Volume Issue 3 I. JENDRZEJEWSKA, J. MROZIŃSKI, P. ZAJDEL, T. MYDLARZ,T.GORYCZKA, A. HANC,E.MACIĄŻEK

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Volume 54 2009 Issue 3 I. JENDRZEJEWSKA, J. MROZIŃSKI, P. ZAJDEL, T. MYDLARZ,T.GORYCZKA, A. HANC,E.MACIĄŻEK"

Transcription

1 A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume Issue 3 I. JENDRZEJEWSKA, J. MROZIŃSKI, P. ZAJDEL, T. MYDLARZ,T.GORYCZKA, A. HANC,E.MACIĄŻEK X-RAY AND MAGNETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE POLYCRYSTALLINE COMPOUNDS WITH GENERAL FORMULA Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 BADANIA STRUKTURALNE I MAGNETYCZNE POLIKRYSTALICZNYCH ZWIĄZKÓW O OGÓLNYM WZORZE Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 Seleno-spinels with the general formula Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 (where x + y + z 3) were prepared as polycrystalline samples in the two nominal compositions: Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 and ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4, using ceramic method. X-ray powder diffraction was used to analyse the obtained phases and to determine their crystal structure and lattice parameters. The obtained single-phase compounds crystallize in the spinel cubic structure Fd 3m. Tin ions are found to occupy both tetrahedral and octahedral sublattices. Chemical compositions of the obtained samples were determined using JEOL-type Scanning Microscope which also revealed a variation in local distribution of cations and the porosity of the samples. The magnetisation data for Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 system, shows that the saturation magnetic moments depend on location of tin ions in crystal lattice of ZnCr 2 Se 4. It was found that the magnetic properties correspond well both with the chemical composition and with the crystal structure. PACS: cp; Fn; Cr; Ee. Keywords: Inorganic materials; Sintering; Magnetic and X-ray measurement Metodą ceramiczną otrzymano polikrystaliczne związki chemiczne o ogólnym wzorze Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 (gdzie x + y + z 3) dla dwóch założonych składów Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 izncr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4. Skład chemiczny określono przy użyciu mikroskopu skaningowego JEOL (SE 6480). Dla związku o nominalnym składzie Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 wyznaczono skład rzeczywisty jako (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4, natomiast dla związku o nominalnym składzie ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4 wyznaczono skład rzeczywisty jako Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4. Za pomocą rentgenowskiej analizy strukturalnej oraz metody Rietvelda wyznaczono strukturę i parametry sieciowe otrzymanych związków. Badania magnetyczne wykonane w silnych polach magnetycznych wykazały, że momenty magnetyczne nasycenia zależą od obsadzenia jonów cyny Sn 2+ w sieci krystalicznej ZnCr 2 Se 4. Dla otrzymanych związków (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 izn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 zmierzone momenty magnetyczne nasycenia wynoszą odpowiednio 6.52µ B /cz. i 5.56µ B /cz. Wzrost nasycenia namagnesowania w (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4, gdzie jony cyny Sn 2+ podstawiają się w miejsce niemagnetycznych jonów Zn 2+,świadczyotym,żejonycynySn 2+ mają wpływ na momenty magnetyczne w (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4. Badania magnetyczne wykonane przy użyciu magnetometru nadprzewodzącego SQUID potwierdziły obecność antyferromagnetycznego uporządkowania w sieci otrzymanych spineli oraz wykazały wpływ jonów cyny Sn 2+ na oddziaływania antyferromagnetyczne w tym układzie. 1. Introduction The parent compound of the studied solid solutions of ZnCr 2 Se 4 crystallises in the MgAl 2 O 4 -type normal spinel cubic structure (space group Fd 3m). Zinc and chromium respectively are tetrahedrally and octahedrally co-ordinated in the cubic close packing of selenium atoms, and the lattice parameter has a value a 0 = Å [1-4]. ZnCr 2 Se 4 spinel shows the p-type semiconducting properties and a helical antiferromagnetic spin structure below T N 20 K with a strong ferromagnetic component evidenced by a large positive Curie-Weiss temperature of 115 K [5]. The magnetic properties result from the near-neighbour ferromagnetic Cr-Cr and the more distant neighbour antiferromagnetic Cr-Se-Cr interactions, and it has already been shown that the system can be easily substituted at various sites [6, 7]. Polycrystalline quater- UNIVERSITY OF SILESIA, INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY, KATOWICE, 9 SZKOLNA STR., POLAND WROCŁAW UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF CHEMISTRY, WROCŁAW, 14 F. JOLIOT-CURIE STR., POLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LONDON, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, LONDON, UK INTERNATIONAL LABORATORY OF HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS AND LOW TEMPERATURES, WROCŁAW, GAJOWICKA 95, POLAND UNIVERSITY OF SILESIA, INSTITUTE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, KATOWICE, 12 BANKOWA STR., POLAND

