Overview. Worldwide Mobile. Device Manufacturers and Brands. Introduction. Categorisation of Mobile Terminals. Lecture 9

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1 Overview Mobile Devices Introduction Lecture 9 Mobile Devices Mobile Business I (WS 2007/08) Prof. Dr. Kai Rannenberg Chair of Mobile Business and Multilateral Security Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt a. M. e: T-Mobile] [Source Categorisation of Mobile Terminals Components of Mobile Terminals Accumulators Display Technologies Processors, Memory, and Storage I/O Technologies Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 1 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 2 Device Manufacturers and Brands (including some historic ones) Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales (2006) Alcatel Audiovox Benefon BenQ Mobile Bosch HTC LG Electronics Motorola NEC Nokia Panasonic Philips Sagem Samsung Sendo Siemens Sony Ericsson Telepong Telit Telme Toshiba Trium Windhorst Xelibri Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 3 Company 1Q06 Sales 1Q06 Market Share (%) 1Q05 Sales 1Q05 Market Share (%) Nokia 76, , Motorola 45, , Samsung 28, , LG 14, , Sony Ericsson 13, , BenQ Mobile 7, , Others 38, , TOTAL 224, , In Units Worldwide 23,8% increase in sales compared to 2005 [Gartner2006] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 4

2 Evolution of Mobile Devices Evolution of Mobile Devices Examples Development of device capabilities Com mplex xity Multimedia applications (MP3, radio, camera, video, TV, etc.) Possibility to execute 3rd party software Data Services (Internet connectivity) Short Message Service (SMS) Interactive Voice Response (IVR) General telephony capabilities 1973 New York Tim mes Microo optical Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security IBM 2006 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 6 Device Categories Overview Mobile Devices Introduction Categorisation of Mobile Terminals Components of Mobile Terminals Accumulators Display Technologies Processors, Memory, and Storage I/O Technologies Categorisation is possible by: Technical characteristics Use cases o Functional completeness (Is the functionality comparable to a desktop PC/Laptop?) o Size of the terminal/device o Security features Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 7 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 8

3 Categorisation of Mobile Terminals Technical Characteristics 1 Categorisation of Mobile Terminals Technical Characteristics 2 Hardware independence Independent terminals Terminals with external communication Terminals with external security modules Terminals with external memory Operating system Characteristics Memory security, file security, access control Security module support, secure I/O, program and system integrity Lifespan of an application Battery consumption, amount of data, and size of memory Data integrity, amount of communication, and costs Completeness of the functionality for the end- user Information / Reaction Limitations due to device size Feature Sets Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 9 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 10 Categorisation of Mobile Terminals Applications Use Cases Device size Small / integrated devices Pocket-sized Laptop-sized Access to the security module Data integrity, encryption Digital signatures Access control, authentication Different requirements for different kinds of devices: Number of Switch-ons per day Duration of usage per task Mobile Phone PDA Laptop Low??? Low High Based on [Burckhardt2001] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 11 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 12

4 Overview Mobile Devices Functional Architecture Introduction Radio Mobile Device Link Radio Interface Categorisation of Mobile Terminals User Interface Components of Mobile Terminals Accumulators Display Technologies Processors, Memory, and Storage I/O Technologies Application Browser / Interpreter Sec curity Application Browser / Interpreter Keys, Certificates Operating System Operating System PAN: Infrared, Bluetooth,... Smart Card [Posegga2001] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 13 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 14 Size of a mobile Device Accumulators The size of a mobile terminal is considerably determined by its: Charge / Discharge mechanism Input Facilities (e.g. keyboard) Output Facilities (e.g. display) A C Separation of components (e.g. display in the watch, head-mounted-displays) + - Electrodes A = Anode, C = Cathode Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 15 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 16

5 Accumulators Technology Overview Accumulators Technology Overview Generally, accumulators have a slower development than other components of a mobile device. Lead acid Minus 40% of voltage lost in a year Risk of overheating during charging Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) till 1996 Alkaline electrolyte, Nickel electrode (+), cadmium electrode (-) Cadmium is converted into cadmium hydroxide Memory effect if not discharged completely Higher weight than today s complete mobile phones Nickel-Metal hybrid (NiMH) Nickel electrode (+), Titan-/ Lanthanum-Nickel-Electrode (-) Inclusion / exclusion of hydrogen atoms Smaller memory effect because of no granulation at the electrodes Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) / Lithium-Polymer (Li- Polymer) since 1999 Gel instead of liquid, thus leak proof shell is not necessary Metal oxide electrode (-), carbon electrode (+) Electrolyte: o Anorganic: fused salts (Li-Ion) o Organic: polymers (Li-Polymer) Lithium-Ions shift between metal oxide cathode and carbon anode > Lithium-Swing Lithium has little weight First accumulators in Japanese mobile phones Early accidents: notebooks burnt out, mobile phones caught fire [CorrosionDoc2006] Today: Sony batteries being replaced by Dell and other manufacturers Overpressure protection, thus naked accumulators are not available. Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 17 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 18 Accumulators The Memory Effect Accumulators Technical Specifications Incomplete discharge: During charging the total voltage can not be achieved memory effect Discharge Charge Discharge Charge Type Cycles * Charge time Discharge per month Cost per kwh Alkaline 50 (50%) 3-10h 03% 0.3% NiCd h 20% 6.00 NiMH h 30% Complete discharge: Li-Ion h 10% Li-Polymer h 10% The accumulator regains its total voltage when it is charged Lead acid h 5% 6.80 *) until battery s maximum capacity is only 80% of the original maximum capacity. Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 19 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 20

