2/3/2014. Equine Research at Purdue University. National Impact of Equine Industry. Indiana Equine Surveys

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1 Equine Research at Purdue University Laurent Couëtil, DVM, PhD, Dip.ACVIM National Impact of Equine Industry Facts about the U.S. horse industry: Horse population: 9.2 million People involved: 4.6 million Economic impact Horse: $ 39 billion Dairy: $ 22.6 billion Swine: $ 11 billion Indiana Impact $2 billion Indiana Equine Surveys 2001: First comprehensive equine survey Objectives: Demographic data Economic impact Equine health : Economic impact & health surveys Conners S, Couetil L, Furdek J, Russell M

2 Economic Impact in Indiana 160,000 equine on 34,000 operations ~ employed workers Economic impact: Total: $2 billion Racing: ~ $500 million All Other Breeds 20% Arabian 6% Pony 6% Pinto or Paint 7% Standardbred 10% Quarter Horse 27% Grade Horse 14% Draft Horse 10% Equine Health in Indiana Morbidity 43 % affected by at least 1 problem Mortality (death or euthanasia) 82.5 % > 10 y.o Complete results available at: Mortality Colic Other GI Respiratory Neuro Laminitis Limb fracture other injury Leg-Hoof Old age Other Unknown Equine Research Funding is Scarce Research funding USDA: National Institute of Food and Agriculture Foundations Grayson-Jockey Club ($1 M) Morris Animal Foundation AAEP AHSA AQHA USEF Research Funding Animal Health (NIFA) Equine Research Research $ (million) 2

3 PVM Equine Research Program Mission: to address issues of importance to the health and performance of Indiana horses Partially funded by Total Wagers Tax ($150K /year) Helps support ESMC activities, research infrastructure, and research grants ESMC Outreach Newsletter Web site ESMC Activities and Equipment Equipment Computerized highspeed treadmill (2012) Video-endoscope Telemetric ECG Arterial blood gas analyzer Affordable diagnostic work-ups 3

4 Equine Research Infrastructure Equine Health Science Annex 24 stalls Equine Pulmonary Function Testing Lab Equine Competitive Research Grants Program Equine Research Advisory Board 8 members (3 from IN horse industry) First research projects funded in 1997 Total research proposals funded ( ): 51 projects: early stage and pilot studies Average grant ~$10,000 Used to leverage external grants Equine Research Areas Funded Orthopedic diseases (joint, fracture repair) Colic Infectious diseases Respiratory diseases (EIPH, IAD, Heaves) Eye diseases Endocrine diseases (Cushing s, hypothyroidism, Metabolic syndrome) Reproduction 4

5 Future Goals for ESMC Regional Equine Diagnostic and Surgical Center at Shelbyville New Equine Hospital Rehabilitation and Alternative Medicine Research Center Equine research fellowships Finite element modeling of the equine transfixation cast Timothy B. Lescun, BVSc, MS, Diplomate ACVS Current status - Equine fractures Fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the horse Equine fractures continue to be a challenge for veterinarians to treat successfully No single bone fixation method can be applied to all fracture types and locations 5

6 California Post Mortem Program From: Stover and Murray, The California Post Mortem Program: Leading the Way, VCNA 2008 Equine transfixation casting Why Finite Element Modeling? FE modeling is a powerful technique that allows simulation of mechanical behavior based on defined model conditions enables efficient investigation of biomechanical relationships allowing refined concepts to be advanced into mechanical and experimental testing 6

7 Finite element model of single pin 19 Long term research goal To improve the safety and reliability of external fixation in the horse To achieve this goal the limitations of transfixation casting need to be addressed Finite element modeling is being used to identify mechanical limitations of transfixation casting in the horse 21 7

8 Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Horses with Chronic Respiratory Diseases Nora Nogradi, Laurent Couetil, Joanne Messick, Jay Burgess Chronic Respiratory Diseases of Horses Heaves (RAO, COPD) > 7 years Allergy to dust (moldy hay, bedding) Cough, increased breathing effort, exercise intolerance Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) Younger horses Cause: indoor irritants Cough, poor performance Treatment of RAO and IAD Environmental changes Reduce dust avoid hay Feed Pelleted feed Hay cubes, haylage Bedding Wood shavings Pasture Increase barn ventilation 8

9 Treatment of RAO and IAD Treat Airway inflammation Corticosteroids & Bronchodilators Inhaled Systemic Advantages Effective Ease of administration Disadvantages Cost Potential side effects Omega 3 fatty acids The Eskimos paradox (Bang and Dyerberg 1970s) High fat/protein diet, minimal fruit/fiber low mortality from coronary heart disease Omega 3 fatty acids Rheumatoid arthritis (Adam et al, 2003) Reduces joint pain & number of swollen joints Decreases corticosteroid use Asthma (Nagakura et al, 2000) Improves lung function Decreases bronchodilator use 9

10 Omega 3 fatty acids EPA = DHA= ALA = Din et al, 2004 Study goals Does administration of an omega-3 FA supplement to horses with chronic respiratory disease result in greater clinical improvement when compared to just low dust feed? Methods Horses Client owned Hx of chronic cough, increased RR, exercise intolerance Treatment: supplement vs. placebo (2 months) 1.5 g DHA per dose Management & Feeding Pelleted feed (Equine Senior ) No hay 10

11 Methods Measurements (Day 0 60) Owner assigned scores VAS: Cough, respiratory effort, performance Coughing: Permanent, severe: Score 0 Occasional after work or feeding: Score 50 None ever: Score 100 Materials and methods Measurements (Day 0 & 60) Lung function testing Bronchoalveolar lavage Cytology Results Treatment effect 32 horses completed study All horses ate supplement, no side effects VAS cough VAS Cough Placebo Aleira 0 Day 0 Day 60 11

12 Results Weekly VAS scores VAS Cough (%) Placebo Aleira 20 0 Cough-week 0Cough-week 1Cough-week 2Cough-week 3Cough-week 4Cough-week 5Cough-week 6Cough-week 7Cough-week 8 Results BALF cytology Neutrophils BALF neutrophils (%) * Placebo Aleira 0 Day 0 Day 60 Results LFT ΔPLmax (cmh2o) * Placebo Aleira 5 0 Day 0 Day 60 12

13 Results Plasma FA DHA DHA (%) * Placebo Aleira Day 0 Day 60 Conclusion Horses with RAO/IAD fed low dust diet improve clinically Additional improvement with omega-3 FA supplementation (within 2 weeks) Acknowledgment Purdue CVM Donna Griffey Dr. Katy Ivester Dr. Munsiff Kamarudin Dr. Nora Nogradi Dr. Joanne Messick Purdue Nutrition Science Dr. John Burgess Funding The state of Indiana and the PUSVM research account funded by the total wager tax Novus International Purina Mills 13

14 Thank you! 14

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