3 LÓPEZ, M.; YÁÑEZ, A.; GOMES DA COSTA, S.; AVELLÀ, L., (Coord.). Actas del Congreso Internacional de Eficiencia Energética y Edificación Histórica / Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy Efficiency and Historic Buildings (Madrid, Sep. 2014). Madrid: Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares y Fundación Ars Civilis, ISBN: Edited by Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares Fundación Ars Civilis Coordinated by Mónica López Sánchez. Fundación Ars Civilis Ana Yáñez Vega. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares Sofia Gomes da Costa. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares Lourdes Avellà Delgado. Fundación Ars Civilis Copyright Texts: the respective authors (or their employers); Proceedings: the coordinators and editors.
4 Table of contents PRESENTACIÓN Eficiencia energética y edificación histórica: un reto del presente Cristina Gutiérrez-Cortines y Mónica López Sánchez. Fundación Ars Civilis Eficiencia energética y edificación histórica: un reto del futuro Ana Yáñez Vega. Fundación de Casas Históricas y Singulares Committees Programme Governance, management, participation and mediation SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION FOR WORLD HERITAGE MANAGEMENT RONCHINI, C.; POLETTO, D. AND URBAN RENEWAL OF A UNESCO-LISTED HISTORICAL CENTER: THE CASE OF PORTO SANTOS, Á.; VALENÇA, P.; SEQUEIRA, J. HISTORICAL HERITAGE: FROM ENERGY CONSUMER TO ENERGY PRODUCER. THE CASE STUDY OF THE ALBERGO DEI POVERI OF GENOA, ITALY FRANCO, G.; GUERRINI, M.; CARTESEGNA, M. IMPROVING IN HISTORIC CORNISH BUILDINGS GRANT FUNDING, MONITORING AND GUIDANCE RICHARDS, A. AND BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUES: REFLECTION, CONFLICTS AND SOLUTIONS GIANCOLA, E.; HERAS, M. R. PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA LA REHABILITACIÓN SOSTENIBLE DEL PATRIMONIO CONTEXTUAL EDIFICADO. EL CASO DEL CENTRO HISTÓRICO DE LA CIUDAD DE MÉRIDA, YUCATÁN / Methodological proposal for the sustainable rehabilitation of context heritage building. The case of the historic downtown of Merida, Yucatan MEDINA, K.; RODRÍGUEZ, A.; CERÓN, I More contents on
5 Traditional and technological knowledge: concepts, techniques, practices, uses, materials, methodologies SUSTAINABLE REFURBISHMENT OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS: RISKS, SOLUTIONS AND BEST PRACTICE HEATH, N. EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA Y VALORES PATRIMONIALES. LECCIONES DE UNA INVESTIGACIÓN Y UN SEMINARIO / Energy efficiency and heritage values. Lessons of a Research and a Seminar GONZÁLEZ MORENO-NAVARRO, J. L. ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS IN HISTORIC DISTRICTS. THE CASE STUDY OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA LUCCHI, E.; GAREGNANI, G.; MATURI, L.; MOSER, D. HISTORIC BUILDING ENERGY ASSESSMENT BY MEANS OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES SOUTULLO, S.; ENRIQUEZ, R.; FERRER, J. A.; HERAS, M. R. DESIGN OF A CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN A WALL-HEATED CHURCH: SANTA MARIA ODIGITRIA IN ROME MANFREDI, C.; FRATERNALI, D.; ALBERICI, A. EXEMPLARY ENERGETICAL REFURBISHMENT OF THE GERMAN ACADEMY IN ROME "VILLA MASSIMO" ENDRES, E.; SANTUCCI, D. SISTEMA MÓVIL INTEGRADO PARA LA REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS: LÁSER 3D, TERMOGRAFÍA, FOTOGRAFÍA, SENSORES AMBIENTALES Y BIM / Integrated mobile system for building energy rehabilitation: 3D laser, termography, fotography, environmental sensors and BIM SÁNCHEZ VILLANUEVA, C.; FILGUEIRA LAGO, A.; ROCA BERNÁRDEZ, D.; ARMESTO