INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTINGUISHING FEATURES FOR LIQUID FUELS AND ORGANIC FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ATOMIZED BY A WATER FLOW

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTINGUISHING FEATURES FOR LIQUID FUELS AND ORGANIC FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ATOMIZED BY A WATER FLOW"

Transcription

1 EPJ Web of Conferences 110, (2016) DOI: / epjconf/ C Owned by the uthors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016 INVESTIGATION OF THE EXTINGUISHING FEATURES FOR LIQUID FUELS AND ORGANIC FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS ATOMIZED BY A WATER FLOW Ivn V. Voytkov 1, Mksim V. Zbelin 1, Olg V. Vysokomorny 1, 1 Ntionl Reserch Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russi Abstrct. The processes of het nd mss trnsfer were investigted experimentlly while moving nd evporting the tomized wter flow in high-temperture combustion products of typicl liquid fuels nd orgnic flmmble liquids: gsoline, kerosene, cetone, crude oil, industril lcohol. We determined typicl periods of liquid extinguishing by n tomized wter flow of vrious dispersbility. Dt of the dischrge of extinguishing medium corresponding to vrious prmeters of tomiztion nd durtion of using the tomiztion devices ws presented. It is shown tht U m 3.5 m/s is miniml outflow velocity of droplets during moving while pssing the distnce of 1m in the hightemperture gs medium to stop the combustion of orgnic liquids. 1. Introduction Technologicl fcilities nd industril esttes of oil nd gs extrction nd petrochemicl industries re chrcterized by n incresed risk of unregulted fires. Usully, fires t such esttes fll into incresed complexity due to the dissemintion of n ignition source over lrge res, low flmmble level nd extreme explosion risk of orgnic liquids nd fuels, significnt energy relese from the combustion of oil nd products of its processing [1, 2]. When extinguishing fires of oil nd petroleum products by tomized liquid flows (wter, solutions, emulsions nd suspensions bsed on it), the rte of evportion of extinguishing composition in the high-temperture combustion products is determintive one. The wter vpors resulting from phse trnsformtion, on the one hnd, reduce the temperture of ignition source due to the expenditure of energy for evportion, nd, on the other hnd, displce the oxidnt from the fire zone. The results of experiments [3] suggest the possibility of using the liquid extinguishing compositions bsed on wter to suppress the combustion of liquid fuels nd orgnic combustible liquids, considering restrictions for certin prmeters of tomizing the extinguishing medium (stepwise tomiztion of droplets of vrying dispersion) in order to void overspending of wter to extinguish by lrge droplets nd entrinment of extinguishing medium prticles with typicl size less thn 10 μm by opposite high-temperture gs flow of quenching medium prticles with typicl size less thn 10 microns [3]. It is of interest to estimte the consumption, s well s typicl times of tomizing the extinguishing liquid to the moment of liquidtion of fire in the forming flow of different dispersion. Corresponding uthor: 4 Article vilble t or

2 EPJ Web of Conferences The purpose of the work is to investigte experimentlly estblishing the extinguishing periods of fires of typicl flmmble liquids by the polydisperse droplet flow of wter with controlled prmeters of tomiztion (sizes of droplets in flow (R d ), velocity of droplet flow (U m ), component composition of extinguishing liquid). 2. Experimentl setup nd procedure In conducting the experimentl investigtions, we used the setup which is similr to tht presented in the works [4, 5]. The min equipment being prt of the experimentl setup includes genertor of lser emission, two-pulse Nd:YAG lser (wvelength m, miniml energy in pulse J, mximl durtion of pulse s, repetition frequency 15 Hz), sync processor, cross-correltion (picture formt 2048x2048 pixels, frme frequency 1.5 Hz, miniml dely between frmes s) nd high-speed video cmers (shooting speed is not less thn 10 5 frmes per second (when the definition is pixels)). In experimenttions we pplied severl opticl methods of droplet flow dignostic (PIV, PTP, Stereo PIV, SP) together with corresponding hrdwre nd softwre for processing the results of experiments. The tomizer, tht turns ccording to necessry tomiztion prmeters (in the experiments we used specil metl pulverizers), ws connected through the chnnel with the outlet of vessel contining wter with known prmeters nd chrcteristics. Depending on the type of experiment, we chose the height for instlltion of cross-correltion video cmers nd lser (in the cse of mesuring by PIV nd PTV the instlltion height of video cmer nd lser were chosen so tht the opticl xis of the cmer nd the plne of the light sheet of lser intersect t n ngle of 90 degrees in the registrtion re; in the cse of mesuring by Stereo PIV method the ngle between the opticl xes of the cmers nd the plne of the light sheet of lser is degrees; in the cse of using SP method in front the cmer we set the strobe light specil diffuse screen, connected by fiber with lser, mounting height of lser in this cse is not importnt). The bse of hollow cylinder ws filled with typicl liquid petroleum product (bout 250 ml), which ws initited by the ignition before the experimenttion. When the temperture of the combustion products T g reches the vlue of bout 1100 K, the tomizer fixed t distnce of 0.5 m from the upper fce of the cylinder ws switched. The specilized softwre (relizing the opticl methods s PIV [6], PTV [7], Stereo PIV [8] or SP [9]) strted on the PC, nd the motion of the tomized flow of suspension ws recorded by video (it ws t the inlet nd outlet from cylindricl chnnel). Chrcteristic extinguishing time of typicl flmmble substnces t e ws the min prmeter determined in experimenttions. Extinguishing ws considered s chieved while reducing the temperture of the gseous medium, mesured by thermocouples instlled in the region bove the surfce of liquid fuel, by 50% or more within two minutes. Gsoline ON-92, vition kerosene TS-1, cetone (dimethyl ketone), crude oil (from the Chyndinskoye field with density of ρ 667 kg/m 3, industril lcohol (methnol) were used s typicl liquid fuels. 3. Results nd Discussion For tomiztion pulverizers pplied in experiments, we defined the chrcteristics of tomiztion: size of the generted droplets R m nd dischrge intensity of liquid μ w by pulverizer per unit time. Fig. 1 illustrtes the dependence of liquid volume expended by pulverizer of ech type on the length of tomiztion time nd initil sizes of droplets p.2

