court; and the special courts, which determine disputes within special areas, for example, the Labour Court and the Market Court. The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court are courts of precedent. Page 4 of 5

5 United Kingdom The common law, on which much of the English legal system rests, is based on decisions and precedents handed down by the courts. The judiciary in England therefore traditionally exerts an important influence on the development and practical application of regulations, relative to the judiciaries of countries with a system based on civil law. The absence of a single written constitutional source also means that there is no single supreme judicial guardian of constitutional principles. That said, although this formal role is absent from the judicial structure, the judiciary are responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law, and for ensuring that the executive acts within its proper authority. The role of the judiciary is framed around two sets of principles: Judicial independence and neutrality (freedom from political interference and control). The bulk of the judiciary is separate from the other two branches of government, the executive and the legislature. However, pending implementation of reforms to the House of Lords, there is some overlap at the highest levels, as senior members of the judiciary sit in the House of Lords, and the head of the judiciary (the Lord Chancellor) is a member of the Cabinet. Strict application of the law (judges must consider whether the law has been correctly applied, not whether it is a good or a bad law). Again, this principle has to be seen in its practical context. The courts cannot strike down acts of the parliament and have a limited role in striking down secondary regulations. In practice, the role of the courts is not limited to the strict application of the law, as evidenced in the fact that judicial decisions over statute law have contributed to creating the significant body of common law that exists today. The court system comprises two structures, one for the civil law and one for the criminal law. For cases involving civil law the first level is the County Court (218 across England and Wales). Above this level is the High Court, divided into three departments: the Family Division (cases relating to matrimonial affairs, child welfare, child custody and adoption), the Chancery Division (cases involving land, companies, bankruptcy and probate) and the Queen's Bench Division (most other cases, including cases that go to the Administrative Court, which exercises judicial review in relation to the decisions of local governments). The Queen's Bench Division is thus the most relevant for regulatory policy. Sources: OECD, Better Regulation in Europe The EU 15 project, Page 5 of 5

Judicial System in the Russian Federation: Functioning, Reforms and Priorities. Dear Colleagues, Ladies and Gentleman,

Judicial System in the Russian Federation: Functioning, Reforms and Priorities. Dear Colleagues, Ladies and Gentleman, TIMOSHIN Nikolay Viktorovich Justice, Supreme Court of the Russian Federation(RF) Chairman, Panel of Judges of the First Instance, Criminal Judicial Chamber of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation

More information

The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary

The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary The Constitution and the Federal Judiciary Article III of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch as one of the three separate and distinct branches of the federal government. The

More information

GUIDE. Guide to the Legal System of the Cayman Islands

GUIDE. Guide to the Legal System of the Cayman Islands GUIDE Guide to the Legal System of the Cayman Islands TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface... 2 Introduction...3 The Cayman Islands Constitution... 3 The Governor......3 The Legislature... 3 The Executive...4 Sources

More information

FEDERALISM THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

FEDERALISM THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES FEDERALISM THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES In the United States, we are governed by both national and state governments and our rights are protected by state and federal Constitutions. Basically,

More information

Magruder s American Government

Magruder s American Government Presentation Pro Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 18 The Federal Court System 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. S E C T I O N 1 The National Judiciary Why did the Constitution create a national judiciary?

More information

LEGAL BASIS COMMON RULES

LEGAL BASIS COMMON RULES THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: ELECTORAL PROCEDURES The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national

More information

Second Chambers as Constitutional Guardians & Protectors of Human Rights

Second Chambers as Constitutional Guardians & Protectors of Human Rights Second Chambers as Constitutional Guardians & Protectors of Human Rights by Aisling Reidy & Meg Russell June 1999 Executive Summary a The large volume of recent constitutional legislation, including the

More information

THE COMMUNITY TRADEMARK. Questions and anwsers

THE COMMUNITY TRADEMARK. Questions and anwsers TRADEMARKS THE COMMUNITY TRADEMARK. Questions and anwsers WHY A EUROPEAN COMMUNITY TRADEMARK? The 12 European States bound by the Treaty of Rome which instituted the European Economic Community (now called