GONZÁLEZ, J.; DÍAZ VILARIÑO, L.; LAGÜELA LÓPEZ, S.; RODRÍGUEZ VIJANDA, M.; NÚÑEZ SUÁREZ, J.; MARTÍNEZ GÓMEZ, R. CONSECUENCIAS CONSTRUCTIVAS Y ENERGÉTICAS DE UNA MALA PRÁCTICA. ARQUITECTURAS DESOLLADAS / Energy and constructive consequences of a bad practice. Skinned architectures DE LUXÁN GARCÍA DE DIEGO, M.; GÓMEZ MUÑOZ, G.; BARBERO BARRERA, M.; ROMÁN LÓPEZ, E. EL BIENESTAR TÉRMICO MÁS ALLÁ DE LAS EXIGENCIAS NORMATIVAS. DOS CASOS. DOS ENFOQUES / Thermal comfort beyond legislation. Two examples. Two approaches DOTOR, A.; ONECHA, B.; GONZÁLEZ, J. L. LA MONITORIZACIÓN Y SIMULACIÓN HIGROTÉRMICA COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA LA MEJORA DEL CONFORT, PRESERVACIÓN Y AHORRO ENERGÉTICO DE ESPACIOS PATRIMONIALES. EL CASO DE LA IGLESIA DE SAN FRANCISCO DE ASIS, MORÓN DE LA FRONTERA / Measurement and hygrothermal simulation model, a tool to enhance thermal comfort, preservation and saving energy of heritage site. Case study: the church of San Francisco of Asís in Morón de la Frontera MUÑOZ, C.; LEÓN, A.; NAVARRO, J More contents on
6 TERESE 3 : HERRAMIENTA INFORMÁTICA PARA LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA MEDIANTE LA SIMULACIÓN CALIBRADA DE EDIFICIOS / TERESE 3 : informatic tool for the energetic efficiency through the calibrated simulation of buildings GRANADA, E.; EGUÍA, P.; MARTÍNEZ, R.; NÚÑEZ, J.; RODRÍGUEZ, M. EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA Y ANÁLISIS TÉRMICO PARA SISTEMAS DE AIRE CENTRALIZADO: UN CASO DE ESTUDIO / Energy Efficiency and thermal analysis for centralized air heating systems: a case study MARTÍNEZ-GARRIDO, M. I.; GOMEZ-HERAS, M.; FORT, R.; VARAS-MURIEL, M. J. ANALISIS ENERGETICO DEL MUSEO DE HISTORIA DE VALENCIA MEDIANTE DISTINTAS HERRAMIENTAS DE SIMULACIÓN / Energy assessment of the History Museum of Valencia using various simulation tools TORT-AUSINA, I.; VIVANCOS, J.L.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; MENDOZA, C. M. APROVECHAMIENTO SOLAR PASIVO EN LA RETÍCULA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD HISTÓRICA. EL CASO DE CÁDIZ / Passive solar gains in the urban grid of the historic city. The case study of Cadiz SÁNCHEZ-MONTAÑÉS, B.; RUBIO-BELLIDO, C.; PULIDO-ARCAS, J. A. TECHNICAL SYSTEM HISTORY AND HERITAGE: A CASE STUDY OF A THERMAL POWER STATION IN ITALY PRETELLI, M.; FABBRI, K. ANALISIS ENERGÉTICO Y PROPUESTAS DE MEJORA DE UNA CASA EN REQUENA MEDIANTE PROGRAMAS DE SIMULACIÓN / Energy analysis and improvement proposal of a house in Requena (Spain) using simulation software TORT-AUSINA, I.; VIVANCOS, J.L.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; MENDOZA, C. M. UNA REVISIÓN DE PUBLICACIONES EN EDIFICIOS DESDE EL ASPECTO ENERGÉTICO / A review of papers in buildings from the energetic perspective TORT-AUSINA, I.; MARTÍNEZ-MOLINA, A.; VIVANCOS, J.L. MORTEROS MIXTOS DE CAL Y CEMENTO CON CARACTERÍSTICAS TÉRMICAS Y ACÚSTICAS MEJORADAS PARA REHABILITACIÓN / Lime-cement mixture with improved thermal and acoustic characteristics for rehabilitation PALOMAR, I.; BARLUENGA, G.; PUENTES, J. NEAR ZERO ENERGY HISTORIC BUILDING. TOOLS AND CRITERIA FOR ECOCOMPATIBLE AND ECOEFFICIENT CONSERVATION BAIANI, S. INTEGRANDO RENOVABLES EN LA CIUDAD HEREDADA: GEOTERMIA URBANA / Integrating renewable in the inherited city: urban geothermal SACRISTÁN DE MIGUEL, M. J. ANÁLISIS Y PROPUESTAS DE MEJORA DE LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA DE UN EDIFICIO HISTÓRICO DE CARTAGENA: ANTIGUO PALACIO DEL MARQUÉS DE CASA-TILLY / Analysis and proposals for improving the energy efficiency of a historical building in Cartagena: the former Palace of the Marquis of Casa-Tilly COLLADO ESPEJO, P. E.; MAESTRE DE SAN JUAN ESCOLAR, C. REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS DE VIVIENDAS BAJO EL PLAN ESPECIAL DE PROTECCIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO URBANÍSTICO CONSTRUIDO EN DONOSTIA-SAN SEBASTIÁN / Building energy retrofit of dwellings under the special plan of urban built heritage protection in Donostia-San Sebastian More contents on
