Some notations about the wallon family-name

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1 Some notations about the wallon family-name Drugge (Droughe, Drougge, Drugg) Compiled by Jörgen Fryxell Produced by Sällskapet Vallonättlingar Translation of an article in the paper Vallonättlingen 2002 no 1-3

2 Page Some viewpoints about the Walloons...3 The Walloon family DRUGGE...4 Johan Lovisson Drugge...6 Smiths at Nedre Ullerud...6 Execution by a firing sqad in Russia...6 Hostility towards foreigners as early as in the 18th century...7 The old Drugge mother...7 Maria Petersdotter Drugge...8 Anders Petersson Drugge...8 Long journey from Söderfors to Råneå in Estate inventory and sailor to foreign districts...8 Wifes to e general and a colonel in Russia...9 Emigration from Råneå to Nebraska...10 Other professions than smiths for Drugge...12 Smiths...12 Soldier, tailor...13 Organist, cashier, girdle maker...13 The infamous smith Drougée...13 Thief Crime...14 Higher positions for Drugge...15 Doctors and artists...15 Decoration with the Royal Vasa-orden...15 Supervisor and Foundry propietor...15 Suitable works for the Drugge smiths...16 Sigulskvarn, Haraker parish...17 Lassåna (Laxå), Ramundeboda parish...18 Forsvik, Undenäs parish...19 Dömle, Nedre Ullerud parish...19 Björkboda, Dragsfjärd parish...20 Söderfors parish...21 Melderstein, Råneå parish...22 In the IT-age...23 Swedish death book...23 Telephone subscribers in the Nordic countries...23 DISGEN computer program...23 Searching in the world wide web...23 Concluding words...24 Family tree tables, three generations DROUGGE 2

3 Tilthammer made in wood, as seen by the eyes of an artist. The picture is taken from Diderot s Encyclopedie (the middle of the 18th century) Drugge (Droghe, Drougge, Drugg) Jörgen Fryxell Some viewpoints about the Walloons. From the pamphlet Faktahäfte, Ekomuseum Bergslagen (1999), page 12, by Bengt Grundmark: At the turn of the century 1600 the contacts were intensified between Sweden and the continent. Sweden took part in the larger politics (the 30 year war) and required both the fabrication of weapons and encreasing income. This gave near contacts with financial branches in the Netherlands, that in a short time got a dominating influence to the Swedish metal industry. The most known names for these men of commerse and business in Sweden were Louis De Geer (who had 12 children) and his relatives in the family de Besche. These business men rented a number of Swedish crown works ( and bought them later), further they built quite new works, to which they appointed builders and craftmen from the industrial province of Wallonien. Totally it was about 1000 families, of which a great part stayed in Sweden after the contract time. They gave an important injection of workmanship to the new country of Sweden, that at this time was underdeveloped in comparison with the densely populated countries on the continent. From the paper Sällskapet Vallonättlingar, number 2, year 2001, page 6, by Ida Hane Sahlin: In their home country, northern France and the south of Belgium unimployment was valid. Sweden was at war and requested war equipment. It was a chock for the Walloons when they arrived to Sweden. From a DROUGGE 3

4 fertile Wallonien with an almost reasonable climat, with waving fields of corn and fruitful land, coming to a country that was cold, barren and to some extent covered with backwoods. But the Walloons were more than welcome and the complete war industry was running with the help of these clever skilled workers. The first ones arrived to Östergötland and then Uppland round the lake Mälaren become their homes. This region had the best iron ore for casting guns. From the book Järn bryter bygd, Ekomuseum Bergslagen (1986), page 37, by Ulf Sörenson: The so called Osmund-iron, that was dominating the export in the Middle Ages, was not as refined as the bar iron, and from the beginning of 1600 and one hundred years onwards, the authorities tried to increase the bar iron production, which gave much higher export revenue. The king Gustavus Vasa prohibited all export of Osmund-iron, with very little effect. But around 1630 the bar iron began to dominate the export. Quite many forges started, where the pig iron was refined in an oven to molten steel. The molten steel was reworked by a water-driven hammer until it was clear of slag and was divided with a knife by the hammer into four or five pieces. These pieces were heated again before they were knocked to rods in a tilt-hammer. Mostly German immigrants built the new forges and the method was called German Forging. The German forging was dominating but the Wallonian forging was going to make the Swedish iron famous. It was introduced in the beginning of the 17thcentury. The Wallonian forging required two furnaces, one melting furnace for the refining during high temperature, but without boiling. The result was knocked to one melted piece under the hammer. After new heating the iron piece was taken to the melting furnace where the iron was welded at a lower temperature before it was knocked to rod iron. The Walloon family Drugge Some notations about the living conditions for the family Drugge. Preface The map above was made when Pontus de la Gardie was pledging Svanå works in Number 33 is the Manor house, number 35 is the Management house. The houses with banderols are probably indicating hammers and one of them may be a mill. The results from genealogical work quite often is given as more or less complete ancestor or family tables. But the great fascination with this work is the insight you will get about living conditions and episodes, seen in the connection with the historical circumstances, for the different members of the family. At the same time you will get some understanding about how these people lived and worked. DROUGGE 4