More information

THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description. Federal Judicial Center

THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description. Federal Judicial Center THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description Federal Judicial Center Background The United States Constitution establishes a federal system of government. The Constitution gives specific powers to the federal

More information

Law of Georgia On Normative Acts

Law of Georgia On Normative Acts Published in the Gazette of the Parliament of Georgia (November 19, 1996) Law of Georgia On Normative Acts Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 This Law shall define the types and hierarchy of normative

More information

Full list of mistakes and omissions of the English Version of the Hungarian draft- Constitution

Full list of mistakes and omissions of the English Version of the Hungarian draft- Constitution Full list of mistakes and omissions of the English Version of the Hungarian draft- Constitution This document contains the full list of mistakes and omissions of the draft-constitution English version.

More information

Development of Minimal Judicial Standards III

Development of Minimal Judicial Standards III Development of Minimal Judicial Standards III Minimum Standards regarding evaluation of professional performance and irremovability of members of the judiciary Report 2012-2013 With the support of the

More information

CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN JUDGES (CCJE)

CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN JUDGES (CCJE) Strasbourg, 15 March 2007 CCJE/RAP(2007)3 English only CONSULTATIVE COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN JUDGES (CCJE) 3RD EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF JUDGES WHICH COUNCIL FOR JUSTICE? ROME, (ITALY), 26-27 MARCH 2007 Session

More information

GEORGIA STATE GOVERNMENT

GEORGIA STATE GOVERNMENT GEORGIA STATE GOVERNMENT SS8CG2: The student will analyze the role of the legislative SS8CG3: The student will analyze the role of the executive SS8CG4: The student will analyze the role of the judicial

More information

THE NATURE OF THE ROLE OF A MASTER

THE NATURE OF THE ROLE OF A MASTER THE NATURE OF THE ROLE OF A MASTER The primary jurisdiction of Masters in the Court of Judicature in Northern Ireland is derived from Order 32, rule 11 of the Rules of the Court of Judicature and the Judicature

More information

STUDENT STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER FOUR

STUDENT STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER FOUR Multiple Choice Questions STUDENT STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER FOUR 1. Which entity conducts background checks on potential nominees for federal judgeship positions? a. Office of the Attorney General b. Central

More information

Common law reasoning and institutions

Common law reasoning and institutions Common law reasoning and institutions England and Wales Common law reasoning and institutions I. The English legal system and the common law tradition II. Courts, tribunals and other decision-making bodies

More information

1.2 Distinguish between civil law and criminal law. 1.3 Distinguish between common law and equity

1.2 Distinguish between civil law and criminal law. 1.3 Distinguish between common law and equity Tech Level Unit Title: Level: Level 3 Credit Value: 10 INTRODUCTION TO LAW AND THE LEGAL SYSTEM IN ENGLAND AND WALES Guided Learning Hours 60 Learning outcomes Assessment criteria Knowledge, understanding

More information

Tom Ginsburg, University of Chicago Law School July 30, 2008

Tom Ginsburg, University of Chicago Law School July 30, 2008 COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW Tom Ginsburg, University of Chicago Law School July 30, 2008 Constitutional review is the power to examine statutes and government actions for conformity with the constitution.

More information

SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT Strasbourg, 4 November 2008 Study no. 498/2008 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME

More information

ALBERTA S JUSTICE SYSTEM AND YOU

ALBERTA S JUSTICE SYSTEM AND YOU ALBERTA S JUSTICE SYSTEM AND YOU This brochure will give you the facts about your justice system the major participants and the important roles that each plays. In addition, it will help you better understand

More information

Language Act (423/2003) The following is enacted in accordance with the decision of Parliament:

Language Act (423/2003) The following is enacted in accordance with the decision of Parliament: NB: Unofficial translation Ministry of Justice, Finland Language Act (423/2003) The following is enacted in accordance with the decision of Parliament: Chapter 1 General provisions Section 1 National languages

More information

KYIV RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE, SOUTH CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

KYIV RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE, SOUTH CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Max Planck Minerva Research Group on Judicial Independence KYIV RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE, SOUTH CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL

More information

2015 No. 548 (L. 6) MENTAL CAPACITY, ENGLAND AND WALES. The Court of Protection (Amendment) Rules 2015

2015 No. 548 (L. 6) MENTAL CAPACITY, ENGLAND AND WALES. The Court of Protection (Amendment) Rules 2015 S T A T U T O R Y I N S T R U M E N T S 2015 No. 548 (L. 6) MENTAL CAPACITY, ENGLAND AND WALES The Court of Protection (Amendment) Rules 2015 Made - - - - 4th March 2015 Laid before Parliament 9th March

More information

THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT The political institutions of the United Kingdom are divided into the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. The last of these will be developed

More information

CHAPTER 2. COLORADO COURT SYSTEM Updated by Honorable Julie E. Anderson

CHAPTER 2. COLORADO COURT SYSTEM Updated by Honorable Julie E. Anderson CHAPTER 2 COLORADO COURT SYSTEM Updated by Honorable Julie E. Anderson THE LEGAL SYSTEM IN COLORADO The Colorado Constitution defines the structure and gives the power to the three units that comprise

More information

Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the EU

Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the EU Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the EU (ACA-Europe) Information provided by the ACA-Europe July, 2014 A. General information Name of network Association

More information

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy

Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy BENIAMINO CARAVITA Italy: toward a federal state? Recent constitutional developments in Italy 1. The federal idea in Italian history Italy became a unitary State between 1861 and 1870, assembling under

More information

A D V O C A T E S A C T (12 December 1958/496)

A D V O C A T E S A C T (12 December 1958/496) 1 THE FINNISH BAR ASSOCIATION July 2005 A D V O C A T E S A C T (12 December 1958/496) Section 1 An advocate is a person who is registered in the Roll of Advocates as a member of the general Finnish Bar

More information

Introduction to the European Patent Office and the European patent system

Introduction to the European Patent Office and the European patent system Introduction to the European Patent Office and the European patent system Michaël De Smet European Patent Office 28-09-202 Contents The European Patent Convention The European Patent Office The European

More information

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2016

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2016 MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2016 Salary Group Salaries with effect from 01/04/2016 1 249,583 1.1 222,862 2 215,256 3 204,695 4 179,768 5 144,172 6.1 133,506 6.2 125,689 7 107,100

More information

Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of the law applicable to divorce and legal separation

Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of the law applicable to divorce and legal separation EUROPEAN COMMISSION Proposal for a Brussels, 24.3.2010 COM(2010) 105 final 2010/0067 (CNS) C7-0315/10 COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of the law applicable to divorce

More information

PUBLIC SERVICE ACT 2005. An Act to make provision in respect of the public service of Lesotho and for related matters. PART I - PRELIMINARY

PUBLIC SERVICE ACT 2005. An Act to make provision in respect of the public service of Lesotho and for related matters. PART I - PRELIMINARY PUBLIC SERVICE ACT 2005 An Act to make provision in respect of the public service of Lesotho and for related matters. Enacted by the Parliament of Lesotho Short title and commencement PART I - PRELIMINARY

More information

1. Protocol on the role of national parliaments in the European Union. 3. Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the

1. Protocol on the role of national parliaments in the European Union. 3. Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the The final act lists the binding protocols and non-binding declarations Final act THE CONFERENCE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MEMBER STATES, convened in Brussels on 30 September 2003

More information

Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007

Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007 Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007 CHAPTER 15 Explanatory Notes have been produced to assist in the understanding of this Act and are available separately 32 00 Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement

More information

SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER LEGAL STUDIES. Question 1 Explain the meaning and the nature of law (10 marks)

SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER LEGAL STUDIES. Question 1 Explain the meaning and the nature of law (10 marks) SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER LEGAL STUDIES Question 1 Explain the meaning and the nature of law (10 marks) Coherence of answer - 2 marks Correct terminology 2 marks 1 a prescription whereby the State requires

More information

IX The Relationship Between

IX The Relationship Between IX The Relationship Between EU Law and National Law The Hierarchical Model: The Doctrine of Supremacy as established by the EU Court of Justice The principle of supremacy of EU law over national law in

More information

Courts & Our Legal System

Courts & Our Legal System Courts & Our Legal System 2012 (Version 1.0) This booklet has been prepared, published and distributed by the Public Legal Education Association of Saskatchewan (PLEA). The purpose of PLEA and this booklet

More information

PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION (As of December 2009) The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency attempts to maintain the information contained in the attached table in as

More information

Government Structure EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

Government Structure EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Government Structure The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of the People s Republic of China is headed by the Chief Executive. He is advised on major policy decisions by the Executive Council.