7 MARTÍN, A.; MILLÁN, J. A.; HIDALGO, J. M.; IRIBAR, E. IS TEMPERIERUNG ENERGY EFFICIENT? THE APPLICATION OF AN OLD-NEW HEATING SYSTEM TO HERITAGE BUILDINGS DEL CURTO, D.; LUCIANI, A.; MANFREDI, C.; VALISI, L. TERMOGRAFÍA INFRARROJA Y EDIFICIOS HISTÓRICOS MELGOSA, S. SIMULATION MODEL CALIBRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF REAL USE HISTORIC BUILDINGS ENRÍQUEZ, R.; JIMÉNEZ, M.J.; HERAS, M.R. THE THERMOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TECHNICAL ELEMENTS IN THE HISTORIC ARCHITECTURE: EXPERIENCES IN PALERMO GENOVA, E.; FATTA, G. ENERGY EVALUATION OF THE HVAC SYSTEM BASED ON SOLAR ENERGY AND BIOMASS OF THE CEDER RENOVATED BUILDING DÍAZ ANGULO, J. A.; FERRER, J. A.; HERAS, M. H. Legal and technical regulation and historic buildings OLD BUILDING, NEW BOILERS: THE FUTURE OF HERITAGE IN AN ERA OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY JANS, E.; ICOMOS, M.; KOPIEVSKY, S.; AIRHA, M. HISTORIC WINDOWS: CONSERVATION OR REPLACEMENT. WHAT'S THE MOST SUSTAINABLE INTERVENTION? LEGISLATIVE SITUATION, CASE STUDIES AND CURRENT RESEARCHES PRACCHI, V.; RAT, N.; VERZEROLI, A. ENERGY RETROFIT OF A HISTORIC BUILDING IN A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE: AN INTEGRATED COST OPTIMALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TADEU, S.; RODRIGUES, C.; TADEU, A.; FREIRE, F.; SIMÕES, N. PARQUE EDIFICADO O PATRIMONIO EDIFICADO: LA PROTECCIÓN FRENTE A LA INTERVENCIÓN ENERGÉTICA. EL CASO DEL BARRIO DE GROS DE SAN SEBASTIÁN / Built Park or Built Heritage: Protection against energy intervention. The case of Gros district of San Sebastian URANGA, E. J.; ETXEPARE, L. SIMULTANEOUS HERITAGE COMFORT INDEX (SHCI): QUICK SCAN AIMED AT THE SIMULTANEOUS INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT EVALUATION FOR PEOPLE AND ARTWORKS IN HERITAGE BUILDINGS LITTI, G.; FABBRI, K.; AUDENAERT, A.; BRAET, J. PROBLEMÁTICA DE LA POSIBLE CERTIFICACIÓN ENERGÉTICA CON CE 3 X DEL PATRIMONIO ARQUITECTÓNICO: EL CASO DEL ALMUDÍN DE VALENCIA / Difficulties found in the possible energy certification of heritage by using the CE 3 X software: the case of El Almudín of Valencia CUARTERO-CASAS, E.; TORT-AUSINA, I.; MONFORT-I-SIGNES, J.; OLIVER-FAUBEL, E. I. PROTOCOL FOR CHARACTERIZING AND OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS: CASE STUDY OF POZUELO DE ALARCÓN MUNICIPALITY RUBIO, A.; MACÍAS, M.; LUMBRERAS, J More contents on
8 Promotion, training, education THE WORK OF THE SUSTAINABLE TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS ALLIANCE AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDANCE WHEEL FOR RETROFIT MAY, N.; RYE, C.; GRIFFITHS, N. TRAINING OF EXPERTS FOR ENERGY RETROFIT AT THE FRAUNHOFER CENTRE FOR THE ENERGY-SAVING RENOVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS AND THE PRESERVATION OF MONUMENTS AT BENEDIKTBEUERN KILIAN, R.; KRUS, M. SPECIALIZED ENERGY CONSULTANTS FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE DE BOUW, M.; DUBOIS, S.; HERINCKX, S.; VANHELLEMONT, Y. RENERPATH: METODOLOGÍA DE REHABILITACIÓN ENERGÉTICA DE EDIFICIOS PATRIMONIALES / RENERPATH: Methodology for Energy Rehabilitation of Heritage Buildings PERÁN, J. R. ; MARTÍN LERONES, P.; BUJEDO, L. A.; OLMEDO, D.; SAMANIEGO, J.; GAUBO, F.; FRECHOSO, F.; ZALAMA, E.; GÓMEZ-GARCÍA BERMEJO, J.; MARTÍN, D.; FRANCISCO, V.; CUNHA, F.; BAIO, A.; XAVIER, G.; DOMÍNGUEZ, P.; GETINO, R.; SÁNCHEZ, J. C.; PASTOR, E. LEVANTAMIENTOS ARQUITECTÓNICOS EN EL MEDIO RURAL / Architectural surveys in rural areas HIDALGO, J.M.; MILLÁN, J. A.; MARTÍN, A.; IRIBAR, E.; FLORES, I.; ZUBILLAGA, I. AUTHORS INDEX More contents on