6 Accumulators Capacities of Accumulators Processors Mobile Standby time Talk time Accumulator Display phone (in h) (in min) Nokia 6310 (2001) Nokia N-Gage (2004) MDA pro (2005) Li-Polymer; mah Li-Ion; 850 mah Li-Polymer; mah Graphic 96 x 65 Color 176 x colors Touch TFT 640 x colors Touch TFT 320 x colors MDA Vario II Li-Polymer; Touch TFT (2006) mah T-Mobile Ameo Li-Ion; Touch TFT (2007) 2200 mah 640 x colors Apple iphone (2007) Li-Polymer; 1600 mah Touch TFT 480 x colors [T-Mobile 2007] Increase of clock frequency Decrease of the processor's core voltage (1995: 3.5 V; 2000: 1.35 V) resulting in: Less heat loss Larger on-die-caches Power-Management Adjustment with changes in the energy supply Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 21 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 22 Processors Overview for Mobile Devices Memory Logo Terminal Processor Mhz MIPS Nokia N-Gage (2004) MDA (2002) MDA II (2003) ARM7 104?? Intel StrongARM Intel XScale General trade-off between storage on the server vs. storage on the client Storage on the client Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Random Access Memory y( (RAM) Memory cards Microdrives MDA Pro (2005) Intel XScale Notebook (2006) Intel CoreDuo Processor < [T-Mobile2007] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 23 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 24

7 Input/Output (I/O) Technology Overview Display Technologies Liquid-Crystal-Displays (LCD) Display Technologies DSTN-Display (Dual Scan Twisted Nematic) TFT-Displays (Thin Film Transistor) Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Device Input Personal Area Networks (PAN) The LCD technology is widespread in the market. Consists of an array of tiny segments (called pixels) that can be manipulated to present information Examples: Dual Scan Twisted Nematic (DSTN) Thin-film Transistor (TFT) Example: Dynasheet (Toshiba) 1cm, 200g, 2005 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 25 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 26 Display Technologies Liquid-Crystal-Displays (LCD) Display Technologies Resolution DSTN-Display (Dual Scan Twisted Nematic) Passive matrix LCD displays with passive control have a relatively high latency (generally more than 100 ms). This implies a blurred image with frequently changing picture elements. TFT-Displays (Thin Film Transistor) Active (transistor for each pixel) Logo Mobile phone Display Resolution Colors Nokia 6310 (2001) Siemens S55 (2002) Nokia N-Gage (2004) Samsung E700 (2003) Graphic 96 x 65 none Color 101 x Color 176 x TFT-Color 160 x MDA III Touch TFT 320 x (2004) MDA pro (2005) T-Mobile Ameo (2007) Touch TFT 640 x Touch TFT 640 x Apple iphone Touch TFT 480 x [T-Mobile (2007) 2007] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 27 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 28

8 Display Technologies Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Display Technologies Advantages of OLED Polymers can convert electric energy to light. Complete layer is thinner than 500 nm (0.5 thousandth part of one mm), luminosity approx. 100W electric bulb. 180 viewing angle m.tw Relatively low power requirements: Because OLED consist of self lighting polymere molecules no background lighting is necessary. Thus the electric power consumption decreases and longer usage times become possible. Because OLED displays do without additional background lighting space for extra components can be saved. Thus, the planned PDA models are thinner and lighter and achieve better color rendering and faster reaction times. Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 29 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 30 Display Technologies Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Light Emitting Polymer Device Display Technologies Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Polymers are large molecules widely known as plastics. Metallic Counter Electrode Thin Plastic Film of LEP Transparent Electrode Substrate Emitted light + - Light Emitting Polymers are special plastic materials that t convert electrical l power into visible light. A thin film of Light Emitting Polymer put between two electrodes will glow... [Covion2006] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 31 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 32

9 Display Technologies Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Light Emitting Polymers convert electrical power into visible light: Display Technologies Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Because plastic materials are flexible and robust even non-planar displays can be manufactured... electrical power Light Emitting Polymer visible light LEP- Non Planar Displays This is related to the fluorescence of polymers where UV-radiation is converted into visible light: Light Emitting Polymer Film Transparent Protective Film UV-radiation Fluorescent Polymer visible light [Covion2006] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 33 Protective Film [Covion2006] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 34 Input/Output (I/O) Technology Overview Input Standardization Battles Display Technologies DSTN-Display (Dual Scan Twisted Nematic) TFT-Displays (Thin Film Transistor) Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Device Input Personal Area Networks (PAN) Excursion standardization battles : QWERTY vs. Dvorak s DSK 1868 Christopher Latham Sholes Copyright (goal: minimum key conflicts) 1873 sale of QWERTY to E. Remington & Sons Jamming was a problem until As a consequence, the ball-shaped head technique was invented. Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 35 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 36