2 724 nary compounds with spinel structure containing zinc, tin and selenium are not known in the literature. In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycrystalline samples from their binary constituents ZnSe-SnSe-Cr 2 Se 3,and the results of their X-ray and magnetic studies with an aim to show the effect of tin substitution on the cation distribution and magnetic properties of these spinels. 2. Experimental 2.1. Samples preparation Polycrystalline samples were obtained in the two nominal compositions: Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 and ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4.The compounds with general formula Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 (where x + y + z 3) were prepared from the binary selenides (ZnSe, SnSe and Cr 2 Se 3 ). The binary selenides were prepared by annealing stoichiometric mixtures of the elements: Zn, Sn, Cr and Se (all elements were of 5N purity). The mixtures were pulverised in an agate mortar in stoichiometric quantities and sealed in fused silica ampoules evacuated to a pressure of about 10 5 Torr. The mixtures were pulverised in an agate mortar in stoichiometric quantities and sealed in fused silica ampoules evacuated to a pressure of about 10 5 Torr. The samples were sintered three more times at 1073K for 198 hours. After the last sinter, the samples were quenched in water with ice Chemical composition The chemical composition of Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 and ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4 polycrystals was analysed with a JEOL-type Scanning Microscope (SE 6480). The results are presented in Table 1. Scattered electron images (SEI) (Fig. 1) and backscattered images (BEI) (Fig. 2) were collected at a room temperature. Also the chemical composition was determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) attached to the Jeol microscope. The chemical composition was calculated as an average value using the data from measurements, which were done on individual 10 grains. TABLE 1 Chemical composition of Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 compounds using JEOL-type Scanning Microscope Nominal %weight Measured composition composition Zn Sn Cr Se Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4.00 ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4.00 Fig. 1. A fracture surface by BEI COMPO showing distribution of elements for (Zn 0.87 Sn 0.48 )Cr 2.02 Se 4

3 725 Fig. 2. A fracture surface by SEI for (Zn 0.87 Sn 0.48 )Cr 2.02 Se X-ray Powder Diffraction X-ray powder diffraction data of polycrystalline samples were collected using a Philips X-Pert (PW3050) diffractometer (CuK α radiation (λ 1 = and λ 2 = Å) over an angular range of 2θ : ) in order to make phase analysis and to determine phase composition and lattice parameters. All measurements were carried out at a room temperature. First, the qualitative phase analysis was carried out. Generally, in all studied sintered compounds the presence of the spinel phase was evidenced (Fig.5). Fig. 3. A fracture surface by BEI COMPO showing distribution of elements for Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4

4 726 Fig. 4. A fracture surface by SEI for Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 a) b) Fig. 5. Results of the Rietveld refinement obtained for: (Zn 0.87 Sn 0.48 )Cr 2.02 Se 4 (a); Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 (b)

5 727 The Rietveld refinement was performed with the FullProf program v Windows [8], using at first the nominal composition for site occupancies. When the chemical analysis results became available, the procedure was repeated using the measured ratio of the elements. The comparison of these two approaches is shown in Table 2 and a clear improvement in the quality of the fit in the second case. The determined lattice parameters and the anion free parameters are consistent between the models. Structural parameters obtained from the Rietveld refinement for Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 series TABLE 2 x R F (%) R Bragg (%) R wp (%) χ 2 Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4 a 0 (Å) Coordinate u of Se Nominal Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se (1) (16) (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se (1) (16) Nominal ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se (2) (16) Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se (3) (16) 2.4. Magnetic measurements Magnetization of the investigated compounds was studied in high magnetic stationary fields (up to 14T) within a temperature range of K using an induction magnetometer. The temperature was measured with a thermocouple of chromel-au+0.07%fe with sensitivity 16µV/K. The measurements were performed using a Bitter-type magnet. The saturation magnetization for the polycrystalline compounds (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4, calculated per one molecule and per chromium atoms is given in Table 3. Magnetization isotherms for (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 are given in Fig. 6. TABLE 3 Comparison of the most important parameters obtained from magnetic experiments for (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 with the values for pure ZnCr 2 Se 4 Chemical compound µ eff, T=300K µ sat,t=4.2k µ B /mol µ B /Cr µ B /mol µ B /Cr Θ C W (K) T N (K) c M (K/mol) (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se ZnCr 2 Se 4 [1-4] Fig. 6. Magnetization isotherms for Zn x Sn y Cr z Se 4

6 728 The magnetic measurements of the powdered samples (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ] were carried out over the temperature range K using a Quantum Design SQUID-based MPMSXL-5-type magnetometer (Fig. 7 and 8). The superconducting magnet was generally operated at a field strength ranging from 0 to 5 T. Measurements of the compounds samples were made at magnetic field of 0.5 T. The effective magnetic moment was calculated from the µ ef f = 2.83(χ M T) 1/2 µ B equation. Fig. 7. Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and inverse magnetic susceptibility for (Zn 0.87 Sn 0.48 )Cr 2.02 Se 4 Fig. 8. Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and inverse magnetic susceptibility for Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 3. Results and discussion The applied preparative method allowed to obtain quaternary compounds of ZnCr 2 Se 4 doped with tin and X-ray phase analysis revealed only the presence of spinel phase. The actual composition showed a lower quantity of the built-in tin than the nominal composition, which