3 Thermophysicl Bsis of Energy Technologies 2015 b Figure 1. Approximtion dependences of liquid volume V e expended by pulverizers on the chrcteristic times of tomiztion t e for different vlues of R m () nd initil sizes of droplets R m for vrious lengths of tomiztion times (b) t U m 2m/s. The chrcteristic curves presented in Fig. 1 set up correspondence between volume flow of extinguishing composition, chrcteristic size of droplets of tomized liquid nd using length of tomizer. Experimentl investigtions of het nd mss trnsfer while moving the tomized wter flow in high-temperture combustion products of flmmble liquids llowed defining the typicl extinguishing times t e for typicl combustible substnces (gsoline, kerosene, cetone, oil, industril lcohol) corresponding to vrious vlues of the speed of droplet flow U m nd speed of the opposite flow of high-temperture combustion products U g. Fig. 2 shows the obtined dependencies of chrcteristic times t e on speeds U g of counter combustion products of studied oil products (for two groups of droplets vrious in sizes n two vlues of U m ) p.3

4 EPJ Web of Conferences b Figure 2. Approximtion dependences of chrcteristic extinguishing times t e of flmmble liquids on the speeds of combustion products U g for vrious initil motion speeds of droplets U m : R m = mm; b R m = mm (deficiency or interruption of the curve in the figure corresponds to the conditions under which extinguishing is not reched). The curves presented in Fig. 2 llow drwing the conclusion of filure in reching the conditions of the extinguishing of combustible liquids used in experiments by flow of tomized wter if the speed of extinguishing composition droplets is lower thn U m =3 m/s. The resulting effect is due, possibly, to the phenomen of brking, turning nd entrinment of droplets of tomized extinguishing liquid by the high-temperture combustion products moving opposite (fetures of the tomized liquid droplets moving in the hot gses were studied in the references [3, 10]). Perhps, the reltively low initil speed of extinguishing composition droplets does not llow them to rech the re of the flme. The stock of the kinetic energy of droplets t n initil rte U m =3 m/s mkes it possible for the tomized flow to rech the re of the combustion source, reduce the temperture in this re nd expel the oxidizer from the flme zone formed s result of the phse trnsition of vpor cloud. Also, ccording to the results of the reserches for the two groups of chrcteristic droplet size, we obtined the dependences of the composition of the extinguishing composition on the speed of hightemperture gs flow U g for different vlues of the initil velocity of wter droplets U m (Fig. 3). The nlysis of dependences presented in Fig. 3 llows concluding tht the most fvorble prognosis in extinguishing by tomized wter flow mong tht flmmble liquids used in the experiments include is typicl of oil. When extinguishing the fires by droplet flows of both dispersion groups, it ws possible to stifle fire with less consumption of extinguishing medium (Fig. 3). Probbly, the result is connected to high temperture of evportion of oil. As is well known [11], the oxidtion (burning) of liquids occurs in the gs phse. The oil evportes intensively t considerbly higher tempertures (bout 500 K) thn the corresponding tempertures of other flmmble liquids. As result of the thermo-physicl properties, to mintin the concentrtion of oil vpors in the level required for stble combustion, the tempertures in the source must comply with the temperture of intensive evportion. When extinguishing this fire by flow of tomized wter, the injection of extinguishing composition in the flme zone reduces quickly the temperture of the source up to vlues which re lower thn the temperture of intensive evportion of oil p.4

5 Thermophysicl Bsis of Energy Technologies 2015 b Figure 3. Approximtion dependences of chrcteristic consumptions V e for extinguishing the flmmble liquids on the speeds of combustion products U g for vrious initil speeds of droplet movement U m : R m = mm; b R m = mm (deficiency or interruption of the curve in the figure corresponds to the conditions under which extinguishing is not reched). 4. Conclusions The conducted experimenttion investigtions llowed defining the typicl times for extinguishing different flmmble liquids by flow of tomized wter of vrious dispersbility. Also, we determined the extreme vlues of initil efflux speed for droplets of tomized extinguishing composition t which the conditions of flme suppression of combustible liquids re provided. The results of conducted reserches llow us to conclude bout possibility in fire suppression of liquid fuels nd orgnic flmmble liquids by flows of tomized wter, nd to formulte the recommendtions on the selection of dispersion of droplets, the durtion of exposure to the het source, nd estimte the costs of extinguishing medium. The obtined dt for fetures of extinguishing the fires of oil nd oil products by tomized wter flow cn be used for development nd improvement of the polydisperse fire extinguishing systems p.5