More information

Under the terms of Article 161c of the Constitution, the Assembly of the Republic hereby decrees the following: Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS

Under the terms of Article 161c of the Constitution, the Assembly of the Republic hereby decrees the following: Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS LAW GOVERNING THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF PETITION Note: Text of Law no. 43/90, as published in Series I of Diário da República no. 184 dated 10 August 1990, and amended by Laws nos. 6/93, 15/2003 and

More information

Judicial Independence (And What Everyone Should Know About It) 15 March 2012

Judicial Independence (And What Everyone Should Know About It) 15 March 2012 Court of Appeal of British Columbia Supreme Court of British Columbia Provincial Court of British Columbia Introduction Judicial Independence (And What Everyone Should Know About It) 15 March 2012 The

More information

UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional Divisions

UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional Divisions Ausschuss für Streitregelung Litigation Committee Commission Procédure Judiciaire Update 7 December 2015 (original document dated 20 July 2015) UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional

More information

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2015

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2015 MINISTRY OF JUSTICE JUDICIAL SALARIES FROM 1 APRIL 2015 Salary Group Salaries with effect from 01/04/2015 1 247,112 1.1 220,655 2 213,125 3 202,668 4 177,988 5 142,745 6.1 132,184 6.2 7 106,040 The table

More information

No. 2012/7 3 February 2012. Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening)

No. 2012/7 3 February 2012. Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening) INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, 2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands Tel.: +31 (0)70 302 2323 Fax: +31 (0)70 364 9928 Website: www.icj-cij.org Press Release Unofficial No. 2012/7

More information

DRAFT No.2 - Table 3: Implementing the Rome Statute

DRAFT No.2 - Table 3: Implementing the Rome Statute HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH 350 Fifth Ave., 34 th Floor New York, NY, 10118 Tel: 1-212-290 4700 Fax: 1-212-736 1300 Email: hywnyc@hrw.org Website: http://www.hrw.org DRAFT No.2 - Table 3: Implementing the Rome

More information

THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN CYPRUS

THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN CYPRUS THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN CYPRUS A. GENERAL (i) Historical background The island of Cyprus in the northeastern part of the Mediterranean lies forty miles away from Asia Minor, sixty miles away from

More information

CONSULTATION RESPONSE BY THOMPSONS SOLICITORS SCOTLAND

CONSULTATION RESPONSE BY THOMPSONS SOLICITORS SCOTLAND CONSULTATION RESPONSE BY THOMPSONS SOLICITORS SCOTLAND SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT CONSULTATION ON THE DRAFT ORDER IN COUNCIL FOR THE TRANSFER OF SPECIFIED FUNCTIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL TO THE FIRST TIER

More information

DIFFERENT LAWS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

DIFFERENT LAWS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES DIFFERENT LAWS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 1. Belgium 2. Croatia 3. Cyprus 4. Czech Republic 5. Denmark 6. Finland 7. France 8. Germany 9. Greece 10. Hungary 11. Iceland 12. Ireland 13. Isle of Man 14. Italy

More information

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 13.2.2012 COM(2012) 39 final 2012/0018 (NLE) Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION on the conclusion of the Agreement on certain aspects of air services between the European Union

More information

Netherland. Institution of National Ombudsman

Netherland. Institution of National Ombudsman Netherland Institution of National Ombudsman The institution of National Ombudsman is established in order to give individuals an opportunity to place complaints about the practices of government before

More information

The Texas Judicial System. Criminal Appeals, in Courts of Appeals, in District Courts, in County Courts, in