9 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION FOR WORLD HERITAGE MANAGEMENT RONCHINI, C.; POLETTO, D. RONCHINI, C.: Edinburgh World Heritage. Edinburgh - UK. POLETTO, D.: UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe. Venice - Italy. ABSTRACT We know that we need to adapt our historic environment to meet the challenges of climate change, and for our efforts to be sustainable, we must take collective action to mainstream energy efficiency in the management of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS). This paper examines sustainable energy governance both at local and international level, drawing on the successful experiences of Edinburgh, RENFORUS and the UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe. Joint action is necessary to tailor and apply sustainable energy principles to the different sites constraints and potential opportunities, as well as to the sites unique genetic code their outstanding universal value, authenticity (OUV), integrity and living communities. Edinburgh is considered an exemplar of best practice in sustainable energy governance, policy and projects for the 252 cities in the World Heritage List, and for the thousands of historic cities and villages within the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Climate change objectives and actions form an integral part of Edinburgh s WHS Management Plan, the joint effort of local stakeholders - Edinburgh World Heritage (EWH), the City of Edinburgh Council (Local Authority) and Historic Scotland (Government Agency), user groups and the wider international community. As the Edinburgh model demonstrates, Management Plans are only as valuable as the process of consultation and engagement at its core. Edinburgh s innovative operational framework has enabled the Plan to focus its actions on the reduction of carbon emissions and abatement of fuel poverty, for both of which the WHS is a hot spot. Sustainable energy governance and common goals shared by the Site s stakeholders are key to delivering projects on the ground. Along with partners, EWH has implemented energy efficiency programmes, community-led regeneration and innovative retrofitting projects that aim to sensitively address climate change issues in the WHS without compromising its authentic character. Edinburgh projects, such as Energy Heritage, Renewable Heritage and Gilmour s Close, raise awareness of the sustainable features inherent in our built heritage, and demonstrate that it is possible to successfully marry energy efficiency and heritage conservation. UNESCO designated sites can therefore lead the way in terms of sustainable energy and climate change mitigation policies, acting as exemplars for other sites and foremost inspiring policies and practices of energy sustainability for non-designated sites globally. Key words: energy, sustainability, heritage, World Heritage management EXECUTIVE SUMMARY World Heritage Cities (WHCs) are more vulnerable than other cities to the effects of climate change, as highlighted in the Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage . Examples are as numerous as they are astonishing, belonging to different ends of the world biosphere, ranging from marine to terrestrial, from glaciers to archeological sites, historic cities and settlements [i]. Climate poses an ultimate threat of a global magnitude to the already existing