6 EPJ Web of Conferences Acknowledgments This work ws supported by the Russin Foundtion for Bsic Reserch (project ). References 1. S.V. Sobur, Pozhrny bezopsnost neftegzokhimicheskikh predpriytiy: Sprvochnik [Fire sfety in petrochemicl enterprises: Guide]. Moskow, PozhKnig Publ., 2004 (in Russin). 2. V.I. Gorshkov, Tusheniye plmeni goryuchikh zhidkostey [Extinguishing the flme of combustible liquids]. Moskow, Pozhnuk Publ., 2007 (in Russin). 3. R.S. Volkov, G.V. Kuznetsov, P.A. Strizhk, Int. J. Het nd Mss Trns. 79 (2014). 4. D.O. Glushkov, G.S. Nyshin, P.A. Strizhk, R.S. Volkov, IOP Conf. Series: Erth nd Environmentl Science. 27 (2015). 5. G.V. Kuznetsov, M.V. Piskunov, P.A. Strizhk, Int. J. Het nd Mss Trns. 92 (2016). 6. R.D. Kene, R.J. Adrin, Appl. Sci. Res. 49 (1992). 7. D. Dmini, E. Meillot, D. Trlet, J. Therm. Spry Technol. 23, 3 (2014). 8. M. Legrnd, J. Nogueir, A. Lecuon, S. Nuri, P.A. Rodríguez, Exp. Fluids 48, 5 (2010). 9. R.S. Volkov, G.V. Kuznetsov, P.A. Strizhk, Int. J. Het Mss Trnsfer 85 (2015). 10. O.V. Vysokomorny, G.V. Kuznetsov, P.A. Strizhk, Fire Sf. Journ. 70 (2014). 11. V.N. Vilyunov, V.E. Zrko, Ignition of Solids, Elsevier, Amsterdm, p.6

FEASIBILITY OF USING PRESSED SUGAR CANE STALK FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL. D Ffoulkes, R Elliott and T R Preston

FEASIBILITY OF USING PRESSED SUGAR CANE STALK FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL. D Ffoulkes, R Elliott and T R Preston Trop Anim Prod 1980 5:2 125 FEASIBILITY OF USING PRESSED SUGAR CANE STALK FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL D Ffoulkes, R Elliott nd T R Preston Fcultd de Medicin Veterinri y Zootecni, University of Yuctn,

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

Study on enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil from soybean

Study on enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil from soybean 8 Journl Scientific & Industril Reserch J SCI IND RES VOL 69 NOVEMBER 2010 Vol. 69, November 2010, pp. 8-865 Study on enzyme-ssisted queous extrction oil from soyben Jun-Qing Qin*, De-Hui Qin, Xing-Mo

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology

More information

Module 2. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 2. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur Module Anlysis of Stticlly Indeterminte Structures by the Mtrix Force Method Version CE IIT, Khrgpur esson 9 The Force Method of Anlysis: Bems (Continued) Version CE IIT, Khrgpur Instructionl Objectives

More information

** Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

** Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand Modelling nd Simultion of hemicl Processes in Multi Pulse TP Experiment P. Phnwdee* S.O. Shekhtmn +. Jrungmnorom** J.T. Gleves ++ * Dpt. hemicl Engineering, Ksetsrt University, Bngkok 10900, Thilnd + Dpt.hemicl

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why Network is n Essentil Productivity Tool for Any Smll Business TechAdvisory.org SME Reports sponsored by Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse their productivity. Computer

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT WITH THE CFX CODE

ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT WITH THE CFX CODE ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT WITH THE CFX CODE Ildikó Boros, Dr. Attil Aszódi Budpest University of Technology nd Economics, Institute of Nucler Techniques Abstrct The therml

More information

The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Release on the Ionization Constant of H 2 O

The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Release on the Ionization Constant of H 2 O The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem Lucerne, Sitzerlnd August 7 Relese on the Ioniztion Constnt of H O 7 The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem Publiction

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Uncertainties of Derived Dewpoint Temperature and Relative Humidity

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE. Uncertainties of Derived Dewpoint Temperature and Relative Humidity MAY 4 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 81 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Uncertinties of Derived Dewpoint Temperture nd Reltive Humidity X. LIN AND K. G. HUBBARD High Plins Regionl Climte Center, School of Nturl Resource

More information

PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES

PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES Áre de Toxicologí PRACTICE 7: DETERMINATION BY VOLUMETRIC TECHNICS OF ALKALINITY IN WATER SAMPLES OVERVIEW Prcticl ctivity of the Áre of Toxicologí Universidd Miguel Hernández de Elche Environmentl Anlytic

More information

Newton s Three Laws. d dt F = If the mass is constant, this relationship becomes the familiar form of Newton s Second Law: dv dt