7 729 was caused by tin release from the system during the sintering process. The lattice parameters for spinel phase increase to Å for (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and to Å for Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 with doped Sn because ionic radius of Sn 2+ (118pm) is bigger than ionic radius of Zn 2+ (74pm) and Cr 3+ (64pm) [9]. A scanning microstructure analysis confirmed the assumed chemical composition. For example, in the case of a sample with the nominal composition Zn 0.9 Sn 0.1 Cr 2 Se 4 the calculated average value was equal (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4, and for ZnCr 1.9 Sn 0.1 Se 4 sample, composition Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 was measured. This method also pointed out the variation in the local distribution of the elements (Fig. 1 and 3) and the porosity of samples (Fig. 2 and 4). In the spinels with general formula ACr 2 X 4 (where A = Cu, Zn, Cd; X = S, Se, Te) only the chromium ions, which occupy the octahedral sites, possess the magnetic moment. However, the value of this moment depends on the type of the A ions occupying the tetrahedral sites. When A = Zn 2+,Cd 2+ or Cu 2+, chromium occurs as Cr 3+ and possesses a magnetic moment of 3µ B per ion [10]. The local symmetry on this octahedral site leads to a non-degenerate orbital ground state with S=3/2. The lattice built upon the B-site consist of tetrahedra of chromium ions. Each chromium ion is common to tetrahedra which are defined by the position of their six first-near neighbours. The Cr 3+ ion is known to have the largest octahedral site preference energy of all cations (69.5 kj/molk) [11]. The spinel structure is stable only when the second cation can occupy a tetrahedral sites. These relations are clearly seen in the mixed crystals. However, the stability of the spinel structure decreases with an increase in anion polarizability (in the order: O, S, Se, Te) [12]. The atoms become too large to fit in the tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the spinel structure, and crystallization occurs in Cr 3 S 4 -type or related structure. This may be reason why SnCr 2 Se 4 not exist. For ZnCr 2 Se 4, the saturation magnetic moment 5.74µ B lies very close to 6µ B /f.u., which is a predicted value for spin only contribution of two Cr ions in high spin electron configuration 3d 3 (S=3/2) [13-15]. The small decrease is attributed to the covalency effects and hybridisation of chromium 3d orbitals with anion 4p states. Tin ions, built-in into the spinel crystal lattice, affect the values of the saturation magnetic moments. Fig. 6 presents the magnetization in saturation state at liquid helium temperature for various tin substitution for both investigated compounds. For the (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4, the saturation effect is observed at a little lower fields (above 2T). For Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 compound, the saturation effect is observed at higher fields (above 6T). For the (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 and Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 compounds, the measured magnetic moments in saturation are 6.52µ B /f.u. and 5.56µ B /f.u., respectively. Since tin ions substitute here non-magnetic zinc, the increase in saturation magnetisation indicates that Sn2 + may influence on magnetic moment. The magnetic properties of (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 as χ M vs. Tand1/χ M vs. T(χ M being the molar magnetic susceptibilities) dependencies are shown in Figures 7. The effective magnetic moment of 5.52µ B at 300K corresponding with presence of magnetic chromium ions. The susceptibility curve exhibits a maximum at 17K, indicating the presence of the antiferromagnetic ordering in the crystal lattice. The values of the Curie and Weiss constants determined from the 1/χ M = f (T) relation over temperature range K are equal to 3.80 K cm 3 mol 1 and 76K, respectively. The magnetic properties of Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 as χ M vs. Tand1/χ M vs. T dependencies are shown in Figures 8. A decrease of the effective magnetic moment of 5.41µ B at 300K corresponds with the decrease in the chromium amount. The susceptibility curve exhibits a maximum at 18K, indicating the presence of the antiferromagnetic ordering in the crystal lattice. Generally, the Zn 0.93 [Cr 1.95 Sn 0.05 ]Se 4 compound shows linear 1/χ M = f (T) behavior in the K range, with C = 3.66 K cm 3 mol 1 and Θ = 72K. The decrease in case of both compounds of asymptotic Curie-Weiss temperature and a Neel temperature (Table 3.) indicates that tin in tetrahedral and octahedral site increases the antiferromagnetic interactions in the system. 4. Conclusions Basing on the investigations carried out, we can draw the following conclusions: Multiple sintering and quenching led to incorporation of tin ions into ZnCr 2 Se 4 crystal lattice, both in tetra- and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, and the obtained single-phase compounds crystallized in the spinel cubic structure.multiple sintering and quenching led to incorporation of tin ions into ZnCr 2 Se 4 crystal lattice (space group Fd 3m). The scanning electron microscopy test confirmed the chemical composition of the obtained compounds, but it also showed a variation in local distribution of the elements. Introduction of Sn to the spinel lattice of ZnCr 2 Se 4 system changes the saturation magnetic moment per chromium atom. The saturation magnetic moments depends on location of tin ions in crystal lattice.