10 Input Standardization Battles Input Standardization Battles De-facto standard, high competition 1936 Dvorak s Simplified Keyboard (DSK) Goals: Keys which are used most frequently are close to each other Change of hands well balanced Frequent keys preferably with strong fingers Fact = We all use QWERTY. What did go wrong? QWERTY is an example for market failure in the presence of network effects. Worse standard dominates a better standard. d What is the better standard? d? Further problems: Lock-in, switching costs Unfortunately, the case is not as easy! Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 37 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 38 Input Standardization Battles Input Technologies Often cited US Navy Research Report of 1944 DSK is more efficient than QWERTY. No official report but a falsely l cited internal paper from an officer = Lieutenant Commander August Dvorak! Critics: Methodological biases: Two test persons of different age and abilities Chaos between 108 and 180 hits per minute - Many contrasting findings the QWERTY keyboard appears to be fast enough for almost all users. If you are just driving i about in town you do not need a 500 horse-power V8. (Poole 1997) Currently, the following input solutions for mobile devices exist: QWERTY-Keyboard Palm-Graffiti Tegic T9 Octave Recognition of handwriting Things are not as easy as they seem to be! For more details see: [LiebowMargol1996]. Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 39 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 40

11 Input QWERTY-Keyboards Input PALM Graffiti PC Microsoft Walk P Palm Handwriting recognition software Artificial script, based on upper-case characters Can be drawn blindly with a stylus on a touch-sensitive ii panel Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 41 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 42 Input Tegic Communications T9 Input Octave T9 (Text on 9 keys) is a predictive text technology developed by Tegic Communications. Widely used by: LG, Samsung, Nokia, Siemens, Sony Ericsson, Sanyo Uses a dictionary of words, which is used to look up all the possible words, corresponding to the sequence of keypresses. Available in 27 languages Characters can be input by either pen or button. [T92006] Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 43 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 44

12 Input Octave Input/Output (I/O) Technology Overview capital letters reset Fiatly Display Technologies DSTN-Display (Dual Scan Twisted Nematic) TFT-Displays (Thin Film Transistor) Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) Device Input Personal Area Networks (PAN) Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 45 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 46 Personal Area Network (PAN) Personal Area Network (PAN) Infrared-Transmission Personal environment, short range Purpose: Connection of devices in short range, for example PDA and printers. Replaces cable-connections: Infrared Data Association (IrDA) Bluetooth IrDA: Infrared Data Association (1993): Standardized infrared-protocols IrDA Version 1: asynchronous, serial connection up to 115 kbps Point-to-Point Protocol-family for various purposes New specification: up to 4 Mbit/s Exemplary applications: Transmission of mobile business cards Sales data extraction from cigarette vending machines Connection between mobile and laptop p Wireless printing Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 47 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 48

13 Personal Area Network (PAN) Infrared-Transmission Personal Area Network (PAN) Bluetooth Attributes: Wireless Range of up to 10 meters Illumination-angle Disadvantages: Sounding: If the infrared-ray misses the target Optical connection required Short interruptions of the optical connection, e.g. between laptop and mobile phone in trains, lead to complete network-interruption. Frequency range of 2.4 GHz Simple and cheap possibility to set up ad-hoc networks of limited range (up to 10 meters) No official standard, but de-facto-standard Consortium: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba, etc. Broadly supported by the industry Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 49 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 50 Personal Area Network (PAN) Popular Bluetooth Applications Personal Area Network (PAN) Bluetooth Applications Picture transmission between devices Wireless communications between devices (Bluetooth-Headset) Connection of periphery-devices (headsets, keyboards, mice, etc.) Setting up of ad-hoc networks for spontaneous data exchange Ad-hoc connection of different networks (e.g. laptop mobile or phone GSM net) Applications similar to applications based on infrared technology Weaknesses of infrared technology were overcome Increased bandwidth (up to 865.2KBit/s) No optical connection between devices necessary Expanded range (up to 10m) Allows setting up of ad-hoc networks instead of point-to-tpoint connections Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 51 Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 52

14 Literature [Burckhardt2001] Burckhardt, J. et al. (2001), Pervasive Computing, München [CorrosionDoc2006] Corrosion Doctors (2006), Lithium rechargeable batteries, corrosion- doctors.org/secondaries/li-rechar.htm, accessed [Covion2006] Covion (2006), accessed [Gartner2006] Gartner Group (2006), accessed [LiebowMargol1996] Liebowitz, S. and Margolis S. (1996), The fable of the keys, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 33, pp [Posegga2001] Posegga (2001), WiTness [T92006] T9 (2006), accessed [T-Mobile2007] T-Mobile Deutschland (2007), accessed Mobile Business 1 (MB 1), WS 2007/2008, Professur für Mobile Business & Multilateral Security 53

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