5 During my work with the Drugge family tree many genealogists have given interesting and valuable contributions. Especially I want to mention one of them, Nils Joëlson, who has made detailed and thorough presentations of several branches of the Drugge family tree, above all about the Råneå-line. I want to thank all others, that have given their contribution. The Drugge family most probably origin from only one walloon Johan Droghe. Different descents spell the name differently. Below I will mostly use the spelling Drugge. According to Kjell Lindblom (Vallonsläkter under 1600-talet, 1989) Johan Droghe in the year 1637 is applied as melter for Jacob de la Gardie at Sigulkvarn works at Haraker parish, Västmanland county. Next year he is working at Högfors in Karbenning parish, and 1643 at Kungsbruket (Skyllberg) at Lerbäck county. Then he is working at Markebäck, Askersund county We know about three children to Johan Droghe: Lovis, Maria and Anthon. As Anthon is dead before the age of two months, Lovis will be the only one to take the name further. During about 100 years the Drugge family will remain as a hammer smith family. Lovis Drugge was a hammer smith at Lassåna (Laxå) works in Örebro county during the years The oldest son, Johan, worked at several mines at Västergötland and above all at Värmland. He was master of hammer smith at Forsvik in Undenäs parish, in the county of Skaraborg. Approximately at 1698 he moved with his family to Värmland and become a master of hammer smith at Dömle at the upper hammer work at Nedre Ullerud. He was a member of the district hammer court at Värmlands and Dals Bergslag during the years At the district court at Torp Inn at Nedre Ullerud, , Johan Lovisson Drugge was elected senior hammer worker for 14 different hammer works. These were: Persby, Hanefors, Älgå, Upperud (2 in number), Vettlanda, Stömne, Svaneholm, Kolsäterud, Borgvik (2 ), Glasforsen (2 ) and Forsbacka. In the year 1718 Johan Lovisson was master hammer smith at Älgå hammer works at Åsebol near the town of Arvika. Approximately at 1720 Johan moved to Koski works, at Björneborgs county in Finland. Johan was married twice and he had at least 9 children. The younger son, Peter, was coal boy at Lassåna (Laxå) in 1699, but later he worked with his brother Johan at Dömle hammer works at Nedre Ullerud. In the year 1711 Peter Lovisson was appointed as master hammer smith at the hammer at Gårdsjö at Sunne. The year 1728 Peter Lovisson and his family moved to Söderfors at Uppsala county. Peter got at least 12 children. These two children, Johan and Peter, become the start of the extensive family tree Drugge. Already during the very first generations the families are spread to Söderfors and Finland. Later on Drugge walloons move to Råneå in the north of Sweden. Many Drugge emigrate to the US both from Northern Sweden and from Värmland. Further many branches stayed at Örebro, Västergötland and Värmland counties. In the following I intend to write down some interesting and imaginative episodes for some of these Drugge family members. Some of them had success and others got more negative development. But let the stories tell for themselves. Johan Drugge Born 1615 approx Lovis Drugge Born 1640 approx Johan Lovisson Drugge Born 1670 approx. Peter Lovisson Drugge Born 1678 approx. The fi rst two generations for Johan Drougge DROUGGE 5

6 Johan Lovisson Drugge Smiths at Nedre Ullerud Some of the children to Johan Lovisson Drugge stayed in Värmland, when he moved via Gravendal to Finland. Here is a family branch where the names are changing in a traditional way: Johan Lovisson Drugge, hammersmith at Dömle, Nedre Ullerud, born approximately 1670 Son Jonas Johansson Drugge, hammersmith at Dömle, born 1705 at Nedre Ullerud Son Anders Jonasson Drugge, hammersmith at Dömle, born 1738 at Nedre Ullerud Son Jonas Andersson Drugge, master smith at Dömle, born 1763 at Nedre Ullerud Son Anders Jonasson Drugge, master smith at Dömle, born 1802 at Nedre Ullerud Son Jonas Andersson Drugge, born 1830 at Nedre Ullerud, emigrant in Thus all of them were smiths working at Dömle works from about 1700 to the closing down of the works around Jonas Andersson Drugge, born 1830, was the eldest son of 8 brothers and sisters. Four of these siblings emigrated to Chicago in the US. With the families 10 people were leaving Värmland to seek their fortune in the the Promised Land. On September 19th 1869 the following people were emigrating from Gothenburg via Hull to Chicago: The mother (to Jonas, Anna Maria, Karl and Stina Cajsa), the widow Stina Andersdotter, Jonas Drugge with his wife Kajsa Olsdotter and daughter Augusta Drugge, Anna Maria Drugge with her husband Erik Olsson and the two sons Oskar Julius and Karl Johan, Karl Drugge, unmarried. The family Erik Olsson, four people emigrated from Alster in Värmland and the others from Nedre Ullerud. In September 1873 another sister to Jonas, Anna Maria and Karl emigrated. Her name was Stina Cajsa Drugge and she travelled the same way as her siblings via Hull to Chicago. From a sibling group of eight members 50 % or four people emigrated. All of them were born at Nedre Ullerud, Värmland county. Execution by a firing squad in Russia Karl Drugge was born 1883 at Viborg in Finland. He was a son to the filer Frans Viktor Drugge at Dals Works at Dragsfjärd in Finland, and his wife Edla Andersdotter. They were descendants to Johan Lovisson Drugge, who moved to Dragsfjärd in Finland. Karl emigrated to Boston, USA, in He married Hilma. They got a son Matti, who was born Karl was influenced by Communist agitators in the US and he moved with his wife and son to Russia in the 1930ies. In 1938 Karl wanted to return to Finland. He wrote to his brother Oskar Drugge. Oskar Drugge and his sister Elsa Drugge were also informed by the police station in Viborg that their brother had requested to return to Finland and that they had to sign a document where they promised to take care of the family Karl Drugge. After that they heard nothing from Karl Drugge, but in January 1996 it was revealed that Karl Drugge was detained December 17th 1938 i Treljablinsk. Some days later the son Matti Drugge was detained too. Both were executed. The tragic fate that happened to Karl Drugge and his family also happened to many Swedes that emigrated to Russia during the 1930ies. This is of great interest in February 2001 when the journalist Kaa Eneberg has published his book Tvingade till tystnad ( Forced to silence ) From an editorial by Åsa Wall in the Swedish paper Svenska Dagbladet on 6th of Februari 2001 is quoted: Forced to silence tells us about the so called Kiruna-Swedes, mostly about unemployed communistic mine workers, who by the communistic party were adviced to go to the Soviet Union to take part in the building up of a great socialistic state Those who quickly understood that Sovjet did not offer them a good future and returned home were accused by the communistic party to have failed their duty. Those Swedes that were executed were condemned by some kind of a court to be enemies to the Sovjet state. Kaa Eneberg has given evidence that is has been a great shame for many coming home in a miserable state. In some cases the Ministry for Foreign Affairs has requested them to keep quiet not to impair for those still living in Russia being able to return to Sweden and Eneberg believes that this fear is justified. In spite of this she believes that many should feel good when talking about this as the period for prosecution for these crimes has expired according the Swedish Law. DROUGGE 6