8 730 A increase in values of magnetic moments for (Zn 0.87 Sn )Cr 2.02 Se 4 suggests that the tetrahedral sublattice contains Sn 2+ and Zn 2+ ions, the octahedral sublattice contain only Cr 3+ ions. Acknowledgements This paper is funded from science resources for years as a research project (project No. N N ). REFERENCES [1] J. Hemberger, H.-A. Krug von Nidda, V. T s u r k a n, A. L o i d l, Colossal magnetostriction and negative thermal expansion in the frustrated antiferromagnet ZnCr 2 Se 4, arxiv: cond-mat/ , [2] P.K. Baltzer,H.W. Lehmann,M. Robbins, Insulating Ferromagnetic Spinels, Phys. Rev.Lett. 15, 493 (1965). [3] A. Menth,A.R. von Neida,L.K. Schick,D. L. M a l m, Magnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnCr 2 Se 4, J. Phys.Chem. Solids 33, 1338 (1972). [4] T. Rudolf, Ch. Kant, F. Mayr, V. Tsurkan, J. D e i s e n h o f e r, A. L o i d l, Optical properties of ZnCr 2 Se 4 Spin-phonon coupling and electronic onsite excitations, arxiv:cond-mat/ v1, [5] R. P l u m i e r, Étude par diffraction de neutrons de l antiferromagnétisme hélicoïdal du spinelle ZnCr 2 Se 4 en présence d un champ magnétique, J. Phys. (Paris) 27, 213 (1966). [6] I. J e n d r z e j e w s k a, Influence of nickel substitution on the crystal strcture of CuCr 2 Se 4, J. Alloys and Comp. 305, 90 (2000). [7] E. Maciążek, A. Molak, T. Goryczka, Influence of cobalt substitution on structure and electric conduction of CuCr 2 Se 4, J. All. Comp. 441, 222 (2007). [8] J. R o d r i g u e z - C a r v a j a l, Recent advances in magnetic structure determination by neutron powder diffraction, Physica B 192, 55 (1993). [9] R. D. S h a n n o n, Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides, Acta Cryst. A32, 751 (1976). [10] P.K. Baltzer,P.J. Wojtowicz,M. Robbins, E. L o p a t i n, Exchange Interactions in Ferromagnetic Chromium Chalcogenide Spinels, Phys. Rev. 151, 367 (1966). [11] A. W e i s s, H. W i t t e, Kristallstrukture und chemische Bindung, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim [12] G. B l a s s e, Crystal chemistry and some properties of mixed metal oxides with spinel structure, Philips Res.Rep. Suppl. 3, 1 (1964). [13] P. Gibart, M. Robbins, V. G. Lambrecht J r, New ferrimagnetic spinel compositions in the system MCr 2 S 4 x Se x where M=Fe, Co, Mn, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 1363 (1973). [14] J. K r o k - K o w a l s k i, J. W a r c z e w s k i, T. Mydlarz,A. Pacyna,A. Bombik,J. Kopycz o k, I. O k o ń s k a - K o z ł o w s k a, Magnetic properties of the single crystals of ZnCr 2 x In x Se 4 (0.0< x <0.15), J.Magn.Magn.Mater. 111, 50 (1992). [15] J. K r o k - K o w a l s k i, J. W a r c z e w s k i, T. Mydlarz, A. Pacyna, I. Okońsk a - K o z ł o w s k a, Magnetic superexchange interactions and metamagnetic phase transitions in the single crystals of the spinels ZnCr 2 x In x Se 4 (0 x 0.14), J.Magn.Magn.Mater. 166, 172 (1997). Received: 10 January 2009.

Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period:

Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period: Crystal Field theory to explain observed properties of complexes: Variation of some physical properties across a period: IITD 2015 L2 S26 1. Lattice energy of transition metal ions in a complex 2. Ionic

More information

The Crystal Structures of Solids

The Crystal Structures of Solids The Crystal Structures of Solids Crystals of pure substances can be analyzed using X-ray diffraction methods to provide valuable information. The type and strength of intramolecular forces, density, molar

More information

UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS)

UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS) UNIT 1 THE SOLID STATE VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARKS) Q-1. How many spheres are in contact with each other in a single plane of a close packed structure? A-1. Six(6). Q-2.Name the two closest

More information

A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 4 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0118-5

A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 4 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0118-5 A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 4 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0118-5 E. NOGAS-ĆWIKIEL FABRICATION OF Mn DOPED PZT FOR CERAMIC-POLYMER COMPOSITES OTRZYMYWANIE

