1 Waste Management Ing. María José González Regional Training in Hazardous Waste September 30 October 2, 2014 San José, Costa Rica
2 Tuesday, September 30 08:30-09:00 Registration Opening of the Workshop: 09:00-09:30 a. Welcome b. Introduction and Workshop goals c. Presentation of participants Consequences of a poor waste management 09:30-10:15 Definition of waste and types of waste, hazardous waste, classification 10:15-10:45 Coffee Break Waste management principles (hierarchy, cleaner production, extended producer/importer 10:20 13:00 responsibility, etc.) International Conventions 13:00-14:30 Lunch 14:30-15:30 Situation in each country 1 15:30-16:00 Coffee Break 16:00-16:30 Situation in each country 2 16:30-17:00 Survey results Wednesday, October 1 09:00 12:30 Visit to a lead-acid battery recycling plant 13:00-14:30 Lunch 14:30-15:30 Waste treatment 15:30 16:00 Coffee Break 16:00-16:30 Sanitary and secure landfills 16:30-17:00 Remediation of contaminated sites Thursday, October 2, :00 10:30 Medical waste, expired drugs, tires, used oils, solvents, PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and pesticide containers 10:30 11:00 Coffee Break 11:00-13:00 WEEE (scrap metal, cells and batteries, monitors, PCs, energy-saving lamps, white goods, brown goods) 13:00 14:00 Lunch 14:00-15:30 Waste Management Plans
3 Urban waste: 0.75 and 1.14 kg/inhab/day in LAC Domestic waste: 0.45 and 0.74 kg/inhab/day in Latin America and the Caribbean
12 Why should we do something about waste? ENVIRONMENTAL Increase in the lifespan of landfills Control of pollution and reduction of the use of natural resources SOCIAL ECONOMIC Potential for job creation and generating income NIMBY effect Reduction of costs with public services, such as servicing contaminated areas with garbage collectors, collection and public health problems Economy of energy and raw materials
13 Origin The generation of waste is associated with the existence of man and human activities. Initially, generated waste was easily assimilated by the environment. Waste generation is growing and its composition is increasingly complex.
14 DIFFERENT TERMS TO MEAN THE SAME THING WASTE GARBAGE REFUSE SCRAP How is it defined? Subjective concept that generates uncertainties, that is why express text is included in regulations
15 According to the Basel Convention Any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard
16 TYPES OF WASTE by origin Domestic and urban solid waste Industrial solid waste Medical solid waste Civil works solid waste Special solid waste
17 TYPES OF WASTE by potential effects Hazardous waste: due to its nature, it may have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Non-reactive hazardous waste: it has undergone treatment, whereby it has lost its hazardous nature. Inert waste: it does not undergo any significant physical, chemical or biological transformation. Non-hazardous waste: it does not belong to any of the above (domestic, catering, etc.).
18 Hazardous wastes They may cause damage to health or the environment for being inherently hazardous when exhibiting any of the following characteristics: Corrosive Reactive Explosive Toxic Flammable Biological-Infectious / Ecotoxic
19 How do we know if waste is hazardous? It is included in specific lists. It is included in lists of waste generated in specific processes. It exhibits any of the hazardous characteristics (CRETIB) exceeds limits of standardized tests. It contains substances defined as hazardous.
20 Definitions Basel Convention Hazardous wastes: Wastes that belong to any category contained in Annex I, unless they do not possess any of the characteristics contained in Annex III. Wastes that are not covered under the above paragraph but are defined as, or are considered to be, hazardous wastes by the domestic legislation of the Party of export, import or transit.
21 Basel Convention Annex I Annex I presents: 18 types of streams or processes that generate hazardous wastes (Y1 Y18). 27 elements or compounds that when present as constituents in waste define it as hazardous (Y19 Y45).
23 Basel Convention Annex III It defines the hazardous characteristics H1 H3 Explosive Flammable liquids H4-1 Flammable solids H4-2 Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustion H4-3 Substances or wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases H5-1 Oxidizing H5-2 Organic peroxides H 6-1 H 6-2 H8 H10 H11 Poisonous (Acute) Infectious substances Corrosives Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water Toxic (Delayed or chronic) H12 Ecotoxic H13 Capable, by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above
24 Basel Convention Annex VIII and IX To facilitate the identification of hazardous wastes, new annexes were added (1998). Annex VIII (List A): wastes characterized as hazardous. Annex IX (List B): wastes that are not considered hazardous. BUT: Annex III can be used to demonstrate that a waste is not hazardous, and vice versa with Annex IX.