10 human-induced risks, such as pollution, urban sprawl and mass tourism that affect UNESCO designated sites and WHCs in particular. It has thus become even more challenging to conserve these Sites. However, despite the urgency of preserving their outstanding universal value (OUV), authenticity and integrity, we often face opposition when seeking to mitigate or adapt WHCs to the effects of climate change. Some ineffective management systems, lack of action at policy level, old fashioned ideas - which depict WHS as places where nothing is permitted and nothing should be experimented for the sake of their best conservation-, rigid financial mechanisms, poor involvement of local communities and insufficient critical mass all inhibit the delivery of projects for the abatement of carbon emissions, one of the primary causes of climate change. When dealing with WHCs and climate change, it is essential that threats are identified and agreed by all stakeholders in order to create political support to carry out actions on the ground. Exemplar governance structures, such as the one pioneered in Edinburgh, demonstrate that WHCs can lead by example in the fight against climate change. These models build on the existing strengths of the sites, both physical and organisational, to create a solid operational framework to deploy high-level actions. For instance, historic cities are already inherently sustainable, thanks to their dense and compact structure, which allows for a more efficient, low-carbon mobility and thanks to their historic fabric, which utilise adaptive passive systems and locally sourced materials. Furthermore, traditional governance systems can be employed to mainstream climate change mitigation in the city management, as they are recognised and accepted systems by the city stakeholders. These systems should be tailored to incorporate a grassroots approach to create a stronger political leverage as a driver to implement carbon reduction projects and ensure longterm custodianship EDINBURGH & ITS WORLD HERITAGE SITE Edinburgh was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1995, because of its OUV, namely the striking contrast between the organic, medieval Old Town and the neoclassical New Town. The Old Town sits on a ridge laid out in a fishbone structure, with the Royal Mile as the main spine stretching from Edinburgh Castle to Holyrood Palace. The New Town not only features a completely different architecture, with its chessboard like structure, but also embodies a completely different school of thought the Scottish Enlightenment, which since the 18th century has been exported all over the world. The World Heritage Site boundaries comprise the Old Town and the New Town, and contain seven conservation areas, defining different character areas and protected by stricter planning regulations. To add another layer of protection, 75% of the buildings in Edinburgh are listed, which is the highest percentage in the UK after London. Edinburgh does not have, however, a buffer zone, as most WHSs have. After a long review of the existing statutory tools and extensive consultations, it was decided that a buffer zone was not needed as protective policies, such as conservation areas and key view policy , are already in place to act and safeguard, just like a buffer zone would operate.