More information

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

More information

Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties of Rb 2. RuO 4 and K 2

Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties of Rb 2. RuO 4 and K 2 Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties of Rb 2 RuO 4 and K 2 RuO 4 Dieter Fischer a, Rudolf Hoppe b, Kailash M. Mogare a, and Martin Jansen a a Stuttgart, Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung,

More information

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which

More information

Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency

Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency Sample Exercise 12.1 Calculating Packing Efficiency It is not possible to pack spheres together without leaving some void spaces between the spheres. Packing efficiency is the fraction of space in a crystal

More information

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Note that the periodic table is arranged based on the way electrons arrange themselves around the nucleus of an atom (to differ from the idea that elements are solely based on atomic number). For example,

More information

Introduction to Magnetochemistry

Introduction to Magnetochemistry Introduction Introduction to Magnetochemistry Magnetochemistry is the study of the magnetic properties of materials. By "magnetic properties" we mean not only whether a material will make a good bar magnet,

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

Neutron Diffraction Investigation of Structural and Magnetic States of Lithium-Doped Antiferromagnet NiO

Neutron Diffraction Investigation of Structural and Magnetic States of Lithium-Doped Antiferromagnet NiO Physics of the Solid State, Vol. 4, No., 000, pp. 315 30. Translated from Fizika Tverdogo Tela, Vol. 4, No., 000, pp. 307 31. Original Russian Tet Copyright 000 by Men shikov, Dorofeev, Teplykh, Gizhevskiœ,

More information

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding:

Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding: Chemical Bonding What is a chemical bond? If a system has a lower energy when the atoms are close together than when apart, then bonds exist between those atoms. A bond is an electrostatic force that holds

More information

Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Solids

Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Solids Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Solids Magnetic Properties Some definitions: Paramagnetism: unpaired electrons on some atoms, random orientations of electron spins with each other. Spins align in

More information

Magnetic susceptibility measurements of transition metal containing compounds

Magnetic susceptibility measurements of transition metal containing compounds Magnetic susceptibility measurements of transition metal containing compounds Introduction: Measurements of magnetic properties have been used to characterize a wide range of systems from oxygen, metallic

More information

Figure 2.8 Schematic four probe setup for temperature dependent resistivity measurements

Figure 2.8 Schematic four probe setup for temperature dependent resistivity measurements Electrical resistivity measurements were carried out by the four probe method. The samples were cut into rectangular pieces. Electrical contacts were made by pressing the copper wires onto the sample surface.

More information

A. X-ray diffraction B. elemental analysis C. band gap energy measurement based on absorption of light D. none of the above

A. X-ray diffraction B. elemental analysis C. band gap energy measurement based on absorption of light D. none of the above LED Review Questions 1. Consider two samples in the form of powders: sample A is a physical mixture comprising equal moles of pure Ge and pure Si; sample B is a solid solution of composition Si0.5Ge0.5.

More information

Synthesis of Large Amount of Pure Negative-Thermal-Expansion Material, ZrW 2 O 8

Synthesis of Large Amount of Pure Negative-Thermal-Expansion Material, ZrW 2 O 8 No.36 (2001) pp.121-126 Synthesis of Large Amount of Pure Negative-Thermal-Expansion Material, ZrW 2 O 8 Takuya HASHIMOTO 1, Tomohiro WAKI 1 and Yuko MORITO 2 (Received September 30, 2000) Abstract The

More information

Production of ferrite nanopowders in radiofrequency thermal plasma

Production of ferrite nanopowders in radiofrequency thermal plasma Production of ferrite nanopowders in radiofrequency thermal plasma PhD Theses Loránd Gál Budapest, 2008 HAS Chemical Research Center Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry Department of Plasma

More information

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chapter 13: -The Chemistry of Solids -Phase Diagrams - (no Born-Haber cycle) 2/3/2011 1 Approx surface area (Å 2 ) 253 258 Which C 5 H 12 alkane do you think has the highest

More information

A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 2 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0034-8

A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 2 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0034-8 A R C H I V E S O F M E T A L L U R G Y A N D M A T E R I A L S Volume 56 2011 Issue 2 DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0034-8 G. WNUK EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THERMODYNAMICS OF THE Cu-Ni-Sn- LIQUID ALLOYS BADANIA

More information

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet

Final Semester 1 Review Sheet Final Semester 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1&3 What is Chemistry Matter Mass Weight Scientific method o Observation Observation vs. inference (know the difference) Qualitative data Quantitative data o Hypothesis

More information

Georgia Institute of Technology CHEM 1310 Fall Semester 2009 Recitation Assignment! Fundamental Principles and Terminology

Georgia Institute of Technology CHEM 1310 Fall Semester 2009 Recitation Assignment! Fundamental Principles and Terminology The Fundamentals and Stoichiometry Recitation Worksheet Week of 25 August 2008. Fundamental Principles and Terminology Avogadro s Number: Used to represent the amount of a given atom as a basis for comparison