7 Hostility towards foreigners as early as in the 18th century. As said above, Peter Lovisson Drugge arrived to Värmland in the beginning of the 18 th century. In the year 1708 Peter was a smith at the down stream hammer at Dömle in the county of Värmland for the master smith Nils Larsson. At the District Hammer Court on June 6 th 1710 the iron works superior Måns Olsson at Kvarntorp was requested to let Peter Lovisson testify as a master hammer smith. In the population register Peter Lovisson was called Hammarsmedsmästare (=Hammer Smith Master). At the Hammer District courts at Karlstad , Filipstad and Filipstad , a remarkable history is given about superstition and harassments against foreigners. Peter Lovisson was accused for the loss of 47 skeppund iron due to bad smithwork. The reason for this was explained by the statement that the Hammer Smith Samuel Persson had used witchcraft and sorcery. At the end it was revealed that Samuel Persson had put a leather piece in the bellow for the melting which had decreased the effincy of the blowing work. In 1728 the family moved to Söderfors at the county of Uppsala. The old Drugge mother Peter Lovisson Drugge married in 1701 Elisabet (Lisken) Hansdotter. She was a daughter to the Hammer smith at Dömle downstream hammer at Nedre Ullerud, Hans Östensson, and his wife Ingeborg Larsdotter. Lisken was born 1685 and thus very young at the marriage. Peter and Lisken got probably 12 children. All these children were born in the county of Värmland and at Gravendahl in the county of Kopparberg. Peter and Lisken moved with eight children to Söderfors in After the death of Peter in 1730 The old Drugge Mother lived as a widow during 34 years. The last time she took up quarters at her daughter Anna and her husband Mattias Hasselgren. From the church death book at Söderfors for the year 1764 is quoted: Died March 6 th Elisabeth Hansdotter, widow after hammer smith master Peter Lovisson, born 1682 (actually in 1685) at the works of Dömbla, Nedre Ullerud parish in the county of Vermland, daughter of hammer smith Hans Östensson and Ingrid (actually Ingeborg) Larsdotter. A God-fearing, quiet and good-natured woman with good knowledge of Christianity and practice. She was sick on the 5th of this month, she got the Holy Communion on This photo shows the verger Carl Otto Lindfors and his wife Johanna Gustava Drugge born 1852 at Söderfors. They got 12 children. Eleven of them are present on this photo. Two of the children were named Tiondina and Tolvina. (Tio=ten, and Tolv=twelve). Tiondina died during her fi rst years. Photo from the book Söderfors Förr, the Söderfors photo club, Tierp DROUGGE 7

8 the sixth, and died, a blessed mother of 13 children, 7 sons and 6 daugthers, 48 grandchildren and 18 grand grand children, totally 79 souls after having lived well and nice during 82 (actually 79) years. During older days the families often had many children. But the death number of children during the first years was usually high. For the Drugge families the death number of children during the first years was often astonishingly low. Maria Petersdotter Drugge The first child of Peter Lovisson and Elisabet Hansdotter was Maria Petersdotter Drugge, born at Dömle in She did not move to Söderfors but stayed in Värmland. In 1732 she married Jonas Duva, sergeant and estate supervisor at By in the county of Värmland. She is my ancester from the Drugge family tree. Anders Petersson Drugge Long journey from Söderfors to Råneå in 1765 Peter Lovisson Drugge and Lisken Hansdotter had a son, named Anders Drugge, who was hammer smith master at Söderfors, where he died in Anders Drugge was married twice and had 12 children. Four of these children moved to Råneå in the county of Norrbotten, thus: Peter born 1734, Lars born 1736, Klas born 1752 and Fredrik born in1755. They moved in the spring 1765, when the father Anders Petersson Drugge and the grandmother Lisken Hansdotter had passed away. All of them, except Lars, afterwards left the Meldersteins works at Råneå. Klas moved to Finland and died at Muonio in Hammer smith master Lars Drugge and his wife Britta Johansdotter had three sons with them when moving from Söderfors to Råneå: Anders, Johan och Lars. The youngest son Lars, was during the move only some months old. All three sons became smiths at the Melderstein works. Estate inventory and sailor to foreign districts Hammer smith master Lars Andersson Drugge and Britta Johansdotter (see the scetch below) living at the Melderstein works had probably 7 children. One son, the hammer smith and peasant, Anders Larsson Drugge at Melderstein had, when he died in 1823, five sons that were at lawful age. Some parts from the family tree for Anders Petersson Drugge are given in the scetch above. Anders Drugge moved from Söderfors to Råneå DROUGGE 8

9 Estate inventory Råneå A II:22 no. 24, 1823 The Estate inventory was performed on October 21 in 1823 for the deceased hammer smith Anders Drugge. He died on March 15 and left the sons Lars, Anders, Johan, Petter and Nils Hendric, all at lawful age. Petter left many years ago as a sailor to foreign places. House and buildings: One cottage with stoop and one chamber. One cattle house with place for 2 cows. Thresh barns, of which one at Skrafvelholmen. Cattle: 2 cows, 2 sheeps, 1 lamb Books: The Nordborg collection book of sermons, Bibel, the Nissander The God sanctify, an old hymn-book. The Estate inventory was signed by Christina Drugge and Anders Groth. In general Estate inventories give quite interesting information for people engaged in genealogy and local geography. So is the case this time too. Christina Drugge (born Saxholm) was the wife of Anders Drugge. Her father was the hammer smith Johan Saxholm junior, born 1761 at Saxhammar at Söderbärke in the county of Kopparberg. The question is Where to find the son Petter at foreign places? Yes he arrived at Väddö, where he married Anna Britta Mattsdotter in 1828, and become settler at Sankarby. They got nine children, two of them were sailors. Most of the family members, men as well as women, generally married within the guild, smiths with smith daughters. But gradually the Drugge-members got other occupations, e.g. settlers, farmers, soldiers, sailors a.s.o. Wifes to a general and a colonel in Russia Hammer smith Lars Andersson Drugge and Britta Johansdotter, see the scetch in the part Anders Petersson Drugge, had a daughter, Anna Cajsa Larsdotter Drugge, born She married in August 21, 1791, at Hedvig Eleonora church in Stockholm, with the hospital surgeon Lars Åman. In the military enlistment for Västerbotten regiment in1792 is stated that the hospital surgeon Lars Åman was appointed battalion field surgeon at the regiment on November 30, Lars Åman and Anna Cajsa Drugge got among others two fair daughters, Brita Cajsa born 1791 and Anna Charlotta born In the book En gammal Norrbottensbygd by Albert Nordberg in Luleå parish history from 1965, the following story is given on page 137: In the army register is given the battalion field surgeon Lars Åhman (born 1747). He was related, according to the roll for Uppsala students, from Nederkalix and was graduated in The battalion field surgeon Lars Åhman died at Gamla Staden in Luleå at old age in Two of the daughters to Åhman, Brita Cajsa and Anna Charlotta were known to be very beautiful, in particular the later one. In 1809 they got to know two Russian officers. In 1810 they moved to Russia where they advanced to Mrs Colonel and Mrs General DROUGGE 9