Newton s Three Laws. d dt F = If the mass is constant, this relationship becomes the familiar form of Newton s Second Law: dv dt Newton s Three Lws For couple centuries before Einstein, Newton s Lws were the bsic principles of Physics. These lws re still vlid nd they re the bsis for much engineering nlysis tody. Forml sttements

More information

Experiment 6: Friction

Experiment 6: Friction Experiment 6: Friction In previous lbs we studied Newton s lws in n idel setting, tht is, one where friction nd ir resistnce were ignored. However, from our everydy experience with motion, we know tht

More information

Small Business Networking

Small Business Networking Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology

More information

Rate and Activation Energy of the Iodination of Acetone

Rate and Activation Energy of the Iodination of Acetone nd Activtion Energ of the Iodintion of Acetone rl N. eer Dte of Eperiment: //00 Florence F. Ls (prtner) Abstrct: The rte, rte lw nd ctivtion energ of the iodintion of cetone re detered b observing the

More information

COMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING

COMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING LECTURE COMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING Third Edition A. J. Clrk School of Engineering Deprtment of Civil nd Environmentl Engineering 24 Chpter 8.4 by Dr. Ibrhim A. Asskkf SPRING 2003 ENES 220 Mechnics of

More information

PROBLEMS 13 - APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Page 1

PROBLEMS 13 - APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Page 1 PROBLEMS - APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Pge ( ) Wter seeps out of conicl filter t the constnt rte of 5 cc / sec. When the height of wter level in the cone is 5 cm, find the rte t which the height decreses.

More information

Example of Vacuum calculation

Example of Vacuum calculation > Technicl informtion bout products CATALOGUE > Relese 8.5 Exmple of Vcuum clcultion System design - the procedure In this section the design procedure is described for complete system step by step. This

More information

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models

Basic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models Bsic Anlysis of Autrky nd Free Trde Models AUTARKY Autrky condition in prticulr commodity mrket refers to sitution in which country does not engge in ny trde in tht commodity with other countries. Consequently

More information

Copyright@United Nations, 2015. All rights reserved ANNEXES

Copyright@United Nations, 2015. All rights reserved ANNEXES ANNEXES ANNEX CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES Annex CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES NOTE: The codifiction of hzrd s is further explined in Annex 3 (Section ). The hzrd re intended

More information

All pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment

All pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment CENTER FOR RESEARC IN ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT CREAM Publiction No. 1-2015 All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin Riis All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin

More information

Review Problems for the Final of Math 121, Fall 2014

Review Problems for the Final of Math 121, Fall 2014 Review Problems for the Finl of Mth, Fll The following is collection of vrious types of smple problems covering sections.,.5, nd.7 6.6 of the text which constitute only prt of the common Mth Finl. Since

More information

Copyright@United Nations 2013. All rights reserved ANNEXES

Copyright@United Nations 2013. All rights reserved ANNEXES ANNEXES ANNEX 1 CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES Annex 1 CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES NOTE: The codifiction of hzrd s is further explined in Annex 3 (Section 1). The hzrd re

More information

The LENA TM Language Environment Analysis System:

The LENA TM Language Environment Analysis System: FOUNDATION The LENA TM Lnguge Environment Anlysis System: Audio Specifictions of the DLP-0121 Michel Ford, Chrles T. Ber, Dongxin Xu, Umit Ypnel, Shrmi Gry LENA Foundtion, Boulder, CO LTR-03-2 September

More information

DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON DIC

DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON DIC 1 Chpter 2 Geochemicl Rections DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON Inorgnic or minerlized crbon in its most oxidized stte crries vlence of 4. In minerls C 4 coordintes covlently with oxygen toms s the crbonte nion

More information

Plotting and Graphing

Plotting and Graphing Plotting nd Grphing Much of the dt nd informtion used by engineers is presented in the form of grphs. The vlues to be plotted cn come from theoreticl or empiricl (observed) reltionships, or from mesured

More information

Operations with Polynomials

Operations with Polynomials 38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: Write polynomils in stndrd form nd identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils Add nd subtrct polynomils Multiply

More information

Experimental Performance of a Direct Evaporative Cooler Operating in Kuala Lumpur

Experimental Performance of a Direct Evaporative Cooler Operating in Kuala Lumpur Int. J. of Therml & Environmentl Engineering Volume 6, No. 1 (2013) 15-20 Experimentl Performnce of Direct Evportive Cooler Operting in Kul Lumpur Abdulrhmn Th. Mohmmd,b, Sohif Bin Mt, M.Y. Sulimn, K.