More information

Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Chemical Formulas Express Composition. Chapter 7 MARCH REVIEW SLIDES LISTEN AND UPDATE MISSING NOTES

Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Chemical Formulas Express Composition. Chapter 7 MARCH REVIEW SLIDES LISTEN AND UPDATE MISSING NOTES REVIEW Express A compound s chemical formula tells you which elements, & how much of each, are present in a compound. Formulas for covalent compounds show the elements and the number of atoms of each element

More information

Classes of materials

Classes of materials Classes of materials POLYMERS CERAMICS METALS DUCTILITY Varies Poor Good CONDUCTIVITY (ELECTRICAL & THERMAL) Low Low High HARDNESS/STRENGTH Low medium Very high Medium high CORROSION RESISTANCE Fair good

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism. Magnetization M(H) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field H at T=0 is defined as:

Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism. Magnetization M(H) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field H at T=0 is defined as: Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism Definitions: Magnetization M(H) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field H at T=0 is defined as: where is the ground state energy. Note that H is the magnetic field felt

More information

Anharmonicity and Weak Mode Assignment in La 2 x Sr x CuO 4 with Oxygen Isotopic Substitution

Anharmonicity and Weak Mode Assignment in La 2 x Sr x CuO 4 with Oxygen Isotopic Substitution Vol. 111 (2007) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 1 Proceedings of the Symposium K: Complex Oxide Materials for New Technologies of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2006, Warsaw, September 4 8, 2006 Anharmonicity and Weak

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Electron Configurations continued:

Electron Configurations continued: Electron Configurations continued: Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons. It is the valence electrons determine an atom s chemical properties. Electrons in the inner shells are

More information

Table 8.1 Magnetic quantities and their units. Magnetic quantity Symbol Definition Units Comment

Table 8.1 Magnetic quantities and their units. Magnetic quantity Symbol Definition Units Comment Table 8.1 Magnetic quantities and their units. Magnetic quantity Symbol Definition Units Comment Magnetic field; magnetic induction B F = qv! B T = tesla = webers m -2 Produced by moving charges or currents

More information

CHAPTER 5: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

CHAPTER 5: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES CHAPTER 5: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES and Magnetic Materials ISSUES TO ADDRESS... Why do we study magnetic properties? What is magnetism? How do we measure magnetic properties? What are the atomic reasons for

More information

HANDBOOK OF MODERN FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS

HANDBOOK OF MODERN FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS HANDBOOK OF MODERN FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS Alex Goldman, B.S., A.M., Ph.D. Ferrite Technology Worldwide w Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston/Dordrecht/London TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword by Takeshi Takei

More information

Properties of Solids

Properties of Solids Properties of Solids Condensed Matter Physics Condensed matter physics: The study of the electronic properties of solids. Crystal structure: The atoms are arranged in extremely regular, periodic patterns.

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

A comparison between Curie temperature of nano and bulk Al doped nickel ferrite (NiAlFeO 4 )

A comparison between Curie temperature of nano and bulk Al doped nickel ferrite (NiAlFeO 4 ) A comparison between Curie temperature of nano and bulk Al doped nickel ferrite (NiAlFeO 4 ) Z. Abooalizadeh 1*, Y. Arabnia 2, S. Tabrizi 3, A. Taherkhani 4. 1,2,3,4. Department of Physics, Faculty of

More information

Chemical and Structural Classifications

Chemical and Structural Classifications Chemical and Structural Classifications What? Materials can be classified by their chemistry and structure. There are three main types of structural classifications: 1. Prototype Structure Structure prototyping

More information

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Overview of talk 1. Experimental techniques at Diamond: why we care about x-ray polarization 2. How

More information

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur? PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

More information

IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS

IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS INTRODUCTION Each REACH registrant is required to file its

More information

Ionic Bonding Pauling s Rules and the Bond Valence Method

Ionic Bonding Pauling s Rules and the Bond Valence Method Ionic Bonding Pauling s Rules and the Bond Valence Method Chemistry 754 Solid State Chemistry Dr. Patrick Woodward Lecture #14 Pauling Rules for Ionic Structures Linus Pauling,, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 51,,

More information

A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y

A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y A QUICK OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-3 AP C H E M I S T R Y M S. G R O B S K Y CHAPTER 1 S C I E N T I F I C M E T H O D, SI U N I T S, M E T R I C P R E F I X E S S I G F I G S, D I M E N S I O N A L A N A

More information

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2014 Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Basic Concepts in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry AC112

More information

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

More information

Imperfections in atomic arrangements

Imperfections in atomic arrangements MME131: Lecture 8 Imperfections in atomic arrangements Part 1: 0D Defects A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Occurrence and importance of crystal defects Classification

More information

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) ----- ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) ----- (

More information

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass 1. Dalton's atomic theory explained the observation that the percentage by mass of the elements

More information

POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS

POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS POWDER DIFFRACTION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE ON INES AT ISIS SoNS School of Neutron Scattering seminar 1 Summary 1. What is neutron diffraction? 2. What are the properties that neutron diffraction can measure?