10 respectively. Mrs General visited in the 1840:ies and 1850:ies her former home here, and which has been told, she had a female slave. Mrs General did never touch a lock. The female slave followed her everywhere. The only son of Åhman, Lars Johan Magnus, born 1804 lived and died at Gamla Staden. His two daughters moved to Russia too, and were married there, as well as a brother s daughter. The failing defence of Sweden in From the book by Alf Åberg, Vår svenska historia, Lund 1988 page 358 is referred: Over the ice covered Kvarken, the Russians in the winter 1808 had invaded at Umeå and had taken quarters in the houses. A second Russian group invaded from Tårneå and forced the Finnish to surrender at Kalix. At Sävar and Ratan the Swedish troops, by bad cooperation, failed in cutting the service lines for the Russians. The enemy moved untouched from Umeå to Piteå, ans Sweden had once more shown the military impotence. Thus, Russian troops had taken quarters from Piteå via Luleå to Kalix. During these circumstances the sisters Åhman got to know the Russian officers. It is not fair today to judge this correlation between the girls and the Russian officers. Some parts of the family tree for Petter Petersson Drugge are given in the scetch (see page 9). These are those branches that did not move from Söderfors to Råneå in Emigration from Råneå to Nebraska According to moving reference No 70 from Råneå, signed August 11 in 1881, the farmer Lars Henrik Henriksson and his wife Gustava, born Nilsdotter, moved to North America, together with the six children: Maja Lisa, Frans Oskar Karolin, Elisa Rebecka, Johan Axel, Laurentia Gustava and Katrina Lovisa. Lars Henrik and Gustava had 11 children, but four of the children died in diphtheria in 1864 and one son in scarlet fever. Thus only 6 children could follow the parents in the emigration from Långsel at Råneå. The wife Gustava Nilsdotter was of the Drugge family tree. Her mother was Karolina Margareta Drugge, born 1815 at Långsund, Råneå, and her grandfather s father was Lars Larsson Drugge, born at Söderfors He worked as smith at Melderstein in According to moving reference No 71 from Råneå, signed August 11 in 1881, also the farmhand Nils Petter Larsson moved to North America. It should be mentioned that the stepmother of Nils Petter was Stina Juliana Drugge born 1827 at Långsund, Råneå. When moving 1881 the farmhand Nils Petter Larsson was 21 years old. The following year, on December , he married at St. Paul, NE, USA with Katrina Lovisa, a daughter to Lars Henrik Henriksson mentioned above. They got six children at Nebraska. The youngest daughter was Ellen Larsson, born 1895 at Boelus, Howard, NE, USA. Ellen has written down what she has experienced in the US and what she has heard being told about her ancestors from Sweden. Her account Life in Nebraska and our heritage is a very interesting document, describing how an emigration at the end of the 19 th century from Norrbotten to USA could take place and how the new life over there could develop. Below a summary from the Ellen Larsson publication. (Remark: First I have made a text in Swedish from some of the parts of the Ellen Larsson paper, and now I am translating again from the Swedish text to English. /Jörgen Fryxell). My grandfather Henriksson (Lars Henrik) was a wonderful man. He had a white hair and beard. He had a very kind manner and he was a good Christian. He had services in our home even if he was not an ordinary priest. Further he had missionaries in his home for services. Grandfather had a wonderful fruit garden. We often saw him work out there He passed away at Howard, NE in 1904 by a heart attack at the stove when making fire. He was buried at the Swedish Pioneer Cemetery. The childs asked how God in heaven could understand him, when he only could talk Swedish. But the answer was that God understands everything. When my grandfather was a boy the home burnt down. When the house was burning my grandfather run into the house and what do you think he took out with him? It was a rifle a homemade rifle that he had obtained and DROUGGE 10