More information

ESCI 340 Physical Meteorologoy Cloud Physics Lesson 5 Growth of Ice Crystals

ESCI 340 Physical Meteorologoy Cloud Physics Lesson 5 Growth of Ice Crystals ESCI 340 Physicl Meteorologoy Cloud Physics Lesson 5 Growth of Ice Crystls References: A Short Course in Cloud Physics (3 rd ed.), Rogers nd Yu Microphysics of Clouds nd Precipittion ( nd ed.), Pruppcher

More information

TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COIN-TAP METHOD OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Sung Joon Kim*, Dong-Chul Che Kore Aerospce Reserch Institute, 45 Eoeun-Dong, Youseong-Gu, Dejeon, 35-333, Kore Phone : 82-42-86-231 FAX

More information

Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Name: Lab Partner: Section: Chpter 4 Newton s 2 nd Lw Nme: Lb Prtner: Section: 4.1 Purpose In this experiment, Newton s 2 nd lw will be investigted. 4.2 Introduction How does n object chnge its motion when force is pplied? A force

More information

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key

Econ 4721 Money and Banking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Econ 472 Money nd Bnking Problem Set 2 Answer Key Problem (35 points) Consider n overlpping genertions model in which consumers live for two periods. The number of people born in ech genertion grows in

More information

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper 0CH_PHClter_TMSETE_ 3//00 :3 PM Pge Grphs on Logrithmic nd Semilogrithmic Pper OBJECTIVES When ou hve completed this chpter, ou should be ble to: Mke grphs on logrithmic nd semilogrithmic pper. Grph empiricl

More information

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

More information

Power consumption In operation At rest For wire sizing. Rated impulse voltage Control pollution degree 3. Non-operating temperature

Power consumption In operation At rest For wire sizing. Rated impulse voltage Control pollution degree 3. Non-operating temperature echnicl dt sheet SRF2A-5(-O) Rotry ctutor with emergency function for utterfly vlves orque orue 2 2 2 m m m ominl voltge AC/DC 2 V Control Control Open-close Oen-close SRF2A-5 SRF2A-5 Deenergised C C SRF2A-5-O

More information

Investigation of water droplets, kerosene and ethanol deformation in the air

Investigation of water droplets, kerosene and ethanol deformation in the air EPJ Web of Conferences 76, 01038 (2014) DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20147601038 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014 Investigation of water droplets, kerosene and ethanol deformation in the

More information

AAPT UNITED STATES PHYSICS TEAM AIP 2010

AAPT UNITED STATES PHYSICS TEAM AIP 2010 2010 F = m Exm 1 AAPT UNITED STATES PHYSICS TEAM AIP 2010 Enti non multiplicnd sunt preter necessittem 2010 F = m Contest 25 QUESTIONS - 75 MINUTES INSTRUCTIONS DO NOT OPEN THIS TEST UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD

More information

Energy Saving Analysis of Variable Primary Flow System with Screw Chiller

Energy Saving Analysis of Variable Primary Flow System with Screw Chiller Energy Sving Anlysis of Vrible Primry Flow System with Screw Chiller Yung-Chung Chng [1], Pin-Cheng Chieng [2], Jyun-Ting Lu [3], Tien-Shun Chn [4], Ching-Ling Chen [5], Cheng-Wen Lee [6] [1] Professor,

More information

Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999

Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999 Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15 Estimting dynmic pnel dt models: guide for q mcroeconomists b, * Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen Federl Reserve Bord of Governors, 0th & C Sts., N.W. Wshington, D.C. 0551,

More information

Performance analysis and optimization for an endoreversible Carnot heat pump cycle with finite speed of the piston

Performance analysis and optimization for an endoreversible Carnot heat pump cycle with finite speed of the piston INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Volume 2, Issue 6, 20 pp.33-40 Journl homepge: www.ijee.ieefoundtion.org Performnce nlysis nd imiztion for n endoreversible Crnot het pump cycle with finite

More information

Understanding Life Cycle Costs How a Northern Pump Saves You Money

Understanding Life Cycle Costs How a Northern Pump Saves You Money Understnding Life Cycle Costs How Nrn Pump Sves You Money Reference: Hydrulic Institute (www.s.g) Introduction Wht Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Clculting Totl LCC LCC Components Wht Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle

More information

Helicopter Theme and Variations

Helicopter Theme and Variations Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the

More information

2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Application and use for India

2006 IPCC Software for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Application and use for India 2006 IPCC Softwre for Ntionl Greenhouse Gs Inventories: Appliction nd use for Indi Presenttion for NGGIP Side Event Bonn, June 8, 2013 Prof. Amit Grg (mitgrg@iimhd.ernet.in), INDIA GHG Inventory Softwre

More information

Picture Match Words. Strobe pictures. Stopping distance. Following. Safety

Picture Match Words. Strobe pictures. Stopping distance. Following. Safety Tuesdy: Picture Mtch + Spelling Pyrmid Homework [the hndout for it is two pges down] Mterils: 1 bord + 1 set of words per 2 students (totl: 12 of ech) Routine: () once the Pictionry is completed; pirs

More information

THERMAL EXPANSION OF TUNGSTEN

THERMAL EXPANSION OF TUNGSTEN . THERMAL EXPANSION OF TUNGSTEN S515 By Peter Hidnert nd W. T. Sweeney ABSTRACT This pper gives the results of n investigtion on the therml expnsion of tungsten (99.98 per cent) over vrious temperture

More information

Applications to Physics and Engineering

Applications to Physics and Engineering Section 7.5 Applictions to Physics nd Engineering Applictions to Physics nd Engineering Work The term work is used in everydy lnguge to men the totl mount of effort required to perform tsk. In physics