More information

RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS

RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS Association of Metallurgical Engineers of Serbia AMES Scientific paper UDC:669.35-153.881-412.2=20 RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED COPPER ALLOYS RIBBONS M. ŠULER 1, L. KOSEC 1, A. C. KNEISSL 2, M. BIZJAK 1, K. RAIĆ

More information

Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Material Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 3 Okay, so in this third lecture we will just review the last lecture,

More information

Materials Sciences. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de. International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering

Materials Sciences. Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de. International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering Materials Sciences International Masters Programme in Biomedical Engineering Magnesium Innovations Center (MagIC) GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH Dr.-Ing. Norbert Hort norbert.hort@gkss.de Contents

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

Chapter 7. Bellringer. Table of Contents. Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Objectives. Avogadro s Number and the Mole. Chapter 7. Chapter 7

Chapter 7. Bellringer. Table of Contents. Chapter 7. Chapter 7. Objectives. Avogadro s Number and the Mole. Chapter 7. Chapter 7 The Mole and Chemical Table of Contents Chemical Formulas Bellringer List as many common counting units as you can. Determine how many groups of each unit in your list are present in each of the following

More information

Dielectric behaviour of erbium substituted Mn Zn ferrites

Dielectric behaviour of erbium substituted Mn Zn ferrites Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 24, No. 5, October 2001, pp. 505 509. Indian Academy of Sciences. Dielectric behaviour of erbium substituted Mn Zn ferrites D RAVINDER* and K VIJAYA KUMAR Department of Physics,

More information

The Mole. 6.022 x 10 23

The Mole. 6.022 x 10 23 The Mole 6.022 x 10 23 Background: atomic masses Look at the atomic masses on the periodic table. What do these represent? E.g. the atomic mass of Carbon is 12.01 (atomic # is 6) We know there are 6 protons

More information

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

Thermodynamic database of the phase diagrams in copper base alloy systems

Thermodynamic database of the phase diagrams in copper base alloy systems Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 66 (2005) 256 260 www.elsevier.com/locate/jpcs Thermodynamic database of the phase diagrams in copper base alloy systems C.P. Wang a, X.J. Liu b, M. Jiang b,

More information

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and )

More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and ) More on ions (Chapters 2.1 and 3.5 3.7) Ion: an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Examples: Na + (sodium ion), Cl - (chloride), NH 4 + (ammonium). Anion: a negative ion, formed when electrons

More information

100 Practice Questions for Chem 1C Midterm 1 - Joseph

100 Practice Questions for Chem 1C Midterm 1 - Joseph 100 Practice Questions for hem 1 Midterm 1 - Joseph 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. B) Dipole moments

More information

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl

Liquids and Solids. AP Chemistry Chapter 10. 9/20/2009 Jodi Grack; Wayzata High School; images used with permission from Zumdahl Liquids and Solids AP Chemistry Chapter 10 Liquids and Solids Gases are much easier to study because molecules move independent of each other. In liquids and solids forces between molecules become very

More information

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

More information

Activity 5: Ions and the Periodic Table

Activity 5: Ions and the Periodic Table Ions & the Periodic Table 1 Activity 5: Ions and the Periodic Table Why? Ions, like atoms, may also be identified by the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons they contain. Ions are particularly important

More information

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE 200-001, Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 ID number First letter of your last name: Name: No notes, books, or information stored in calculator memories may be

More information

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes (a) Electronic structure (i) Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.

More information

5.6 Isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compression (Hiroshi Matsuoka)

5.6 Isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compression (Hiroshi Matsuoka) 5.6 Isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compression Hiroshi Matsuoka 1 5.6.2 he coefficient of thermal expansion as a response function to a temperature change he coefficient of thermal expansion

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7 The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding Lecture 7 Electrons We will start to look at the periodic table by focusing on the information it gives about each element s electrons. How

More information

Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions

Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions I. Intro to Reactions (p. 282 285) I II III IV V Chemical Reaction Chemical change Atoms of one or more substances (reactants) are rearranged into new substances (products) Signs

More information

Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts

Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts Chapter 5 Basic Chemistry Concepts 1 Elements, compounds and molecular weights Table 1 lists some basic information regarding elements that an environmental chemist may encounter. Certain groupings of

More information

Covalent and Metallic Bonding

Covalent and Metallic Bonding Covalent and Metallic Bonding Chemistry for Earth Scientists, DM Sherman University of Bristol Failures of Ionic Model: Ionic radius of S -2 NaCl structure CaS is highly ionic. Cell constant 5.70 Å Ca

More information

Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist

Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist Chemistry 1210 AU13 Checklist Before the first lecture you need to register for the following programs: Mastering Chemistry Learning Catalytics Lecture #1: August 22 nd, 2013 Syllabus overview, course

