1 Teaching ESL in New York City Public Schools Marcia Biederman, ESL Teacher, New York City Dept. of Education
2 NYC Dept. of Education Needs ESL Teachers Current Hiring Needs and Guidelines The NYCDOE hired more than 5,000 new teachers to NYC public schools for the school year. At the present time, public schools in NYC may hire external teachers (teachers not currently employed by the NYCDOE) in the following subject areas: Special Education Speech English as a Second Language General Science (Middle School) Earth Science Source: New York City Dept. of Education schools.nyc.gov
4 Getting Your Teaching Certificate /rightpathway.html#three For permanent residents or citizens: https://www.nycteachingfellows.org/
5 3 Types of ELL Programs ELL parents have three options regarding the kind of instructional program they would like to enroll their child in: ESL: ESL students receive language arts and subject area instruction in English; their teachers employ specific methodologies which may include native language support. (76% of ELLs are in ESL.) Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE): Students enrolled in a TBE classroom will receive language arts and subject area instruction in both their native language and in English. Additionally, they will receive intensive ESL instruction. The ratio of native language to English instruction will shift as students become more proficient in English. (17.7% of ELLs are in bilingual programs.) Dual Language (DL) : Students learning through DL instruction receive a certain amount of time of instruction given in each language, as determined by the program model. Both ELL and English-speaking students are taught alongside of one another, so that all members of the classroom become bicultural and fluent in two languages, with the ultimate goal of the students being bilingual. (Only 4% of ELLs are in Dual Language programs.)
6 Teaching Models of ESL (Students must get 1-3 periods a day of ESL support, depending on their level.) Pullout model: In this model ELLs are taken out of the mainstream classroom for part of the day to receive language support from an ESL teacher. Push-in model: In this model the ESL teacher comes into the mainstream classroom and works with the content area teacher to provide extra language support to ELLs. Self-contained model: In the self-contained model ELLs are placed with other ELLs for the entire day where they receive sheltered instruction from teachers trained to scaffold or help students with comprehension and academic skills.
8 NYC Measures Student Progress By Race, Ethnicity and Gender Multiracial, Asian, and white students outscore other students from other ethnic/racial groups on both English Language Arts (ELA) and math exams. Their proficiency rates in ELA are nearly double that of black and Hispanic students. Source: NYC Independent Budget Office, New York City Public School Indicators: Demographics, Resources, Outcomes May 2013
9 What do you think? (Spanish)... a mis queridos gringos se les olvida que una es inmigrante sólo en el contexto norteamericano, porque cuando vuelvo a mi país dejo de ser un alien* con derecho a trabajar y me convierto en una ciudadana que no tiene que andar marcando la opción Hispanic or Latino en encuestas, formularios o fichas médicas. No se puede negar que hay un tema de identidad en estas asociaciones, ya sea en términos raciales, de lenguaje o qué se yo. Pero también es cierto que las divisiones étnicas que te preguntan son para molestar a cualquiera. De partida, yo tengo que marcar Hispanic/Latino sin importar si soy chilena, ecuatoriana o brasileña. Cómo va a ser lo mismo (en términos raciales) un argentino blanco que un brasileño mulato, un boliviano indígena o un cubano negro? A lo que voy es que, si de verdad les interesa medir la diversidad, no pueden meter a todas estas etnias en una misma categoría. Es como decir Ah, tú eres de América Latina? Ya, marca Latino no más, si total para nosotros, ustedes son todos iguales. Todos Mexican, that s it. J Magdalena Saldaña, Doctoral Candidate in Journalism and Mass Communications, University of Texas at Austin.
10 What Do You Think? (English translation)... I d like to remind my dear gringo friends that someone is an immigrant only in the North American context because when I go back to my country, I cease being an alien with permission to work and I become a citizen who doesn t have to check a box that says Hispanic or Latino on surveys, applications or medical forms. The ethnic distinctions that they ask about here are bothersome. For example, I have to mark Hispanic/Latino regardless of whether I m Chilean, Ecuadorean or Brazilian. How can you equate (in racial terms) a white Argentine with a multi-racial Brazilian, an indigenous Bolivian or a black Cuban? If they really want to measure diversity they can t throw all these ethnic groups into the same category. It s like saying, Oh, you re from Latin America? Okay, check Latino. That s all we need to know. To us, you re all the same. All Mexican. That s it! Magdalena Saldaña, Doctoral Candidate in Journalism and Mass Communications, University of Texas at Austin.
11 What languages do NYC students speak at home?
12 Students in New York City public schools overwhelmingly come from lower-income households. More than 79 percent qualify for free or reduced cost school meals because they come from homes with income less than 185 percent of the poverty level
13 Not All Students Who Speak Another Language at Home are ELLs. How does NY State Identify ELLs?
14 Home Language Questionnaire - Portuguese
15 Home Language Questionnaire, Spanish
16 English Language Learners have low scores on state tests Students in English Language Learner programs tend to have much lower performance level scores than other youngsters. Slightly more than 88 percent of ELL students scored below proficiency in ELA (English Language Arts) in (Poor performance for this group on the ELA test is all but certain because once students pass the New York State English as a Second Language Achievement Test, or NYSESLAT, they are no longer designated as English Language Learners.) In math, 63 percent of ELL students scored below proficiency level.
17 Most ELLs were born in the U.S. Students Served ELLs account for 14.4% of the overall DOE population (159,162 students) 41.2% of all DOE students report speaking a language other than English at home (438,131) School Level of ELLs Elementary grades (K-5) 52.9% (84,250) Middle school grades (6-8) 18.4% (45,707) High school grades (9-12) 28.7% (29,205) Nativity 52.5% native born (83,476) 47.5% foreign born (75,686) Source: 2013 Demographic Report, Office of English Language Learners, NYC Department of Education
18 Jim Cummins on Social vs. Academic Language According to Dr. Jim Cummins of the University of Toronto, it takes only about one year for a child to become socially fluent in a language and learn its morphology (i.e., speak like a native speaker, without an accent), BUT.... It can take 5 to 7 years for the child to come close to grade norms in reading, writing and speaking ACADEMIC language. For this reason, Cummins says, many students who speak a language other than English at home have been misdiagnosed as needing special education.
19 Number of ELLs by grade (What grades have best job prospects?)
20 Another View: Job Prospects by Grade
21 Which ELLs pass the English Language Arts exam?
22 How Can ELLs exit ELL Status? t/nyseslat/
23 It s tougher to pass the ELL exit test than it is to pass the state English Language Arts exam. Among ELLs at the advanced level of the NYSESLAT (New York State ESL Achievement Test) 39% meet ELA standards. But advanced is not enough to exit ELL services; only proficient is. Of those proficient in English on the NYSELSAT, a majority (70.5%) meet ELA standards. Source: Diverse Learners on the Road to Success, NYC Dept. of Education, Office of English Language Learners, 2009
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