11 it was a second hand weapon. This was the rifle he was using when hunting wild turkeys. He took the weapon with him when coming over from Sweden. My grandmother Gustava Henriksson was a small woman very ambitious and laborious. We clearly remember the well-known sound Bang and then Bang-Bang from the handloom for mats. My mother used it too. My father Nils Peter Larsson ( ), was searching for work when he was 12 years old. I think he moved from Lappselsberg, where he was born, to Råneå. There he worked as a porter at a hotel. He took care of the horses to the stable, harness the horses drive to entrance of the hotel and wait there with horse and wagon which was the transportation method at that time, if you were to move to another place. Further he had the duty to handle the church bell, which was hanging in a long log, fixed to a pivot or axis. To ring the bell it was necessary to be two and the log was handeled as a seesaw to make the bell swing. My father and mother were confirmed in the Råneå church in They had been there weeks before and had been educated. It was a Lutheran church. The people went to the Råneå church four times per year: Easter, midsummer, autumn and Christmas. And added to this they had services at home. In summer they traveled with a two-wheel wagon and horse and in winter time with sleigh and they walked some part of the way. The distance was approximately 25 miles (40 km). On August 13 in 1881 my grandfather and grandmother with 6 children left their homeland and the first destination was Råneå, from where they went to Strömsund where they boarded a steamship, which took them down the Gulf of Bothnia, and further down the southern part of the Gulf of Bothnia to Stockholm. Then they took a boat, which brought them through the Boren Canal, through the lake of Vättern down to Gothenburg. Then with an old ship to Glasgow. They boarded the Anchor Line, which took them over the Atlantic. From New York they went by train to Chicago and later to St. Paul in Nebraska. They arrived there on September 13, which was exactly one month after the departure from the homeland. They could not go further by train. The next part of the travel to Boelus was made with wagon drawn by bullock. I have often asked myself, why I never asked what they thought about this country, when they arrived. In Sweden they had mountains, lakes and winter-green trees what a beautiful countryside in great contrast to this nature with open prairies with very few trees. There was no town here and the post was collected from Al Johnson, four miles away. After the marriage in 1882 at St. Paul my parents travelled in a team with wagons to Boelus, where they started their housekeeping in a house made by turf, that to some part was digged into a slope. In this turf house my four elder brothers and sisters were born. Two of them died at low age. My father built a new turf house, where my older brother Fredulph was born. In the third turf house, that my father built, I was born. That house had three rooms. The turf houses did not last for a long time, even if my father made a very careful work. Some houses leaked clay-water, when it was raining, and we took shelter under the table. The clay-water was coming long after the rain had stopped. The walls were two feet thick, and it was cool in summer and warm in winter time. Once upon a time a snake had got through the wall and made a great stir. After this event with snakes a more robust house was built, which was finished in Indians quite often came along during the first time, probably they were begging, but they were not of the warlike type. They were hunting in the area, especially near the river. Sometimes they used tents when staying longer times. I started school at the age of 7. At that time I could only speek Swedish. But now I began to speak English and stopped using Swedish. I answered my parents and grandparents in English when they talked in Swedish to me. I wish they had insisted that I should speak in Swedish to them. Then it would not have been so difficult to try to speak Swedish. At that time I thought to be very smart when I started to speak only English. As I nowaday almost never hear Swedish I am slipping away from that language. At this time, , I often visited my grandparents in their house. The big attraction was the organ, belonging to aunt Laura. She was the youngest of the six children emigrating to Nebraska. She could really play that organ. She had a good singing voice and she accompanied at the sunday school at Alcova. I showed great interest for the organ and got one of my own in I still have the information about that organ, on which I am still playing in the year It came from William Organ and Piano Company of Chicago, Illinois, with the price $ The first train arrived at Boelus in December The first car arrived at St. Paul in We got our telephone approximately in It had two boxes with the microphone placed in between. The next development step was a T-Ford Touring around The next car was a Sedan, a Ford again. In 1914 the first electrical installation was taken into use at Boelus, and that was at my grandparents. It was Boelus Hydro that delivered the electricity. That station was in use to June My brother Neils Fredulph was enlisted at St. Paul in July 22, 1918 for the US Infantery. He left USA on September He arrived to England and after that to Le Havre. He was hit by illness and left the front line in November and came to LeMans. He returned in March 1919 to USA and CampDodge, where he got Honorable Discharge and Victory Medal for the services during the First World War. DROUGGE 11

12 Gabriel Lena Henrik Kajs Stina Nils Petter Karolina Drugge Sundkvist Larsson Larsdotter Nilsson Drugge ( ) f Stina Juliana Lars-Olov Maja Kajsa Lars Henrik Gustava Drugge Olovsson Löja Henriksson Nilsdotter ( ) Nils Petter Larsson, f.1860 i Råneå Katarina Lovisa Henriksson d i Boelus, NE, USA f i Råneå, d.1940 i Boelus, NE, USA Ellen Regina Larsson f i Boelus, NE, USA Simplified ancester scetch for Ellen Larsson. Both her parents emigrated at the same time from Råneå at the age of approximately 20 years in They married the next year at St. Paul in Nebraska. Ellen tells about the emigration from Råneå and about the new life at Boelus in Nebraska. The biography Our heritage was published in the winter 1971 and Life in Nebraska in May1983. From the preface to Our heritage is quoted: For the sake of you young folks (Ellen was at that time 76 years old) of our family, I felt that some of you may like to know something about our ancestors, which prompted me to write this biography of what I know about them... This is not just a story, it is real life! Other professions than smiths for Drugge Smiths During several generations the smith profession was actual within the Drugge family tree. Note the part Smiths at Nedre Ullerud, page 6. Logs and cashbooks from the actual works shows those who were working and got salaries at the works. Several Drugge smiths are noted at this copy of a cashbook No 20 from Söderfors from year A similar book from Söderfors a little more than 100 years later shows that the Drugge-name still is present at the works. The copy below is from Söderfors book No 1 the year Note the changed spelling of the name Drugge at the Söderfors works. The ore worker (malmslagare) Drougge C.P. junior (unge) is on the photo on page 22. DROUGGE 12

13 was a soldier too and as a sergeant at the regiment of Österbotten, read more about him in Higher position for Drugge, page 15. Organist, cashier, girdle maker The blast furnace master Karl Erik Drugge at Söderfors. He lived from 1806 to 1884 and was a smith in fourth generation. Soldier, tailor Peter Lovisson Drugge and Lisken Hansdotter had a son Peter Pettersson Drugge, born 1710 at Nedre Ullerud. He was hammer smith at Söderfors to his death One of his sons was Olov Pettersson Drugge, born 1737 at Söderfors. By tradition the sons of the Drugge-family become smiths, and the daughters married often smiths. This Olov Drugge is an exception. In 1758 he volunteered as a guardsman and retired from the Österbotten Regiment as a sergeant at the age of 47. According to C B J Petander: Kungliga Österbottens regemente under Gustav III:s tid : he becomes soldier at the second major company at the Österbotten regiment he becomes vice corporal with file salary corporal with division salary armour master with corporal salary , retired with sergeant pension, 47 years old. It is noted in the books of the Österbotten regiment that he worked as a tailor. As a soldier, he at the start, called himself Söderholts, from the birthplace parish Söderfors. In one of the later notations is said that he asked to get back his father s family name Drugge, which was allowed. One of the sons to Olov Pettersson (Söderholts) Drugge, was Olov Basilius Drugge, born He In the following generation several new professions become actual for the Drugge families. A younger brother to Olov Pettersson (Söderholts) Drugge, was the hammer smith Johan Pettersson Drugge born in 1740 at Söderfors. He had several children that took new professions. The Estate inventory from Örbyhus district and Tierp court F6 No.92, 1812: Hammer smith master Johan Drugge passed away on October 14. He had the following heirs: Tanner journeyman Johan Drugge, Organist Claes Drugge at Wåhla, Girdle maker Carl Eric Drugge at Pettersborg, (the name of S:t Petersburg in Russia) Cashier Anders Drugge at Österby works, Catharina married with Norling in Stockholm, Anna Maria widow after the hammer smith Carl Lindblom at Söderfors. The above Carl Erik Drugge born 1779 at Söderfors was in 1798 apprentice with the guilding maker Olof Hjort at Gävle. He was Girdle maker and (and bronzeworker) at S:t Petersburg, where he died in His son with the same name, born in 1804 at S:t Peterburg, was a bronzeworker there too. The infamous smith Drougée The smith Karl Johan Drugge, born on oktober 3, 1775, was a son to the anchor worker Johan Bastiansson Drugge and Katarina Jansdotter Ström at Söderfors. Karl Johan passed away in 1840 living at the Parish at Brännkyrka parish. Karl Johan Drugge is often mentioned in the Årsta diary, written by M.H. Reenstierna. From the register in part II, Stockholm 1949 is quoted: Drougée (Drugge), Carl Johan, smith (born 1775). Rented Adolfsberg In the same book page 77 for August is said:...contract with the smith Drougée with Adolfsberg, which he received in the evening. From July 21 juli 1825 (page 502) is quoted:...in the afternoon I travelled in the big boat owned by Mr. Helsingi to Liljeholmen to take part at the extra court, that was hold for the infamous smith Drougée about the disorderly and bloody fight, that occurred in my little DROUGGE 13