The Texas Judicial System. Criminal Appeals, in Courts of Appeals, in District Courts, in County Courts, in The Texas Judicial System The judicial power of the State of Texas is derived from Article 5, Section 1 of the Texas Constitution, which provides: The judicial power of this State shall be vested in one

More information

Chapter 4: Parliament CHAPTER 4

Chapter 4: Parliament CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 4 PARLIAMENT Composition of Parliament 42. (1) Parliament consists of (a) the National Assembly; and (b) the National Council of Provinces. (2) The National Assembly and the National Council of

More information

EU Competition Law. Article 101 and Article 102. January 2010. Contents

EU Competition Law. Article 101 and Article 102. January 2010. Contents EU Competition Law January 2010 Contents Article 101 The requirements of Article 101(1) Exemptions under Article 101(3) Article 102 Dominant position Abuse of a dominant position Procedural issues Competition

More information

The Texas Judicial System

The Texas Judicial System The Texas Judicial System The Texas Judicial System OFFICE OF COURT ADMINISTRATION Prepared by the Office of Court Administration P.O. BOX 12066 AUSTIN, TEXAS 78711-2066 512.463.1625 www.txcourts.gov September

More information

Chapter 4 BELGIUM. In Belgium, three sets of rules can apply to the recognition and enforcement of foreign insolvency proceedings.

Chapter 4 BELGIUM. In Belgium, three sets of rules can apply to the recognition and enforcement of foreign insolvency proceedings. CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY Chapter 4 BELGIUM 1. Under general law In Belgium, three sets of rules can apply to the recognition and enforcement of foreign insolvency proceedings. First, on European level,

More information

Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances Unit Overview Separation of Powers is a system of distinct powers built into the Constitution to prevent an accumulation of power in one

More information

Constitutions. It is a brief sketch of the structure of government. It limits government by setting boundaries.

Constitutions. It is a brief sketch of the structure of government. It limits government by setting boundaries. Constitutions What is a constitution? A constitution is the fundamental law of a state by which a system of government is created and from which it derives its power and authority. The fundamental law

More information

LAW NO. 40/2006 OF 25 AUGUST 2006 LAW ON THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE OF THE PROTOCOL OF THE PORTUGUESE STATE

LAW NO. 40/2006 OF 25 AUGUST 2006 LAW ON THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE OF THE PROTOCOL OF THE PORTUGUESE STATE LAW NO. 40/2006 OF 25 AUGUST 2006 LAW ON THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE OF THE PROTOCOL OF THE PORTUGUESE STATE Pursuant to Article 161 c) of the Constitution, the Assembly of the Republic decrees the following:

More information

SENATE BILL 698. By Stevens. WHEREAS, pursuant to language proposed to be added to Article VI, Section 3 of the

SENATE BILL 698. By Stevens. WHEREAS, pursuant to language proposed to be added to Article VI, Section 3 of the SENATE BILL 698 By Stevens AN ACT to amend Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 2; Title 4; Title 6; Title 16; Title 17 and Title 38, Chapter 6, relative to judges. WHEREAS, pursuant to language proposed to

More information

Ch 1 Law exam. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

Ch 1 Law exam. Name: Class: Date: True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. Name: Class: Date: Ch 1 Law exam True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Our law codes today are similar to those of civilizations thousands of years old. 2. A group of laws put

More information

NB: Unofficial translation Ministry of Employment and the Economy (and Ministry of Justice), Finland July 2014

NB: Unofficial translation Ministry of Employment and the Economy (and Ministry of Justice), Finland July 2014 NB: Unofficial translation Ministry of Employment and the Economy (and Ministry of Justice), Finland July 2014 ACT ON THE LABOUR COURT (646/1974) (as amended by several acts, including 102/2012) JURISDICTION

More information

Pro Bono Practices and Opportunities in Georgia 1

Pro Bono Practices and Opportunities in Georgia 1 Pro Bono Practices and Opportunities in Georgia 1 INTRODUCTION Georgia s legal system has been transforming since it gained independence at the end of the twentieth century. Prior to that, pro bono culture

More information

2009 No (L. 20) TRIBUNALS AND INQUIRIES. The Tribunal Procedure (First-tier Tribunal) (General Regulatory Chamber) Rules 2009