11 Figure 1: The Old and the New Towns of Edinburgh's World Heritage Site Figure 2: Edinburgh's listed buildings
12 Figure 3: Extract from the Key View Policy in Edinburgh There is an invisible layer, however, that cannot be seen with a naked eye. The World Heritage Site is, unfortunately, a hot spot for fuel poverty. This is particularly true in the Old Town, due to the transient population and the buildings energy rating. The New Town, instead, appears to be in low fuel poverty not because the buildings are more energy efficient, but because its population is more affluent and can afford to pay bills. Owing to the above-mentioned planning constraints and fuel poverty areas, it is extremely challenging to work towards the very high carbon reduction targets that the Scottish Government has set: 42% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 . It is also very challenging when dealing with an exceptionally complex housing stock. In Edinburgh, 45% of the buildings are tenemental, i.e. in multiple-ownership and multipleoccupancy (this compares with a 20% Scottish average); 30% of the buildings are pre-1919, which are considered by most as hard-to-treat properties (this compares with an average across Scotland of 20%). The majority of Edinburgh s listed buildings were built in either the Georgian or Victorian period, however, 4% are listed medieval buildings, featuring very thick stone walls and small windows. These present different challenges from post-war listed buildings, which represent a further 4% of the overall listed buildings in the WHS EDINBURGH WORLD HERITAGE AND THE MANAGEMENT PLAN Tackling all these challenges holistically, Edinburgh World Heritage (EWH) is an independent non-governmental organisation, created in 1999 by a merger of the Edinburgh Old Town Renewal Trust and the Edinburgh New Town Conservation Committee. EWH represents therefore the amalgamation from these predecessor bodies with over 40 years experience. EWH is set up to manage, protect and promote the WHS in Edinburgh, working through three different strands of work. Firstly, EWH works on education campaigns to raise awareness and engender a sense of custodianship of the Site; secondly, it administers a Conservation Funding Programme for the restoration and enhancement of the historic fabric; lastly, it works on policy,
13 influencing and drafting the Management Plan (MP) for the Site together with the two key partners, The City of Edinburgh Council (local authority) and Historic Scotland (Government agency for the protection of the historic environment) Figure 4: Fuel poverty map and Edinburgh WHS boundaries The MP is a UNESCO requirement and is the key document that sets out the vision for the Site. Per se, the MP is a simple a piece of paper; its value lies, instead, in the process of its creation. Edinburgh has already produced two MPs for its Site. The second MP sets out the strategic framework for . Best practice dictates that the engagement process needs to be at the core of the plan in order to create a vision and actions based on shared values. Far from being a tick-box exercise, in Edinburgh a year long consultation process was undertaken to incorporate everybody s views, involving all key stakeholders, but also, professionals, community groups, academia, industry and the international community. On top of issues such as historic environment, living communities, economy and transport, this second MP includes for the first time the concepts of climate change, sustainability and risk. Clear objectives, clear actions and clear monitoring strategies are defined by measurable indicators to ensure that these actions are implemented and objectives achieved: Objective 30: To take account of climate change and sustainability issues in safeguarding the outstanding universal value of the Site.