More information

ELECTRICAL MATERIAL SCIENCE

ELECTRICAL MATERIAL SCIENCE TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ELECTRICAL MATERIAL SCIENCE Recommended for publishing as a study aid by the Editorial Board of Tomsk Polytechnic University Draftsmen V.S. Kim, O.A.Anisimova Tomsk Polytechnic

More information

STUDY OF MAGNETISM IN GDTIN (T = NI, PD, CU) COMPOUNDS BY PERTURBED GAMMA-GAMMA ANGULAR CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY

STUDY OF MAGNETISM IN GDTIN (T = NI, PD, CU) COMPOUNDS BY PERTURBED GAMMA-GAMMA ANGULAR CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY 2005 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2005 Santos, SP, Brazil, August 28 to September 2, 2005 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 85-99141-01-5 STUDY OF MAGNETISM IN GDTIN

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers

More information

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE MAL 201E: Materials Science Course Objective... Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science You will learn about: material structure how structure dictates properties how processing can change

More information

Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties

Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and Properties Introduction The nuclear atom and quantum theory are the accepted theories for the atom. In this chapter, we demonstrate their utility by using them to explain

More information

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus Atomic Number: We differentiate all elements by their number

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

MIME262 Properties of Materials in Electrical Engineering

MIME262 Properties of Materials in Electrical Engineering MIME262 Properties of Materials in Electrical Engineering If you are signed up for ECSE 212, you are in the right place, but you need to drop ECSE 212 and register for MIME262. Course consists of lectures

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

THIN FILM COMPONENTS FOR Li-ion MICROBATTERIES

THIN FILM COMPONENTS FOR Li-ion MICROBATTERIES THIN FILM COMPONENTS FOR Li-ion MICROBATTERIES J. Přidal a, J. Prachařová a, J. Bludská b, I. Jakubec b a Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 180 00 Prague 8,

More information

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride CHEM 122L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 2.0 The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride To learn about Coordination Compounds and Complex Ions. To learn about Isomerism.

More information

Crystal Field Theory

Crystal Field Theory Crystal Field Theory (Text : JD Lee; pp.204-222) This theory (CFT) largely replaced VB Theory for interpreting the chemistry of coordination compounds. It was proposed by the physicist Hans Bethe in 1929.

More information

Quantitative Composition of Compounds. Preparation for College Chemistry Luis Avila Columbia University Department of Chemistry

Quantitative Composition of Compounds. Preparation for College Chemistry Luis Avila Columbia University Department of Chemistry Quantitative Composition of Compounds Preparation for College Chemistry Luis Avila Columbia University Department of Chemistry Depending upon Bonding type Compounds Molecular (Covalent bonds) Ionic (Coulombic

More information

Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures. Atomic elements:

Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures. Atomic elements: Chapter 3 - Molecules, compounds, and chemical equations Elements and compounds Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures Atomic elements: Ionic bond: attraction of oppositely

More information

Dedicated course Web page: Expected student learning outcomes:

Dedicated course Web page:  Expected student learning outcomes: Ph 674: Solid state physics magnetism Instructor: Tom Giebultowicz ( Dr. Tom ) Weniger Hall, Room 375 or 424 Ph: 541 737 1707, e-mail: tgiebult@physics.oregonstate.edu Personal Web page: http://science.oregonstate.edu/~tgiebult/

More information

X-ray diffraction: theory and applications to materials science and engineering. Luca Lutterotti

X-ray diffraction: theory and applications to materials science and engineering. Luca Lutterotti X-ray diffraction: theory and applications to materials science and engineering Luca Lutterotti luca.lutterotti@unitn.it Program Part 1, theory and methodologies: General principles of crystallography

More information

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3.

Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06 (B) 1.95 (C) 13.5 (D) 18.7 (E) 208 2. Which peak corresponds to the valence 3p orbital?

More information

Percentage Composition

Percentage Composition CHAPTER 6 Percentage Composition Suppose you are working in an industrial laboratory. Your supervisor gives you a bottle containing a white crystalline compound and asks you to determine its identity.

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

Properties of Atomic Orbitals and Intro to Molecular Orbital Theory

Properties of Atomic Orbitals and Intro to Molecular Orbital Theory Properties of Atomic Orbitals and Intro to Molecular Orbital Theory Chemistry 754 Solid State Chemistry Dr. Patrick Woodward Lecture #15 Atomic Orbitals Four quantum numbers define the properties of each

More information

Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of Ceramics. Chapter Outline: Ceramics

Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 13, Structure and Properties of Ceramics. Chapter Outline: Ceramics Chapter Outline: Ceramics Chapter 13: Structure and Properties of Ceramics Crystal Structures Silicate Ceramics Carbon Imperfections in Ceramics Optional reading: 13.6 13.10 Chapter 14: Applications and

More information