2009 No (L. 20) TRIBUNALS AND INQUIRIES. The Tribunal Procedure (First-tier Tribunal) (General Regulatory Chamber) Rules 2009 STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 2009 No. 1976 (L. 20) TRIBUNALS AND INQUIRIES The Tribunal Procedure (First-tier Tribunal) (General Regulatory Chamber) Rules 2009 Made - - - - 16th July 2009 Laid before Parliament

More information

JUDGMENT OF THE COURT (Third Chamber) 2 April 2009 (*)

JUDGMENT OF THE COURT (Third Chamber) 2 April 2009 (*) JUDGMENT OF THE COURT (Third Chamber) 2 April 2009 (*) (Judicial cooperation in civil matters Jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental

More information

Royaume-Uni Cour suprême. United Kingdom Supreme Court

Royaume-Uni Cour suprême. United Kingdom Supreme Court Colloque ACA Europe 15-17 Juin 2014 ACA Europe seminar 15-17 June 2014 Réponses au questionnaire sur la régulation économique Responses to the questionnaire on economic regulation Royaume-Uni Cour suprême

More information

Advice Note. An overview of civil proceedings in England. Introduction

Advice Note. An overview of civil proceedings in England. Introduction Advice Note An overview of civil proceedings in England Introduction There is no civil code in England; English civil law comprises of essentially legislation by Parliament and decisions by the courts.

More information

Georgian Anti-Corruption Action Plan

Georgian Anti-Corruption Action Plan Georgian Anti-Corruption Action Plan 2014 2016 Strategic Priorities Priority 1. Efficient Inter-Agency Coordination in Fight Against Corruption Priority 2. Prevention of Corruption in Public Sector Priority

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES GREEN PAPER. on applicable law and jurisdiction in divorce matters. (presented by the Commission)

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES GREEN PAPER. on applicable law and jurisdiction in divorce matters. (presented by the Commission) COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 14.3.2005 COM(2005) 82 final GREEN PAPER on applicable law and jurisdiction in divorce matters (presented by the Commission) {SEC(2005) 331} EN EN GREEN

More information

A JOINT RESOLUTION. proposing a constitutional amendment relating to requiring board

A JOINT RESOLUTION. proposing a constitutional amendment relating to requiring board By:AAGattis H.J.R.ANo.A A JOINT RESOLUTION 0 proposing a constitutional amendment relating to requiring board certification for appellate judges and justices and to increasing the age and experience requirements

More information

Patents in Europe 2013/2014

Patents in Europe 2013/2014 In association with Unitary patent and Unified Patent Court: the proposed framework Rainer K Kuhnen Patents in Europe 2013/2014 Helping business compete in the global economy Unitary patent and Unified

More information

CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES

CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES ANNEX A CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES Introduction The Civil Service Nationality Rules concern eligibility for employment in the Civil Service on the grounds of nationality and must

More information

Justice Committee. Legal Services (Scotland) Bill. Written submission from Professor Alan Paterson

Justice Committee. Legal Services (Scotland) Bill. Written submission from Professor Alan Paterson Justice Committee Legal Services (Scotland) Bill Written submission from Professor Alan Paterson Memorandum of Evidence to the Justice Committee from Professor Alan Paterson, Centre for Professional Legal

More information

Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective

Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective No. 05 JUNE 2013 Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective A GOING FOR GROWTH REPORT Box 1. Description of the data The data used in this study come primarily from three

More information

The Belgian High Council of Justice Presentation

The Belgian High Council of Justice Presentation The Belgian High Council of Justice Presentation Introduction The Dutroux Case and the gigantic impact it had on the people were the direct cause of the formation of the High Council of Justice. During

More information

REPORT ON THE EXCHANGE AND SUMMARY

REPORT ON THE EXCHANGE AND SUMMARY REPORT ON THE EXCHANGE AND SUMMARY Instructions: 1. The report must be sent to the EJTN (exchanges@ejtn.eu) within one month after the exchange. 2. Please use the template below to write your report (recommended