More information

Math 22B Solutions Homework 1 Spring 2008

Math 22B Solutions Homework 1 Spring 2008 Mth 22B Solutions Homework 1 Spring 2008 Section 1.1 22. A sphericl rindrop evportes t rte proportionl to its surfce re. Write differentil eqution for the volume of the rindrop s function of time. Solution

More information

Photodetectors. Prices Effective October 19, 2015 All List Prices in U.S. Dollars Silicon Photodetectors

Photodetectors. Prices Effective October 19, 2015 All List Prices in U.S. Dollars Silicon Photodetectors Photodetectors Prices Effective October 19, 2015 All List Prices in U.S. Dollrs Silicon Photodetectors Model Number Prt Number Price ET-2000 120-10000-0001 $300.00 ET-2000EXT 120-10004-0001 $325.00 ET-2030

More information

inventiv Health New Office

inventiv Health New Office Svills Cse Study - Fit Out inventiv Helth New Office Shnghi Project Vlue: 1.5M RMB Completion Dte: 2011 Client: inventiv Helth (Shnghi) Co., Ltd Project Role: Project Mnger Extremely fst trck delivery

More information

PSYCHROMETRICS: HEATING & HUMIDIFYING or COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING

PSYCHROMETRICS: HEATING & HUMIDIFYING or COOLING & DEHUMIDIFYING PSYCHROMETRICS: HEATING & HUMIDIYING or COOLING & DEHUMIDIYING I) Objective The objective of this experiment is to exmine the stte of moist ir s it enters nd psses through the ir hndling unit. When ether

More information

Impact Testing. Ductile to Brittle Transition in Steel. Charpy Test. Outline. Impact Testing

Impact Testing. Ductile to Brittle Transition in Steel. Charpy Test. Outline. Impact Testing Impct Testing Outline Impct Testing Chrpy Test Ductile to Brittle Trnsition Temperture Metllurgicl Fctors Affecting T T Ftigue Ftigue Testing Types of Ftigue Chrpy nd Izod tests mesure impct energy or

More information

Scalar Line Integrals

Scalar Line Integrals Mth 3B Discussion Session Week 5 Notes April 6 nd 8, 06 This week we re going to define new type of integrl. For the first time, we ll be integrting long something other thn Eucliden spce R n, nd we ll

More information

2.6.3 Characteristic of Compound-wound motor connection common use aids speed falls opposes speed increases ratio series-to-shunt field ampere-turns

2.6.3 Characteristic of Compound-wound motor connection common use aids speed falls opposes speed increases ratio series-to-shunt field ampere-turns .6.3 Chrcteristic of Compound-wound motor A compound-wound motor hs both series nd shunt field winding, (i.e. one winding in series nd one in prllel with the rmture circuit), by vrying the number of turns

More information

( ) Problem 1: Solution: kg m. gr cm. gr cm

( ) Problem 1: Solution: kg m. gr cm. gr cm Problem : The mss densities of crystlline mterils re relted to their crystl structures: ( The lttice constnt for crystlline Si is 5.4 Å, i.e., 5.4 - m. Prove tht its mss density is. /. (bgem dimonds consist

More information

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line The Velocity Fctor of n Insulted Two-Wire Trnsmission Line Problem Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 Mrch 7, 008 Estimte the velocity fctor F = v/c nd the

More information

Power consumption In operation At rest For wire sizing. Auxiliary switch

Power consumption In operation At rest For wire sizing. Auxiliary switch echnicl dt sheet SRF2A-S2-5(-O) Rotry ctutor with emergency function for utterfly vlves orque orue 2 2 2 m m m ominl voltge AC/DC 2 V Control Control Open-close Oen-close wo integrted uxiliry uiliry switches

More information

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process

An Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process An Undergrdute Curriculum Evlution with the Anlytic Hierrchy Process Les Frir Jessic O. Mtson Jck E. Mtson Deprtment of Industril Engineering P.O. Box 870288 University of Albm Tuscloos, AL. 35487 Abstrct

More information

Tests for One Poisson Mean

Tests for One Poisson Mean Chpter 412 Tests for One Poisson Men Introduction The Poisson probbility lw gives the probbility distribution of the number of events occurring in specified intervl of time or spce. The Poisson distribution

More information

OPTIMA QUADRANT / OFFSET QUADRANT

OPTIMA QUADRANT / OFFSET QUADRANT OPTIMA QUADRANT / OFFSET QUADRANT 71799 00 / Issue 1 / 15 Y Z DIMENSIONS Check the enclosure size in the tle elow mtches the showertry instlltion. = Widths: 800 Door = 780-805mm 900 Door = 880-905mm Y

More information

Simulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interative method

Simulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interative method NUKLEONIKA 27;52(1):29 34 ORIGINAL PAPER Simultion of opertion modes of isochronous cyclotron y new intertive method Ryszrd Trszkiewicz, Mrek Tlch, Jcek Sulikowski, Henryk Doruch, Tdeusz Norys, Artur Srok,

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

Classification of Solid Structures

Classification of Solid Structures Clssifiction of Solid Structures Represents n tom or molecule Amorphous: Atoms (molecules) bond to form very short-rnge (few toms) periodic structure. Crystls: Atoms (molecules) bond to form long-rnge