14 house or gate cottage Adolphsberg last Whitsunday. Drougée was condemned 62 R.D.Bco, or 28 days with bread and water at the Smith House. Thief Crime Canvas worker in Gävle Per Klasson Drugge, born 1789 at Söderfors married the midwife Britta Katarina Olsdotter from Älvkarleby. They had at least 11 children. Approximately four of them were condemned for thief crime as also the father Per. Several of the sons were condemned imprisonment at labour fortress. This family had great difficulties to in an honestly way earn their living. The son Carl Erik Drugge, born 1824, was condemned for several burglaries. In the parish meeting register Gävle A1:13E page 127 is said that he has been condemned for thief crime the second time 1847, the third time in He is sent to prison 1852, is condemned for thief crime for the fourth time in 1856 and he is a prisoner for life in May He passes away in 1868 at Långholmen prison in Stockholm. The Estate inventory about the penury of Carl Erik is worth considering: The Estate inventory for working prisoner, former farmhand Carl Eric Drougge, who passed away at Långholmen in Stockholm on the fourth last March at the age of 44 years, and his nearest heir is a sister Sophia Christina Drougge, who in 1851 moved to Stockholm, but it is not known where she is living. Signed Tycho Conrad Leopold Rohman, who has been requested to take care of the means belonging to the passed away Drougge, and has given the following notes: 1 brown moleskin coat 1 pair of trousers 1 blue vest 1 pair of woollen pants 1 white sweater 1 pair of stockings 1 shirt 1 par high boots 1 blue cloth cap 1 mirror 1 muffler 1 pencil. Robbery of the dog of the forester The verdict for the second time robbery for Carl Erik Drugge is an example of the justice system of these days. The prosecution applied that Carl Erik Drugge and his brother Johan Olof without leave had taken and killed a hunting dog belonging to the forester Gustaf Westerlund, and that they had sold the fur and lard from the dog. The father Per Drougge was prosecuted for taking part in the robbery with the sons and also for without permission having stolen a shopping axe on a Sunday. The case was handled by administrative court of appeal and by the town court in Gävle. The verdict was appealed to the Royal Court and was changed to some extent on May 12 in According to the the court notations in Gävle Johan Olof and Carl Erik said, that the father Per had said that Westerlund had given the task to kill the dog and to pull off the fur. The dog had come to the lot where Carl Erik and the father lived. Carl Erik enticeed the dog to Södermalmstorget in Gefle, where they killed the dog and pulled off the fur. He met his brother and they sold the fur to the Adler tannery. The following day Carl Erik and Johan Olof sold 8 bottles of lard from the dog. They had divided up the money and used it. The appeal of the Royal Court: Regarding Per Drugge: The father Per Drougge denied to the thieving of the dog, and as the court was not convinced about this crime ha was foundd not guilty to this. As Per Drougge had not been able to verify that he only had borrowed the shopping axe and earlier had been punished for theft three times and now had committed himself to breach the Sabbath, he was condemned to pay three rix-dollar and twenty shilling for breaching the Sabbath, and for robbary the fourth time twenty shilling for the value of the stolen goods and further to be punished with four pairs of whip, three lashes of each, suffer punishment at church on a sunday and after that be sent to a state fortress prison, and work there for the rest of his life. Three certificates regarding the verdict That the former prisoner Pehr Drougge has undergone the verdict of four pairs of whip is certified at the Gävle custody on May 15, In 1847 May 16 Per Drougge was punished in the church in Gävle... To-day Pehr Drougge, condemned to prison, has been surveyed. He has been found to be sound without obvious defects, but he has a weak bodily constitution. This is certified in Gävle May 19, The question to be raised is how the consequences from the four pairs of whip did look like only 4 days after the punishment had been carried out. Regarding Johan Olof Drougge: As Johan Olof Drougge had denied and not been convinced by law the Royal Court changed the verdict of the Town Court of Gävle that Johan Olof Drougge could not be held responsible for the crime. Regarding Carl Erik Drugge Carl Erik Drougge, who has been punished for the first thieving, will be punished for theft for the second time, has to pay four times, or with no available money, 7 days in prison on water and bread and suffer punishment at the Large Gävle church on a Sunday. DROUGGE 14