More information

Danemark Cour suprême Denmark Supreme Court

Danemark Cour suprême Denmark Supreme Court Séminaire ACA Europe du 18 décembre 2013 ACA Europe seminar - December 18, 2013 Notes sur la hiérarchie des normes Notes on the hierarchy of norms Danemark Cour suprême Denmark Supreme Court Conseil d

More information

Prof. Dr. Harald Jatzke Judge at the Supreme Tax Court, Munich. Selected Procedural Issues

Prof. Dr. Harald Jatzke Judge at the Supreme Tax Court, Munich. Selected Procedural Issues Prof. Dr. Harald Jatzke Judge at the Supreme Tax Court, Munich Selected Procedural Issues I. Recusal of a judge from a case II. Opinion process III. Expert evidence IV. Sanctions (refusal to admit comments

More information

Equality and Diversity Policy for the Judiciary

Equality and Diversity Policy for the Judiciary Equality and Diversity Policy for the Judiciary October 2012 Contents Contents Letter to all judicial office-holders from the Lord Chief Justice and the Senior President of Tribunals 3 Dignity at Work

More information

1965 Alabama Literacy Test

1965 Alabama Literacy Test 1965 Alabama Literacy Test 1. Which of the following is a right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights? Public Education Employment Trial by Jury Voting 2. The federal census of population is taken every five

More information

The mission of Virginia s judicial system is to assure that disputes are resolved justly, promptly, and economically. The components necessary to

The mission of Virginia s judicial system is to assure that disputes are resolved justly, promptly, and economically. The components necessary to The mission of Virginia s judicial system is to assure that disputes are resolved justly, promptly, and economically. The components necessary to discharge this function are a court system unified in its

More information

EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor Framework: An Employer Update. By Stephen H. LaCount, Esq.

EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor Framework: An Employer Update. By Stephen H. LaCount, Esq. EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor Framework: An Employer Update By Stephen H. LaCount, Esq. Overview The European Union Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC ( Directive ) went effective in

More information

Align Technology. Data Protection Binding Corporate Rules Processor Policy. 2014 Align Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.

Align Technology. Data Protection Binding Corporate Rules Processor Policy. 2014 Align Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Align Technology Data Protection Binding Corporate Rules Processor Policy Confidential Contents INTRODUCTION TO THIS POLICY 3 PART I: BACKGROUND AND ACTIONS 4 PART II: PROCESSOR OBLIGATIONS 6 PART III:

More information

CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC 124 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC Vladimíra Trnkócyová 56 General background Historical overview and future vision of investigation in the Slovak Republic The 2001 Accession Partnership

More information

The Role and Function of a Data Protection Officer in the European Commission s Proposed General Data Protection Regulation. Initial Discussion Paper

The Role and Function of a Data Protection Officer in the European Commission s Proposed General Data Protection Regulation. Initial Discussion Paper The Role and Function of a Data Protection Officer in the European Commission s Proposed General Data Protection Regulation 1. Introduction Initial Discussion Paper The data protection officer ( DPO )

More information

We, the Student Body, of the University of South Florida, in order to provide effective

We, the Student Body, of the University of South Florida, in order to provide effective Constitution of the Student Body of the University of South Florida at Tampa We, the Student Body, of the University of South Florida, in order to provide effective student representation before all vested

More information

GREECE BACKGROUND AND LEGAL SYSTEM LEGAL SYSTEM POLITICAL SYSTEM HEAD OF STATE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT SUBNATIONAL ENTITIES SUBLOCAL TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM

GREECE BACKGROUND AND LEGAL SYSTEM LEGAL SYSTEM POLITICAL SYSTEM HEAD OF STATE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT SUBNATIONAL ENTITIES SUBLOCAL TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM GREECE (HELLINIC REPUBLIC, Elliniki Dimokratia) BACKGROUND AND LEGAL SYSTEM LEGAL SYSTEM Based on German civil law; judiciary divided into civil, criminal, and administrative courts. POLITICAL SYSTEM HEAD

More information

DAPTO HIGH SCHOOL. YEAR 11 LEGAL STUDIES Preliminary Mid-Course Examination 2009

DAPTO HIGH SCHOOL. YEAR 11 LEGAL STUDIES Preliminary Mid-Course Examination 2009 DAPTO HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 11 LEGAL STUDIES Preliminary Mid-Course Examination 2009 General Instructions: Reading time 5 minutes Working time 1 ½ hours Write using blue or black pen Write your Student Number/Name

More information

Government in Nova Scotia

Government in Nova Scotia Nova Scotia is one of 10 provinces and three territories that make up the federation of Canada. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, and the Head of State is Queen Elizabeth II, Sovereign of Canada. The

More information

What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims?