More information

Dispersion in Coaxial Cables

Dispersion in Coaxial Cables Dispersion in Coxil Cbles Steve Ellingson June 1, 2008 Contents 1 Summry 2 2 Theory 2 3 Comprison to Welch s Result 4 4 Findings for RG58 t LWA Frequencies 5 Brdley Dept. of Electricl & Computer Engineering,

More information

C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Research & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358)

C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Research & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358) C-crcs Cognitive - Counselling Reserch & Conference Services (eissn: 2301-2358) Volume I Effects of Music Composition Intervention on Elementry School Children b M. Hogenes, B. Vn Oers, R. F. W. Diekstr,

More information

Data replication in mobile computing

Data replication in mobile computing Technicl Report, My 2010 Dt repliction in mobile computing Bchelor s Thesis in Electricl Engineering Rodrigo Christovm Pmplon HALMSTAD UNIVERSITY, IDE SCHOOL OF INFORMATION SCIENCE, COMPUTER AND ELECTRICAL

More information

Project 6 Aircraft static stability and control

Project 6 Aircraft static stability and control Project 6 Aircrft sttic stbility nd control The min objective of the project No. 6 is to compute the chrcteristics of the ircrft sttic stbility nd control chrcteristics in the pitch nd roll chnnel. The

More information

ORBITAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-THRUST

ORBITAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-THRUST Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS Interntionl Conference on SIGNAL PROCESSING, ROBOICS nd AUOMAION ORBIAL MANEUVERS USING LOW-HRUS VIVIAN MARINS GOMES, ANONIO F. B. A. PRADO, HÉLIO KOII KUGA Ntionl Institute

More information

Your Thoughts. Does the moment of inertia play a part in determining the amount of time it takes an object to get to the bottom of an incline.

Your Thoughts. Does the moment of inertia play a part in determining the amount of time it takes an object to get to the bottom of an incline. Your Thoughts Suppose bll rolls down rmp with coefficient of friction just big enough to keep the bll from slipping. An identicl bll rolls down n identicl rmp with coefficient of friction of. Do both blls

More information

A). The right-handed orientation of the lever handle is shown in (Illustration

A). The right-handed orientation of the lever handle is shown in (Illustration 999-00331E_EN Left Hnd A Pre-set Pre-set orienttion of lever hndle: Pre-set Reversed Lever Reversl Door shown is inswinging Right Hnd B Reversl Reverse orienttion of lever hndle: Lever hndles re pre-set

More information

Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application

Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application Seismic Crystls And Erthquke Shield Appliction B. Byknt ALAGÖZ * Serkn ALAGÖZ Abstrct: We theoreticlly demonstrte tht erthquke shield mde of seismic crystl cn dmp down surfce wves, which re the most destructive

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the

More information

Cypress Creek High School IB Physics SL/AP Physics B 2012 2013 MP2 Test 1 Newton s Laws. Name: SOLUTIONS Date: Period:

Cypress Creek High School IB Physics SL/AP Physics B 2012 2013 MP2 Test 1 Newton s Laws. Name: SOLUTIONS Date: Period: Nme: SOLUTIONS Dte: Period: Directions: Solve ny 5 problems. You my ttempt dditionl problems for extr credit. 1. Two blocks re sliding to the right cross horizontl surfce, s the drwing shows. In Cse A

More information

Design Example 1 Special Moment Frame

Design Example 1 Special Moment Frame Design Exmple 1 pecil Moment Frme OVERVIEW tructurl steel specil moment frmes (MF) re typiclly comprised of wide-flnge bems, columns, nd bem-column connections. Connections re proportioned nd detiled to

More information

Straight pipe model. Orifice model. * Please refer to Page 3~7 Reference Material for the theoretical formulas used here. Qa/Qw=(ηw/ηa) (P1+P2)/(2 P2)

Straight pipe model. Orifice model. * Please refer to Page 3~7 Reference Material for the theoretical formulas used here. Qa/Qw=(ηw/ηa) (P1+P2)/(2 P2) Air lek test equivlent to IX7nd IX8 In order to perform quntittive tests Fig. shows the reltionship between ir lek mount nd wter lek mount. Wter lek mount cn be converted into ir lek mount. By performing

More information

Homework #6: Answers. a. If both goods are produced, what must be their prices?

Homework #6: Answers. a. If both goods are produced, what must be their prices? Text questions, hpter 7, problems 1-2. Homework #6: Answers 1. Suppose there is only one technique tht cn be used in clothing production. To produce one unit of clothing requires four lbor-hours nd one

More information

Surface Area and Volume

Surface Area and Volume Surfce Are nd Volume Student Book - Series J- Mthletics Instnt Workooks Copyright Surfce re nd volume Student Book - Series J Contents Topics Topic - Surfce re of right prism Topic 2 - Surfce re of right

More information

Week 4 - Capacitors and Capacitance

Week 4 - Capacitors and Capacitance Week 4 - Cpcitors nd Cpcitnce Sheldon, you don t give your mother enough credit. She s wrm, she s loving, she doesn t glue electrodes to your hed to mesure your brin wves while potty trining. Leonrd Hofstdter