15 Another Estate inventory Johan Olof Drugge, who got the verdict of not guilty by the Royal Court become a sailor. The Estate Inventory after him will further show the living conditions for this family. Gävle town Library F II:52 nr : Estate Inventory after the seaman Johan Olof Drougge, who passed away on a foreign journey on March 13, 1851, at the age of 29 years. Nearest relatives were the brothers, at lawful age, the fortress prisoners Claes Petter och Johan Fredric Drougge, and the sisters Maria Catharina, married to the hammer smith Johan Fredric Nordström at Elfkarleön and Margareta Lovisa, married to the sailor Jacob Libern, and unmarried Sophia Christina, 19 years old. During the Inventory, Libern with his wife and the smith Nordström via the authorized representative Eric Tegelberg, were present. The clothes of Drougge and other belongings on the ship had been sold, the sum was 32 Shilling. The captain Levin Säfström presented the account. The salary of Drougge was 18 Rix Dollar and 39 Sh... All means were totally 51 Rix Dollar 32 Sh and 7 c, that has been payed into the Savings Bank here. The brothers and sisters will get one fifth, or 10 Rix Dollar, 16 Sh and 1 2/5 c. Nothing more was noted. Thus in the year 1852 the two brothers Claes Petter och Johan Fredric were fortress prisoners. This is a very sad story. How could this really happen? Higher positions for Drugge The sergeant at the regiment of Österbotten, Olof Basilius Drugge was born 1760 in Stockholm. He was a son to the sergeant at the same regiment, Olof Söderholts Drugge and his wife Anna Juliana Lindström. Further information in the scetch on page 9. Doctors and artists One son to Olov Basilius Drugge was Gustav Basilius Drugge, born 1788 at Gamla Karleby in Finland. Here we have an artistic and sciantific branch of the Drugge family tree. Gustav Basilius was an artistic painter at Malmö and Gothenburg. Two of his sons are worth mentioning: Johan August Drugge, born 1817 in Malmö become doctor. In the obituary notice in May 1870 is said that he become his higher school certificate in Lund in 1837, and Doctor of Medicine in In 1855 he was appointed first degree of battalion Doctor at Göta Artillery Regiment. Carl Teodor Drugge born 1819 in Malmö, master painter. He studied drawing at the Academy of art in Stockholm. Carl Teodor made decorating paintings and painting on glass in Germany, Russia, England and France during 9 years. He worked in his fathers decorating painting school in Gothenburg to 1869, when he moved to Arendal in Norway, where he had a painting shop. The son to Carl Teodor Drugge, Teodor Maurits Drugge, born 1874 in Arendal Norway was an artist and a painter in Oslo. In 1911 he painted the altarpiece at the church of Håbol. The son to Teodor Maurits Drugge, Gunnar Drugge, born 1899 in Oslo, became Doctor of Philosophy with Nordic Languages in 1938 at the High School of Gothenburg. Decoration with the Royal Vasa-Orden A third son to Gustav Basilius Drugge may be mentioned too. His name was Adolf Fredrik Drugge born 1828 in Gothenburg. He was customs administrator and got the Royal Vasa-Orden. Many loyal employees will follow here. The son Adolf Georg Drugge born 1867 in Gothenburg, was a customs administrator too and got the Royal Vasa-Orden. The son of Adolf Georg, Adolf Vilhelm Drugge, was an engineer and he got the Royal Vasa-Orden too. A brother to Adolf Vihelm was Gösta Drugge, born 1916 in Gothenburg. He had doctor s degree in Technology and was chief engineer at Flygtekniska Försöksanstalten in Stockholm. According to Anniversary of to-day in the paper Svenska Dagbladet on his 75-year anniversary on november 6, 1991 Gösta Drugge took part in the development of the Swedish aircrafts Draken, Viggen and Gripen (the Jas-project). Supervisor and Foundry proprietor Olov Basilius Drugge had another son, Johan Jakob Drugge, born 1789 at Gamla Karleby in Finland. He was a postman in Gävle. Several of his sons became tailors or postmens too. One of the sons had great success and became supervisor and foundry supervisor in Finland. His name was August Drugge and was born in Gävle He changed his name to Ekman. In his marriage with Anna Fredrika Nordblad he got no children. The estate inventory after August Ekman is comprehensive as the heirs were many in the many branches of the family tree. The assets were considerable, including one estate in Stockholm. From the estate inventory Stockholm North no. 220 (E IIA I:2:822). DROUGGE 15

16 As heirs were given: The sister Augusta, widow after the mill tenant Johan Albert Nygren. The children and descendants after the dead sister Anna Maria and tailor master Erik Norblad. The sons to the passed away sea captain Gustav Adrian Drugge, who was the son to his brother, the tailor Anders Gustav Drugge in the marriage with Kristina Ulrika Brink (Öbrink). Heirs: The following people were given as heirs after Anna Maria and Erik Norblad 1. The son John Norblad. 2. The children of the dead Bror Herman Norblad in the marriage to Hanna Ulenius. a. the daughter Anna Maria, widow after the farmer HJ. Holmström. b. the daughter Emma Fredrika, married to Wilh. Peutrén. c. the daughter Ellen Johanna Norblad. d. the daughter Ada, married to Gustaf Hägg. e. the daughter Aina, married to K.O. Sabelström. f. the daughter Alfhild Helena, married to Isidor Jansson. g. the son Johan August Norblad. 3. The daughters of the dead son Erik Edvard Nor blad in the marriage with Sofia Östberg. a. Agnes Maria, married to John Robert Åström. b. Alma, married to Georg Jansson. The following people were given as heirs after the dead sea captain Gustav Adrian Drugge: 1. The son Karl Drugge. 2. The son Erik, with his guardian, the mother Edla Drugge (b. Dahlström). The estate inventory has 13 pages with the balance of crowns. The inventory includes one Estate: The Estate No 1 in the block Spelet in the Oscar parish with the address no 5 at the Riddar-street and 6 at Banér-street, are given the ratable value The passed away had got one half after his dead wife Anna Fredrika Ekman and one half from a mutual will between husband and wifw, with certificate issued on January Suitable works for the Drugge smiths Melderstein Dalsbruk Söderfors Sigulskvarn Dömle Laxå Forsvik In the above map the different places for the works have been indicated. Sigulskvarn was the first place for Johan Drugge. From this place his descendants moved from Västergötland (Laxå and Forsvik) via Värmland (Dömle) to Uppland (Söderfors), and to Norrbotten (Melderstein), also to the Åbo and Björneborg county in Finland (Dalsbruk). DROUGGE 16