What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims? What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims? Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 495 million citizens in a fairer,

More information

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM TURKEY AND ORGANISATION OF THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE

THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM TURKEY AND ORGANISATION OF THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF TURKEY AND ORGANISATION OF THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE 2 R E P U B L I C O F T U R K E Y A Nation Whose Judicial Power is not Independent Cannot Be Accepted As a State. Mustafa Kemal

More information

Overview of the Publication of Court Judgements in Estonia. Merit Ulvik

Overview of the Publication of Court Judgements in Estonia. Merit Ulvik Overview of the Publication of Court Judgements in Estonia Merit Ulvik 2009 Table of Contents General Overview Judgements of the Courts of First and Second Instance Supreme Court Judgements Issues regarding

More information

Structure of the. Ghanaian State

Structure of the. Ghanaian State Structure of the Ghanaian State Contents Foreword 3 The Executive 5 The Legislature 11 The Judiciary 13 References 15 2 Foreword Foreword To achieve its long-term goal of consolidating democracy in Ghana,

More information

Sources of Company Law. Unit 1. Contents: 1. Introductory note \ 3 Introduction Definition of law. 2. Text focus \ 8 Company law

Sources of Company Law. Unit 1. Contents: 1. Introductory note \ 3 Introduction Definition of law. 2. Text focus \ 8 Company law Unit 1 Sources of Company Law Contents: 1. Introductory note \ 3 Introduction Definition of law 2. Text focus \ 8 Company law 3. Discussion \ 11 Scope of company law 4. Vocabulary focus \ 12 Legal acts

More information

CALIFORNIA COURTS AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM

CALIFORNIA COURTS AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM CALIFORNIA COURTS AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM California Courts and the Judicial System Unlike the federal system, in which judges are appointed by the president, confirmed by the Senate, and serve for life

More information

Each Canton shall, in carrying out its responsibilities as described in Articles III.2 and 4 of this Constitution:

Each Canton shall, in carrying out its responsibilities as described in Articles III.2 and 4 of this Constitution: CONSTITUTION OF THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA [PART 3] V. THE CANTONAL GOVERNMENTS 1. General Provisions Article 1 Each Canton shall, in carrying out its responsibilities as described in Articles

More information

History of the House of Lords

History of the House of Lords History of the House of Lords The House of Lords is an essential part of the UK Parliament. It checks and challenges the work of government and considers all legislation. Its long and eventful history

More information

Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) Frequently Asked Questions. Sector-specific: Legal Services Sector

Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) Frequently Asked Questions. Sector-specific: Legal Services Sector Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) Frequently Asked Questions Legal Services (18) Sector-specific: Legal Services Sector Last Updated: January 2015 I. Employment by Mainland

More information

UNITARY PATENT AND UNIFIED PATENT COURT: STATE OF PLAY. Stefan Luginbuehl Lawyer, International Legal Affairs, PCT European Patent Office, Munich

UNITARY PATENT AND UNIFIED PATENT COURT: STATE OF PLAY. Stefan Luginbuehl Lawyer, International Legal Affairs, PCT European Patent Office, Munich UNITARY PATENT AND UNIFIED PATENT COURT: STATE OF PLAY Stefan Luginbuehl Lawyer, International Legal Affairs, PCT European Patent Office, Munich REGULATIONS ON UNITARY PATENT PROTECTION 20 January 2013:

More information

Course Court Systems and Practices

Course Court Systems and Practices Course Court Systems and Practices Unit I Criminal Justice System Essential Question What are the history, structure, and function of the state and federal courts and criminal procedure? TEKS 130.296(c)

More information