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

1. 1 m/s m/s m/s. 5. None of these m/s m/s m/s m/s correct m/s

1. 1 m/s m/s m/s. 5. None of these m/s m/s m/s m/s correct m/s Crete ssignment, 99552, Homework 5, Sep 15 t 10:11 m 1 This print-out should he 30 questions. Multiple-choice questions my continue on the next column or pge find ll choices before nswering. The due time

More information

Version 001 Summer Review #03 tubman (IBII20142015) 1

Version 001 Summer Review #03 tubman (IBII20142015) 1 Version 001 Summer Reiew #03 tubmn (IBII20142015) 1 This print-out should he 35 questions. Multiple-choice questions my continue on the next column or pge find ll choices before nswering. Concept 20 P03

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Overview Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become vible solution for even the smllest of compnies s brodbnd internet ccess hs become ffordble nd much more widespred.

More information

3GPP TSG SA WG3 Security S3#23 S May 2002, Victoria, Canada CR-Form-v5.1 CHANGE REQUEST

3GPP TSG SA WG3 Security S3#23 S May 2002, Victoria, Canada CR-Form-v5.1 CHANGE REQUEST 1 TSG SA WG3 Security S3#23 S3-020201 14-17 My 2002, Victori, Cnd CR-Form-v5.1 CHANGE REQUEST 33.102 CR CRNum rev - Current version: 4.3.0 For HELP on using this form, see bottom of this pge or look t

More information

Let us recall some facts you have learnt in previous grades under the topic Area.

Let us recall some facts you have learnt in previous grades under the topic Area. 6 Are By studying this lesson you will be ble to find the res of sectors of circles, solve problems relted to the res of compound plne figures contining sectors of circles. Ares of plne figures Let us

More information

Pneumatic Actuators up to 700 cm² Type 3271 and Type 3277 for integral positioner attachment

Pneumatic Actuators up to 700 cm² Type 3271 and Type 3277 for integral positioner attachment Pneumtic Actutors up to cm² Type nd Type for integrl positioner ttchment Appliction Liner ctutors in prticulr for ttchment to Series,, Control Vlves nd Type Micro-flow Vlves Diphrgm re to cm² Rted trvel.

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

addition, there are double entries for the symbols used to signify different parameters. These parameters are explained in this appendix.

addition, there are double entries for the symbols used to signify different parameters. These parameters are explained in this appendix. APPENDIX A: The ellipse August 15, 1997 Becuse of its importnce in both pproximting the erth s shpe nd describing stellite orbits, n informl discussion of the ellipse is presented in this ppendix. The

More information

Week 11 - Inductance

Week 11 - Inductance Week - Inductnce November 6, 202 Exercise.: Discussion Questions ) A trnsformer consists bsiclly of two coils in close proximity but not in electricl contct. A current in one coil mgneticlly induces n

More information

Net Change and Displacement

Net Change and Displacement mth 11, pplictions motion: velocity nd net chnge 1 Net Chnge nd Displcement We hve seen tht the definite integrl f (x) dx mesures the net re under the curve y f (x) on the intervl [, b] Any prt of the

More information

HCP crystal planes are described using the Miller-Bravais indices, (hkil) Draw the hexagonal crystal planes whose Miller-Bravais indices are:

HCP crystal planes are described using the Miller-Bravais indices, (hkil) Draw the hexagonal crystal planes whose Miller-Bravais indices are: .6 How re crystllogrphic plnes indicted in HCP unit cells? In HCP unit cells, crystllogrphic plnes re indicted using four indices which correspond to four xes: three bsl xes of the unit cell,,, nd, which

More information

Fundamentals of Moisture Sorption Isotherms

Fundamentals of Moisture Sorption Isotherms Fundmentls of Moisture Sorption Isotherms Wter profoundly influences product ttributes such s qulity nd sfety. To completely understnd wter reltions in product requires n understnding of the mount of wter

More information

Chapter G - Problems

Chapter G - Problems Chpter G - Problems Blinn College - Physics 2426 - Terry Honn Problem G.1 A plne flies horizonlly t speed of 280 mês in position where the erth's mgnetic field hs mgnitude 6.0µ10-5 T nd is directed t n

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business VoIP for the Smll Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs Reserch firm IDC 1 hs estimted tht VoIP system cn reduce telephony-relted expenses by 30%. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) hs become

More information

VoIP for the Small Business

VoIP for the Small Business Reducing your telecommunictions costs TechAdvisory.org SME Reports sponsored by Cybernut Solutions provides outsourced IT support from welth of knowledgeble technicins nd system dministrtors certified

More information

Vectors 2. 1. Recap of vectors

Vectors 2. 1. Recap of vectors Vectors 2. Recp of vectors Vectors re directed line segments - they cn be represented in component form or by direction nd mgnitude. We cn use trigonometry nd Pythgors theorem to switch between the forms

More information

Engineer-to-Engineer Note

Engineer-to-Engineer Note Engineer-to-Engineer Note EE-265 Technicl notes on using Anlog Devices DSPs, processors nd development tools Contct our technicl support t dsp.support@nlog.com nd t dsptools.support@nlog.com Or visit our

More information