25 Concept of risk Risk is associated with the exposure to hazard Probability that the direct EXPOSURE to hazardous wastes, or to the contamination they generate, causes adverse effects or damage to: Human health Ecosystem Environmental compartments Goods RISK = f (hazard, exposure)
26 Concept of risk HAZARD is inherent to waste and can only be changed by treating it; RISK can be managed in order to minimize it EXPOSURE Direct and Indirect HAZARD POTENTIAL Any of the hazardous characteristics HAZARD analysis + EXPOSURE analysis enable a RISK ASSESSMENT
27 Sustainable Waste Management Human activity Common attitudes: NIMBY: Not in my back yard NIMET: Not in my elected term But BANANA: Build Absolutely Nothing Anytime, Near Anybody Solid waste CATNAP: Cheapest Available Technology Narrowly Avoiding Prosecution Response Sustainable Waste Management: environmentally efficient, economically affordable and socially acceptable Strategy 1. Reduce the amount of waste generated 2. Develop Integrated Waste Management Systems to manage waste inevitably generated
28 Minimization Minimization affects waste volume, but also its nature First option to consider, the most desirable Reduces treatment systems Reduces wastes and inefficiencies Saves resources
29 Integrated Waste Management INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT: Integrated waste management systems combine waste streams with collection, treatment and final disposal methods, with the objective of achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and society s acceptance. This will lead to a practical waste management system for any specific region. The key features are: 1. Overall approach (all actors involved) 2. Use of a range of collection and treatment methods 3. Management of all materials in the waste stream 4. Environmentally effective 5. Economically affordable 6. Socially acceptable
30 Three pillars are required for it to be sustainable, if one is missing
31 Principle of Hierarchy This principle was established in Agenda 21, and was later reintroduced and developed in different laws and regulations, being one of the most universally applied principles in waste management. It establishes the following order of preference for managing waste: Waste Reduction and Minimization Reuse Materials Recycling and Biological Treatment Thermal Treatment (with energy recovery) Thermal Treatment (without energy recovery) Final Disposal It states that the possibilities of the previous operation should be exhausted before moving to the next one. This principle is criticized and a holistic approach is suggested based on the concept of INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT AND LIFE CYCLE.
32 Principle of Extended Producer Responsibility Principle of Extended Producer/Importer Responsibility for the final management of products. It transfers to producers or importers of certain products the responsibility for collecting, recycling, recovering, treating or disposing of their post-consumer products. It applies for certain mass consumer products. They are also responsible for financing these activities.
33 Principle of Extended Producer Responsibility Principle of Extended Producer/Importer Responsibility for the final management of products. The Polluter Pays principle is applied. The waste generator (CONSUMER) is the one who finally pays for the service, not for a fee but in the price of the product. But the generator does not assume responsibility for management, the producer or importer does. The roles of payment responsibility and operational responsibility are separated. This method is fairer than a municipal charge, since only those who consume pay, not the whole population.
34 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Definition: compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. (ISO 14040: Environmental Management 1997 Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Framework) It is an environmental management tool used to understand how a product or service is provided from cradle to grave. While it may seem an ideal environmental tool, it has its weaknesses, since it does not consider actual impacts, i.e. when, where and how they are released into the environment. To take this into account, additional elements must be used. LIFE CYCLE OF SOLID WASTE: to predict, as accurately as possible, the environmental burdens of an Integrated Waste Management system.
35 Biological materials Restoration Biogas Farming/ collection Anaerobic digestion/ composting Extraction of biochemical feedstock 2 CIRCULAR ECONOMY Biochemical feedstock Cascade s Collection Parts manufacturer Product manufacturer Service provider Landfill Collection Energy recovery Mining/materials manufacturing Recycle Refurbish/ remanufacture Reuse/redistribut Maintenan e ce Leakage to be minimized Technical materials Re-thinking Progress: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bj64svjfumi
36 RADIATIONS NOISE VIBRATIONS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS: PARTICULATE MATERIAL GASES INPUTS AND OUTPUTS ENERGY PROCESSES RAW MATERIALS CONTAMINATION PRODUCTS SERVICES EFFLUENTS WASTE
37 CLEANER PRODUCTION APPROACH RADIATIONS CONDITIONING OF BARRIERS NOISE VIBRATIONS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS: PARTICULATE MATERIAL GAS SCRUBBING GASES PARTICLE RETENTION PRODUCTS END OF PIPE ECOLOGICAL DESIGN OF ENERGY RAW MATERIALS RECYCLING PROCESSES RECIRCULATION MINIMIZE CONSUMPTION AND WASTE CONTAMINATION SITE REMEDIATION SERVICES EFFLUENTS TREATMENT PLANTS WASTE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
38 -END OF PIPE- CONVENTIONAL APPROACH 1. The emission is generated! 2. How to treat it? 3. Where to carry it? Environmental costs Energy Raw materials Water PRODUCTIVE PROCESS Solid waste Liquid effluents Atmospheric emissions Treatment -Waste -Effluents -Emissions Final disposal to the environment Acting