14 Objective 31: To understand Risk issues by establishing a Risk Register, which will be regularly reviewed. The MP is produced by a working partnership, the WHS Steering Group, comprising EWH, the City of Edinburgh Council and Historic Scotland. This innovative approach to the creation of the Plan ensures that all the key Site s stakeholders agree on a strong vision, take ownership of the document and facilitate the delivery of its actions on the ground. The MP is not a still process or a finished product, but very much a cyclical system of management, actions and monitoring, which is continuously updated and reviewed by the WHS Steering Group Figure 5: Second Edinburgh WHS Management Plan 3. AND TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS On the wake of the publication of the MP in 2011, the only aspect that the press picked up was climate change. The BBC stated: The aim of the project is to demonstrate how historic buildings are made more energy efficient, helping to alleviate fuel poverty without impacting on the character of the building, which is the precise message the MP wants to convey . Despite being widely used to describe listed and pre-1919 buildings, the term hard-to-treat is a negative phrasing, focusing on problems instead of solutions. In the past eight years, EWH has instead focused on solutions, what can actually be achieved in order to make traditionally built properties more energy efficient without compromising their authenticity and integrity. Traditionally built properties were built to last, have stood hundreds of years, and, thus, are already inherently very sustainable. They feature locally sourced materials, passive systems such as natural ventilation, and vernacular techniques, such as solid stone walls, which, because of
15 their thermal mass, perform much better than assessed by standard energy software. (In note: In situ calculations carried out by Historic Scotland demonstrated that solid stone walls have an average U-value of 1.0 W/m2K instead of 2.1 W/m2K as calculated by SAP.) All these aspects need to be considered when retrofitting and upgrading a traditional building with energy efficiency measures, avoiding instead any loss of original, sound fabric whenever practicable Figure 6: Historic Home Guide on Energy Efficiency EWH has collected this wealth of experience in best practice guidance for homeowners living in traditional and listed properties , to demonstrate that it is possible to improve energy efficiency in these buildings without compromising their authentic character. EWH also runs a programme of awareness raising and capacity building initiatives for residents to improve their buildings and reduce their fuel bills. Funded by the Scottish Government programme The Climate Challenge Fund, energy efficiency workshops are held every autumn to help make residents more confident in looking after their traditional properties on their own, install simple and effective energy efficiency measures such as draught-proofing, loft insulation and reinstating wooden shutters, and ultimately save energy and money. EWH also disseminates best practice also on the international level, through the International Scientific Committee on Sustainability and Energy, and the RENFORUS platform, a UNESCO initiative on renewable energy for WHSs and Biospheres . RENFORUS has collected best practice examples from all around the world, including Edinburgh, with the aim to demonstrate that WHSs and biospheres can lead the way in the fight against climate change and be models for many other cities globally.
16 4. PROJECTS Creating critical mass and political support through the MP exercise enabled EWH, together with numerous partners, to deliver many energy efficiency projects on the ground Gilmour s Close, low-carbon social housing Figure 7: Gilmour s Close after the refurbishment in 2008, front (left) and rear (right) An exemplar of successful marriage between heritage conservation and energy efficiency, Gilmour s Close project was awarded Sustainable Social Housing Refurbishment in The building is a B-listed 4 storey, 19th century stone tenement, with a commercial ground floor, located in the heart of the World Heritage site in the Grassmarket area. Before its refurbishment in 2008, the Gilmour s Close was vacant and the shopfronts neglected. The refurbishment comprised a thorough façade protection scheme, with stone repointing and chimney repairs in traditional stone and lime mortar. The shopfronts were revamped and 17 supported flats for vulnerable young people were created and are now managed by Hillcrest Housing Association. Energy principles, such as secondary glazing, have been added on the main elevation. At the rear, which was not subject to such strict planning constraints, the architects  were much freer to transform the building. Sun spaces were added for passive solar gain, internal lining, Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR) and a ground source heat pump, with 17, 70-metre deep boreholes down the bed rock. The heat is transformed in a plant room at the back of the building and then transferred to all 17 flats through under-floor heating. This project followed best practice, as its fabric was made wind and water tight, before any energy efficiency measures were added. This is essential in order to assess the building s performance, and establish the location and the extent of the upgrades. Despite the site s constraints - a prominent listed building in a conservation area of the busy historic core; restricted access; pedestrian and car traffic the project demonstrated that it is possible to sensitively
17 improve the thermal performance of a hard-to-treat building without any detrimental effect on its historic fabric Energy Heritage & Renewable Heritage Figure 8: Solar panels being installed on the valley-gutter roof of listed buildings In partnership with Edinburgh-based Changeworks, EWH promoted the Energy Heritage project, providing a best practice guide to improve energy efficiency in traditional and historic homes . The project comprised the installation of a wide range of energy efficiency measures, as well as micro-renewables. Solar panels were installed on the valley gutter roof of these B-listed buildings, each panel providing solar hot water for each flat. Because of the M-shaped roof, the panels are completely concealed from street level, which made it possible to overcome the strict planning constraints of the listing and the Old Town Conservation Area location that would normally forbid any alteration of the historic roofscape. Very importantly, the refurbishment did not incur in any loss of historic fabric. On the contrary, the opportunity was taken to restore the building and reinstate original features, such as wooden shutters, which are excellent energy efficient as well as heritage friendly measures. Energy Heritage and Renewable Heritage have shown that the sustainability and energy efficiency of historic homes can be improved by sensitive and appropriate use of clean energy generation systems.