17 Svanå in May 31, 2001 Sigulskvarn, Haraker in the county of Västmanland The first Drugge, Johan Drugge (Droghe), was working at Svanå works owned by Jakob de la Gardie in According to Nordisk familjebok the Svanå iron works were settled in the end of the 16th centuary and was closed in ASEA became owner to the mines in Fritz Andersson: The history of the Svanå works. The time period , Surahammar in The museum of the county of Västmanlands The municipal office 1978: Haraker parish, Culture-historical investigation of buildings in the county of Västerås. From these sources the following text has been taken: There is no doubt that the works of Sigulskvarns, later called Svanå, has a very old history, but it has not been possible to define the time of the first settlement. The first privileges are lacking and it is possible that such documents never were issued As early as Januari 15 in 1634 Jacob De la Gardie owned Fläckebo and Haraker as well as Färnebo parishes as replacements of the parish of Salo in Österbotten, Finland, which he had had as salary and booking. In the book of lands in 1635 for Haraker is the Commander said to be the owner of Sigulskvarn homestead of 3 ½ öresland. Among the tax objects of the parish is mentioned one crown mill.... Many Swedish mines have been restored and parts of the old equipment have been preserved. The lifting hammer above at Svanå is a good exemple of this. DROUGGE 17

18 ... The first time you officially meets the name Svanå mines is in 1717, earlier the homestead was called Sigulskvarns mines.... The settlement of Svanå was made in the early 1600 during the marriage of Ebba Brahe and Jacob de la Gardie. The Caroline Manor house was built around 1635 and was repaired in This is one of very few Caroline Mansions that have been maintained. Our first Drugge, will have experienced this very interesting time for Sigulskvarn Svanå. Lassåna (Laxå), Ramundeboda parish in Örebro county The oldest son to Johan Droghe, Lovis Drugge, was master smith at Lassåna His son, Peter Lovisson, is registered as coal-boy at Lassåna in The text below has been taken from Ramundeboda parish by Alf Pettersson, Örebro 1980: Anders Boij had long term processes to give the works territorial resources and to save the security of other means and for the forest demands. The former industrial extension at Lassåna could go on and on August 3, 1657 the privileges were given for Lassåna blast furnace. In March 31, 1659 privileges were given for Lassåna second hammer and in October the same year for one lifting hammer. Anders Boij died in 1668, and the management was taken over by the oldest son Anton von Boij, raised to the nobility in He got many privileges, among them for the Forsvik hammers and blast furnace in 1686, see below. When Anton von Boijs died in 1710 Lassåna had two tilt hammers with four cure fires and one blast furnace. Laxå July 5th 1988 DROUGGE 18

19 Forsvik in July 5, 1988 Forsvik, Undenäs in Skaraborg county Lovis Drugge was at first master smith at Lassåna (see above) and later at Forsvik Lovis died at Undenäs in His son Johan Lovisson worked as hammer smith master at Forsvik to approximately The son Mattias Lovisson worked at Forsvik According to the pamphlet Forsvik industrial memories, March 1986: At Forsvik a waterdriven meal mill was mentioned as early as The estate Forsvik was sold and given to the Vadstena monastery in 1407 respectively The building of the monastery at Vadstena was intensive and sawn timber and iron werw highly required. By making barrages the water fall height was increased, a new mill was made, a sawmill (waterdriven) and a waterdriven hammer were installed too, thus the beginning of the future iron works. The sawmill and the hammer works were the first ones built in the country. In any case the first ones mentioned in paper.... With the Reformation in 1527 and the closing down of the Vadstena monastery Forsvik belonged to the Crown. Up to 1570 Forsvik had a quite sound wealth. But the situation changed rapidly. In the lands property 1579 is said: Enn quarn, Enn hammarsmidie, Enn sågequarn, allt öde (= One mill, one hammer mill, one saw mill, all ruined). The site is said to be ruined in 1584 too. In 1586 the Duke Karl steps in, when he gives the monopoly of Forsvik to Nils Jönsson, aristocratic name Jacobsköld, and the site was erected again. After several owner changes the foundry proprietor Anton von Boij got in 1686 the privilege to build a tilthammer with two hammers and four cure fires at Forsvik. Dömle, Nedre Ullerud in the county of Värmland Johan Lovisson moved with his family in 1698 from Forsvik (see above) to Dömle. He worked at several iron mines in Värmland, and moved about 1720 to Finland. Several ancestors to Johan Lovisson Drugge were during several generations hammer smiths at Dömle iron works see on page 6 Smiths at Nedre Ullerud. The younger brother Peter Lovisson Drugge worked as farmhand at Dömle up-stream hammer, with DROUGGE 19

20 In the former place for the down-stream hammer in the Dömle-river an electric power station was built in The picture is from April 10, his brother Johan, during After moving to different places within Värmland Peter and his family moved in 1728 to Söderfors in Uppland, see page 7, Hostility towards... According to a project in 1995 by Ingalill Olsson, Nils Edeland and Erling Johansson: Dymble or Dimble farm is mentioned in the 15th century. The homestead Dömle-Broby was since the Middle Ages a tax-free homestead, which was handed down in the female line. During the 17th century two hammers were running and by different owners. The competition was big between the two hammers. The castle count Lars Broman was the owner of the up-stream hammer and in 1682 he bought wooden land to secure the demand of wood. In 1687 he bought half the down-stream hammer. Step by step he bought parts of the down-stream hammer and in 1706 both hammers had one owner, which was the Broman widow. In 1724 the two hammers were split again between two owners, Olof Kolthoff and Jakob Roman. However, after some time the two hammers got only one owner, Carl-Gustaf Löwenhielm, in the year In 1756 the son of Löwenhielm sold the Dömle iron work and underlying homesteads to Johan Henrik Rappolt. More changes in the ownership occurred, and in the time of the foundry proprietor Carl-Elis Anderson, the alignment of the iron work was changed. In the 1870: ies the up-stream hammer was stopped running and in 1884 the iron manufacturing was stopped completely, and the time of hammers was ended for good. One saw mill started in the 1880:ies in the place of the up-stream hammer and the works started to deliver to a larger extent sawn timber. In an electric power station was built in the place of the down-stream hammer, see the photo in the previous column. Björkboda (Dals works), Dragsfjärd, Åbo county, Finland Björkboda factory from September DROUGGE 20

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