39 CLEANER PRODUCTION APPROACH Waste/Effluent/Emission is generated! Why? Where? How? When? How much?
40 CLEANER PRODUCTION Cleaner Production (adopted by UNEP) preventive approach to environmental management. It refers to how goods and services are produced or provided with a minimal environmental impact, considering current technologies and financial limits. It is a win-win strategy, since it favors the environment, workers and consumers, while improving company efficiency, profitability and competitiveness.
41 CAMBIO DE ENFOQUE SECUENCIA DE ENFOQUE LÓGICO SECUENCIA DE ENFOQUE TRADICIONAL 100% DISPONER COMPLEJIDAD DE LA SOLUCIÓN COSTO GLOBAL DE LA SOLUCIÓN TRATAR REAPROVE CHAR PREVINIR LA GENE MINIMIZAR LA RACIÓN GENERACIÓN CONTRIBUCIÓN PARA LA SOLUCIÓN DEL PROBLEMA 0%
42 Cleaner Production Minimization of generation Reuse Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Source reduction Internal recycling External recycling Product modification Process modification Substitution of raw materials Good operating practices Technology modification Source: Sage, Van Ecoprofit Vol. 1
43 Chemical Industry By encouraging technological innovation, with a process change, the following environmental benefits were achieved: Reduction of the effluent load to be treated. Reduction of the amount of hazardous waste (SLUDGE) to be stored in the Warehouse. Better use of raw materials.
44 Unused raw materials Work with suppliers and delivery of raw materials
45 Inevitable and unwanted waste BEFORE AFTER
46 Auxiliary materials other waste from all sectors / well-defined processes
47 CLEANER PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY
48 URUGUAY Law /00 General Law on Environmental Protection Law and /99 and Decrees Accession to the Basel Convention Decree 586/009 Medical Waste (regulated since 1999) Law /94 Law on Environmental Impact Assessment Decree 373/03 Used lead-acid batteries Decree 182/13 Industrial Waste Decree 152/13 Agrochemical containers IN PROGRESS Decree on WEEE and TIRES / National Waste Law
49 URUGUAY TREATMENTS Autoclave and incineration for hazardous waste Incineration for hazardous waste Oils in cement factories and authorized boilers Secure monofills for certain industries National secure landfill under construction Current disposal in sanitary landfill and large amounts stored in companies Mercury filtration in energy-saving lamps Private pyrolysis project with environmental authorization 2014 the Business Chamber of Uruguayan Waste Managers (CEGRU) was created
50 URUGUAY - There is no data on hazardous waste generation. - Informal operations with several special wastes: WEEE, tires, lead-acid batteries. - Collection of batteries for isolated storage not treated. - Private initiatives (state telephone company) for the recycling of cell phones and PCs. - Export of waste with PCB oils to Europe.
52 SURVEY 2014 Preliminary Results ANSWERS FROM 19 GRULAC COUNTRIES -Near 63% of countries have hazardous waste regulations in place, but 88% of population have specific regulations. - All countries have medical waste regulations in place. - Partial recycling initiatives for batteries and WEEE. - Informal management in all countries.
54 Existen políticas, directrices, entre otros, en Instituciones Públicas tendientes a restringuir y sustituir el uso de productos con sustancias peligrosas por otros sin ellas? % Países Si No No contesta
55 Tecnologías de Tratamiento y Disposición Final % Países Reciclaje (de RAEE por ejemplo) Tratamientos físico-químicos Estabilización - Solidificación Tratamientos Biológicos Incineración a altas temperaturas Co-procesamiento en hornos de cemento Incineración en calderas industriales Otros tratamientos térmicos (por ej.: pirólisis) Relleno de Seguridad Rellenos sanitarios Vertederos (a cielo abierto) Otros
56 Tecnologías de tratamiento en países con Normativa en Peligrosos Reciclaje (de RAEE por ejemplo) Tratamientos físico-químicos Estabilización - Solidificación Tratamientos Biológicos Incineración a altas temperaturas Co-procesamiento en hornos de cemento Incineración en calderas industriales Otros tratamientos térmicos (por ej.: pirólisis) Relleno de Seguridad Rellenos sanitarios Vertederos (a cielo abierto) Otros Tipo de tratamiento % Países
57 Principales Dificultades en la Gestión de Residuos Peligrosos % Países Recursos humanos capacitados Recursos económicos Tecnología disponible Falta de normativa Otros
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