18 4.3. Hardest-to-treat Figure 9: Sir Basel Spence s Canongate Housing EWH together with the Brown s Close residents, Historic Scotland and the City of Edinburgh Council are working on a project to address both best practice conservation and energy efficiency in a post-war listed building with multiple ownership and multiple occupancy. The project can be a model for the 4% of listed buildings that are post-war in the Edinburgh WHS in, and the many more examples that can be found in Scotland and Europe. The B-listed building is a fine example of modernist architecture from renowned architect Sir Basil Spence. It was built in 1969 as an interesting mix of brutalist, concrete construction with vernacular elements. The building has a 50-year design life, and definitely was not designed to be energy efficient. In this project, best practice was followed from the start with the production of a Conservation Statement, which defines the areas of higher and lower significance in the building, and therefore what degree of alteration is permissible. The energy efficiency improvements proposed have been assessed against these parameters, in order to understand the impact they would have on the integrity and authenticity of the building as well as the actual efficacy of the measures. Due to their unique characters, traditional, historic and listed buildings or sites have to be carefully assessed through a tailored conservation analysis and an energy assessment in order to identify the most appropriate scope of works. This is very true for post-war listed buildings as well, and definitely this exercise helped identify the best energy efficiency measures for this building. For instance, photovoltaic panels and CHP systems have been both selected as appropriate measures, both from their impact on the significance of the building and their calculated performance
19 4.4. Historic Street Lighting Strategy Figure 10: Extract from the energy assessment matrix Figure 11: Waverley Bridge LED installation Edinburgh is targeting the historic fabric holistically, not just addressing energy efficiency to the buildings but also the space-between-the buildings. Energy efficient / smart historic street lighting is definitely becoming a more important topic for historic cities. The city centre in Edinburgh is poorly lit, and therefore the aim is to increase lighting levels in some streets, but overall reduce consumption. whilst LEDs are installed when a more modern approach to lighting is required and suitable, such as in the Waverley Bridge project. Here the LED art installation has dramatically improved the lighting levels, improving the safety and reducing anti social behaviour of the area.
20 Figure 12: Long-life induction lamps in the historic core However, LEDs are not always the most appropriate solution, as they do not give the quality of light needed for historic lighting. Long-life induction lamps are used instead of LEDs, as the equipment can be retrofitted within the existing original shell or a reproduction. Long-life induction lamps have also a more diffused light and a less sharp definition than LEDs. Long-life savings are made through maintenance, as the 10-year durability is comparable to LEDs. They are also quite adaptable, as they can be dimmed by electronic gear. They both are still very expensive solutions. The hope is that further development is going to be made on LEDs to be widely applicable in the historic environment at a more convenient quality-cost-durability ratio DUBROVNIK PRINCIPLES Edinburgh s experience shows that good levels of energy efficiency can protect the sustainability of traditional homes (both their fabric and their function), and ensure that householders achieve affordable warmth and improved comfort levels. It has also demonstrated that clean renewable energy can also be generated on site and on a much smaller scale, without compromising the quality and authenticity of the heritage. With the appropriate knowledge and good governance, micro-generation has a future role to play in historic cities. On this note, the Dubrovnik Principles were conceived by UNESCO Venice Office, EWH and partners to guide other WHSs through best practice methodology to mainstream energy efficiency in their management systems. The principles draw on the experience gained through the three-year initiative Summer School on Sustainable Energy Governance in UNESCO WHSs, held